Education Drivers

Active Student Responding

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a powerful set of low cost strategies teachers can use to improve student achievement. ASR occurs when a student makes a response by answering questions or responding in a variety of ways that communicates the student’s understanding of the content being taught during the lesson. The more opportunities the student has to respond, the increased likelihood the student is learning. Increasing active responses allows teachers to rapidly assess performance. As opportunities to respond increase so does opportunities for praise and corrective feedback that results in accelerated learning. Attending and being on-task are insufficient ways for teachers to know if learning is occurring. For a teacher to know if a student is actually learning a written, action, or oral response is required. The more opportunities to respond the more quickly students master lessons. ASR strategies are designed to engage all students regardless of class size and ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. Examples of ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview

Active Student Responding Overview PDF

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

For decades there have been serious concerns that the nation’s schools aren’t living up to expectations (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983). Over 40 years of data from the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) reveal that more than 60% of American students have been performing below proficiency, and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) shows students in the United States falling behind peers from many of the world’s developed nations (Nation’s Report Card, 2017; PISA, 2015). 

The knowledge base of what works and what doesn’t when it comes to improving student outcomes is growing. The abundance and quality of studies now offer educators and policymakers sufficient data to make informed choices to change this picture (Slavin, 2019). Research supports the conclusion that much of the past reforms missed the target and focused on practices with a track record of having only modest effects on student outcomes (States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012). Strong evidence supports reforms directed at what happens in the classroom, improving how teachers teach. The data are clear: Effective instruction outweighs all other factors under the control of the school system, closely followed by evidence-based strategies that offer guidelines on how to implement and sustain these practices (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, & Friedman, 2005; Hattie, 2012). One of the more powerful instructional interventions that fits this requirement and is backed by clinical research is active student responding (ASR), which not only improves academic achievement but is simple in concept and easy for teachers to implement (Heward & Wood, 2015).

What Is Active Student Responding?

ASR is a powerful set of flexible, low-cost strategies to improve student achievement and decrease inappropriate conduct by increasing active student engagement in the learning process (Armendariz & Umbreit, 1999; Ellis, Worthington, & Larkin, 1994; Godfrey, Grisham-Brown, Schuster, & Hemmeter, 2003; Haydon et al., 2010; Swanson & Hoskyn, 2001; Tincani, 2011; Wood, Mabry, Kretlow, Lo, & Galloway, 2009).ASR increases participation by requiring each pupil to provide multiple responses during instruction (Jerome & Barbetta, 2005). In ASR, teachers ask questions or provide instructions that require every student to write an answer or provide an oral reply. These responses increase opportunities for students to rehearse the material covered in the lesson, provide the teacher with a quick assessment of each pupil’s current proficiency, and give the teacher the necessary information for how and when to adjust instruction to maximize learning for all children.

ASR Practice Elements

ASR comprises three well-supported practice elements: (1) ample opportunities for students to actively practice a lesson, (2) frequent opportunities for students to reveal newly acquired skills or knowledge through observable responses the teacher can use to assess a learner’s current level of mastery of the material, and (3) increased frequency of feedback by the teacher to each student (Heward & Wood, 2015). 

Practice. The old saying “Practice makes perfect” has support in research. The more opportunities a student has to practice a skill or acquire knowledge, the greater the likelihood the lesson will be successfully mastered (Donovan & Radosevich, 1999). A 2014 meta-analysis found that practice was a strong overall predictor of success and that people who practiced a lot generally tended to perform at a higher level than people who practiced less (Macnamara, Hambrick, & Oswald, 2018). Research on typical class instruction method suggests that when teachers call on students one at a time, each student actively participates for less than a minute each hour (Kagan & Kagan, 2009). 

This low rate of engagement provides insufficient opportunities for a pupil to practice acquiring knowledge or to master a new skill. But how much practice is enough? Students frequently require three or four exposures to learn a lesson (Nuthall, 2005). The more opportunities students have to practice, the more likely they are to learn and for that learning to endure. When knowledge or skills are not used, they are lost (Ebbinghaus, 2013; Smith, Floerke, & Thomas, 2016). A productive regimen of practice and feedback provides students with time between practice sessions (spaced practice), a more effective approach than requiring students to practice over longer sessions (massed practice) (Donovan & Radosevich, 1999). 

Too much practice is rarely a problem in schools, but excess practice should be controlled to make the best use of the available instructional time (Chard & Kame’enui, 2000; Stichter et al., 2009). One study found that having students actively respond to spelling words 10 or 15 times was no more effective that than having students practice five times (Cuvo, Ashley, Marso, Bingju, & Fry, 1995). Finding the sweet spot for the best dosage of practice needed to maximize academic achievement and minimize unnecessary practice is ultimately a win-win for both teacher and students and is an area in need of further study. 

