Education Drivers

Staff Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be executed with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure the intervention is implemented as designed. Treatment integrity research finds that integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is impossible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Treatment integrity is defined as consistently implementing the essential components of an intervention as planned, intended, and originally designed. Studies find degradation of fidelity begins shortly after training. To ensure consistent levels of treatment integrity, teachers require ongoing monitoring and feedback of implementation. To date, research has not identified what threshold of treatment integrity is required to ensure the optimum benefit of an evidence-based practice.

Staff Treatment Integrity

Staff Treatment Integrity PDF

Citation: Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2017). Staff Treatment Integrity.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-treatment-intergity.

For the best chance of producing positive educational outcomes for all children, two conditions must be met: (a) adopting effective empirically supported (evidence-based) practices and (b) implementing those practices with sufficient quality that they make a difference (treatment integrity) (Detrich, 2014). Both are necessary as neither on its own is sufficient to result in positive outcomes. Figure 1 describes the relationship between empirically supported practices and treatment integrity.

 

Probability Benefits

Figure 1. Relationship between empirically supported practices and treatment integrity

            If an intervention has strong empirical support and is implemented with high integrity, then there is a high probability that positive outcomes will be achieved (upper left quadrant). The other quadrants illustrate that the lack of either element reduces the probability of positive outcomes: If a well-supported, research-based intervention is not implemented with high integrity (lower left quadrant); if an intervention is implemented with high integrity but is not empirically supported (upper right quadrant); or if a nonempirically supported intervention is implemented poorly (lower right quadrant).

            It should be noted that some interventions are not empirically supported because sufficient research has demonstrated that they do not produce positive outcomes. Alternatively, some interventions are not empirically supported because they have not been experimentally evaluated. This latter class of interventions is still in the experimental phase of development. Using these interventions is tantamount to conducting research and all of the rules for engaging in research should be followed. Because these interventions are still experimental, their effectiveness is unknown and they should be implemented only with the fully informed consent of both educators and parents.

            The advent of the evidence-based practice movement in education has resulted in considerable effort to identify practices that are empirically supported. Organizations such as the What Works Clearinghouse (https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc) and the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (http://www.bestevidence.org) have reviewed a large number of interventions to discern the research base for each intervention. Until the past 20 years, treatment integrity did not receive significant scholarly attention. Even with the increased attention, treatment integrity measures are reported in about half of the published intervention research reports (Sanetti, Dobey, & Gritter, 2012; Sanetti, Gritter, & Dobey, 2011). When treatment integrity data are not published in research reports, it is difficult to know if the intervention that the researchers reported was actually implemented and was responsible for the outcomes or if there was some undocumented variation of the intervention that actually accounted for the outcomes.

           As important as treatment integrity is in research, it is equally important in practice settings. Measures of treatment integrity are fundamental to data-based decision making. Effective interventions may be prematurely terminated if the level of treatment integrity is not known. Student performance data tell us only how well a student is responding to the intervention as it is implemented. Treatment integrity measures tell us how well the intervention is being implemented. Without knowing about treatment integrity, it is not possible to know if a student’s failure to benefit from an intervention is a function of an ineffective intervention or ineffective implementation (see Treatment Integrity in the Problem-Solving Process for more discussion).

References

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology13(2), 258–271.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the Journal of Positive Behavior interventions from 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions14(1), 29–46.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review40(1), 72–84.

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What

This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity

Strategies designed to increase treatment integrity fall into two categories: antecedent-based strategies and consequence-based strategies.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute

 

Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, the is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls [Publication]
This paper discusses evidence-based ways of working with staff to promote program intervention integrity and accurate data collection.
Reid, D. (2010). Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls.Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(2), 169–186.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of staff development methods that include, didactic presentation, modeling, practice with feedback, and coaching.

States, J. (2011). What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices? Retrieved from what-teacher-training-methods.

How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions?
This analysis examined the impact of performance feedback on the quality of implementation of interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions? Retrieved from how-does-performance-feedback.
How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research?
This analysis examined the frequency that treatment integrity is reported in studies of research-based interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research? Retrieved from how-often-are-treatment.
How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings?
This analysis examined two studies to understand the reliability of self-reporting of practitioners implementing interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings? Retrieved from how-well-are-interventions.
Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
Is there empirical research to validate the use of prereferral intervention teams (PIT) to reduce special education referrals, achieve gains, or improve student conduct?
This is a review of a meta-analysis of Prereferral Intervention Teams on student and system outcomes.
States, J. (2011). Is there empirical research to validate the use of prereferral intervention teams (PIT) to reduce special education referrals, achieve gains, or improve student conduct? Retrieved from is-there-empirical-research.
How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement?
This analysis compares the effectiveness of coaching compared to traditional forms of professional development for teachers.
States, J. (2012). How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement? Retrieved from how-does-coaching-compare.
What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction?
This analysis examines principal sources of information on teacher instructional competency and the amount of time spent assessing teacher's instructional skills.
States, J. (2015). What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction? Retrieved from what-evidence-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It

This paper examines the importance of performance feedback systems at all levels of school, staff and student outcomes to achieve desired results over time.