Formative AssessmentIncreasing the number of active student responses not only provides more opportunities to practice but permits teachers to rapidly assess performance. Research on ongoing progress monitoring (formative assessment) suggests this form of assessment has a large 0.90 effect size on learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986). The Fuchs and Fuchs study found that the power of formative assessment was enhanced by teachers collecting data, graphing the data, and taking the time to analyze the information following guidelines. When students have more active opportunities to respond, teachers gain more information on each student’s performance. Accurate information on each student’s status in the mastery of a lesson can guide the teacher in adapting instruction to meet each student’s needs.

Figure 1. Effects of systematic formative evaluation (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1986)

Feedback. ASR increases the opportunities for a teacher to provide feedback that is better matched to the needs of each pupil. Feedback has the effect of augmenting the power of ASR as it is among the most powerful practices available for improving student achievement, with an effect size of 0.73 (Hattie, 2009). It provides information to teachers and students about both the quality and accuracy of student responses (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2019). A substantial body of research strongly supports the power of feedback to improve academic performance. Figure 2 highlights seven meta-analyses on the use of feedback and its effect on performance. They show that feedback can have a significant impact; in fact, six of the seven meta-analyses reveal medium to large effect sizes. The Kluger and DeNisi (1996) research, which found the smallest effect size (0.41), showed that one third of the studies it reviewed produced negative outcomes. When feedback was perceived to be directed at the person, performance was negatively impacted, but when feedback was focused on the task at hand, performance improved. The takeaway lesson: For feedback to have the greatest positive impact on student outcomes, teachers need to be trained in how to deliver it. 

Figure 2. Impact of feedback derived from seven meta-analyses

 Sample of Active Student Responding Strategies 

Active student responding consists of a range of strategies designed to promote student engagement (Jerome & Barbetta, 2005). These strategies can be classified according to the response mode required of the students: written response, oral response, or action. 

An example of a common ASR practice is the use of response cards. Their use can help to explain what ASR is and how it can work in the classroom.

Response Cards

This way of actively engaging students in learning enables teachers to easily assess student learning. Response card activities require all students in the class to write their responses to a question on a card or to choose answers on preprinted cards.

Lesson

Grade 5 social studies standard: Students learn to identify the capital of each state and its general location on a map.

  • The teacher poses a question that requires a response. (e.g., The teacher points to West Virginia on a map of the United States and asks, “What is the capital of West Virginia?”)
  • Students are given time to think of a response and then write it on a card.
  • The teacher prompts students to reveal their answers by holding up the card. (“Show me your answer!”)
  • The teacher assesses the responses.
  • The teacher provides feedback (“Correct answer! The capital is Charleston.”)
  • The teacher instructs students to correct the answer if wrong and provides additional instruction when necessary. 

Below is a listing of common ASR strategies.

  • Written Responses

Guided Notes. These notes are designed to increase active student engagement and, in turn, increase academic performance and facilitate success in school. Note taking isn’t often taught and students have been found to be poor note takers (Boyle & Forchelli, 2014).Guided notes help remediate this situation by providing students with teacher-prepared materials that guide them through a lecture. Guided notes use prompted cues and prepared spaces for students to write facts, concepts, and/or relationships, making note taking more effective (Heward, 1994; Konrad, Joseph, & Itoi, 2011; Tincani, 2011).

Response Cards. Requiring all students to answer questions that a teacher poses by writing their answers on a card has been shown to maximize engagement (Heward, 1994; Tincani, 2011).Response cards offer instructors a low-tech option for engaging students in the lesson, and they allow teachers to assess each student’s performance. During instruction, the teacher stops and delivers a cue for students to write a response to a question or issue pertaining to the lesson. All students are required to answer on a card, slate, board, or electronic performance system. All the students show their answers to the teacher. This strategy gives students increased opportunities to actively respond and receive feedback in addition to providing the teacher with information on each student’s movement toward mastery of the material (Pearce, 2011).

A variation consists of preprinted response cards. Students reveal responses by revealing a card that offers such options as true/false, yes/no, or noun/verb/adverb/adjective.   

Think-Write-Pair-Share. This strategy is designed to provide students with increased opportunities to practice critical thinking through interactions with peers. Students are grouped into pairs. The teacher provides a prompt or question to the class, and the students write their responses. Each student pair is asked to share their answers with each other. Then the teacher invites one or more pairs to share their responses with the whole group or class. The strategy increases engagement through sharing ideas with peers. This is an improvement over the commonly employed recitation method in which a teacher poses a question and only one student offers a response (Kothiyal, Majumdar, Murthy, & Iyer, 2013; Simon, 2019).  