Keyworth, R. (2011). Performance Feedback: Use It or Lose It [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What
This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).
Daniels, A. (2011). Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-aubrey-daniels.
Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers
This paper offers an alternative to evaluating teachers based on student performance on annual high stakes tests.
Detrich, R. (2011). Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed
This analysis reviews the ongoing failure of school reform efforts in the context of poor teacher preparation and performance feedback.
Keyworth, R. (2012). School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-wing-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls
This paper discusses evidence-based ways of working with staff to promote program intervention integrity and accurate data collection.
Reid, D. (2009). Working with Staff to Promote Data-Based Decision Making: Recommended Strategies and Common Pitfalls [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-dennis-reid.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.

Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment integrity: A wicked problem and some solutions

Presentation by Wing Institute with goals: Make the case that treatment integrity monitoring is a necessary part of service delivery; describe dimensions of treatment integrity; suggest methods for increasing treatment integrity; place treatment integrity within systems framework . 

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.

This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?

States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal112(1), 107-131.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What

This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods.

This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.

Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.

Promoting teachers' implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class-wide behavior plans

Research suggests student of differing racial groups are unequally impacted by school disciplinary interventions. This study examines whether teachers who self-assessed their own use of culturally and contextually relevant practices would implement a class-wide behavior plan with high levels of implementation fidelity. Results indicated that teachers who engaged in self-assessment and training did implement the plan with high levels of implementation fidelity, particularly when given performance feedback. 

Fallon, L. M., Cathcart, S. C., DeFouw, E. R., O'Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. Promoting teachers’ implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class‐wide behavior plans. Psychology in the Schools.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This study examined general education teachers’ implementation of a peer tutoring intervention for five elementary students referred for consultation and intervention due to academic concerns. Treatment integrity was assessed via permanent products produced by the intervention.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J. C., Singletary, L. L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: Effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990

This study reviewed the reporting rates of treatment integrity for school based interventions.

Gresham, F. M., & Gansle, K. A. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254. 

Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

This study reviewed all intervention studies published between 1980-1990 in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in which children were the subjects of the study. The authors found that treatment integrity was reported in only 16% of the studies.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment ?integrity in ?applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied ?Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 257-263.

Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented

The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.

Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems

This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. 

Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.

The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development

This piece describes the widely held perception among education leaders that we already  know how to help teachers improve, and that we could achieve our goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if we just applied what we know more widely. 

Jacob, A., & McGovern, K. (2015). The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development. Brooklyn, NY: TNTP. https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP-Mirage_2015.pdf.

 

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.

Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627. 

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization

No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Increasing Teacher Intervention Implementation in General Education Settings through Consultation and Performance Feedback

This study looks at treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.

Every Student Succeeds Act

The Every Student Succeeds Act: Explained.

Plans, A. (2015). The every student succeeds act: Explained. Education Week.

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Treatment integrity assessment within a problem-solving model

The purpose of this chapter is to explain the role of treatment integrity assessment within the “implementing solutions” stage of a problem-solving model.

Sanetti, L. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2005). Treatment integrity assessment within a problem-solving model. Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach, 314-325.

Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009

The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.

Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008

The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizing scientifically based instruction became law in 2001. In this paper, the authors review the progress that has been made in implementing NCLB and conclude that the greatest threat to its effectiveness is the quality of the implementation of the scientifically based instructional practices.
Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2012). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300712460278.
Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions
The article discusses treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.
Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series
This article provides an overview of the current state of conceptual models of treatment integrity and suggest future directions for research, practice, and policy related to treatment integrity.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 445-459.
Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools
Treatment fidelity is critical for the effective implementation of evidence-based practices. It is assumed that evidence-based practices implemented with high fidelity will result in improved outcomes, whereas low fidelity will lead to poorer outcomes. This article discusses treatment fidelity as well as the implications for measuring and analyzing it in relation to student outcomes.
Harn, B., Parisi, D., & Stoolmiller, M. (2013). Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools?. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 181-193.
Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005.
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1991-2005 that occurred in school settings to determine the percent of studies that reported treatment integrity measures. In this review, 30% of the studies reported treatment integrity.
McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the ?journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672.
Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback
This study evaluated the effects of consultation and performance feedback in a public school setting.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). ?Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77-88.
Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies
This study examines teachers' implementation of treatment plans following consultation.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., ... & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review.

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