Time Trials. The teacher describes an assignment and specifies the time allocated for completing it. The teacher signals for students to start writing their answers and tells them when time is up, at which point the students stop writing. Then the students show their results to the teacher and their peers, and record their own progress (Pearce, 2011). 

  • Action Responses 

Four Corners. This technique stimulates learning through movement and discussion. The class is presented with a statement or question about what is being studied. The teacher prompts or asks a question, and each student writes a response. The teacher labels the four corners of the room with a relevant word or phrase, and students go to the corner that corresponds with their opinions or responses. The students in each corner review their answers and discuss the issue (FacingHistory.org; Theteachertoolkit.com). 

Show Me. This low-cost and low-effort strategy offers all students the opportunity to be engaged and respond to a teacher’s question. The instructor asks the students to respond by signaling (thumbs up, down, sideways; hold up number of fingers, etc.). This strategy gives a teacher immediate feedback on a student’s understanding of the material being presented. 

  • Oral Responses

Choral Responding. This method, which requires all students to respond in unison to teacher questions, uses brisk instructional pacing to increase engagement (Heward & Wood, 2015; Tincani & Twyman, 2016). It can be used with the whole class or adapted for small groups. Choral responding increases active responding and has the added benefit of reducing student disruptive behavior compared with the traditional raising of hands (Haydon, Marsicano & Scott, 2013).

Cloze Reading. Students are required to respond in unison to fill in the blanks in a reading passage. The teacher reads a selection, pauses, and the students fill in the missing word or phrase (Raymond, 1988). There is evidence for cloze reading as a technique for improving learning, increasing recall of information, and enhancing reading comprehension (McGee, 1981). 

Numbered Heads. This strategy uses a random method for asking students to respond to teacher questions. Students are divided into small groups, and the students count off. Then the teacher poses a problem or asks a question, the group reviews and discusses the task, and the teacher calls a number. The student with the drawn number in each group is asked to explain the group’s response. Numbered heads increases engagement and student responding. The technique helps improve academic performance and the collaborative skills needed to work as part of a team (Kagan & Kagan, 2009). 

Inside-Outside Circle. The students form two equal circles: Half of the group stands in a circle facing outward and the other half faces inward. The teacher provides each student with an index card with questions pertinent to the assignment. On a signal from the instructor, the inside circle partner asks a question and the outside circle partner responds. Then the outside circle partner asks a question and inside circle partner responds. The partners exchange cards and the outer circle rotates so that each student has a new partner. The technique helps students develop communication skills as they share ideas (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2001). 

Paired Verbal Fluency. Students are paired and each partner is assigned the letter A or B. The partners are asked to engage in a brief, focused conversation in response to a question or topic. Then the teacher prompts partner A to begin talking about the assignment. When the allotted time is up, the teacher signals for student B to begin talking without repeating what his or her partner said. The cycle is repeated for a total of three rounds with each round shorter than the previous round (e.g., 45 seconds, 30 seconds, 20 seconds). This strategy works to improve information processing and verbal fluency (Pearce, 2011; Susanti, 2012). 

Round Table. Students work in small groups, and the teacher assigns each student a specific role in the group. The roles rotate over time, allowing each student the opportunity to practice different skills. The assignment commences with the teacher prompting students to provide oral or written responses (Harms & Myers, 2013). The activity shapes fluency as students practice organizing their thoughts and presenting information in front of a group. This strategy allow both peers and teacher to provide feedback (Pearce, 2011). 

Timed Partner Reading. This strategy gives students opportunities to improve reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The teacher assigns each student a partner, then describes the assignment and allocates time for reading. When prompted, one partner begins reading and the other listens, records positive comments, and notes errors. When time runs out, the listening student exchanges notes with the reader. The cycle continues as the partners switch roles (Giovacchini, 2017).

Active Student Responding Versus Whole Class Lecture

Whole group instruction is the most common method for delivering instruction across all grades (Hollo & Hirn, 2015). The most widely used form of whole class instruction is lecturing (Behr, 1988; Gibbons, Villafañe, Stains, Murphy, & Raker, 2018; Goffe & Kauper, 2014). Lectures have been the favored method of instruction since at least the middle ages (Haskins, 2017). The technique is simple, straightforward, and easy to implement: The teacher talks and the students are responsible for learning (Heward, 2004). It provides teachers with great control of the material to be presented (Friesen, 2008). Generally, along with talking to students, the instructor asks a limited number of questions to selected students to ascertain if the students are paying attention or have acquired the intended knowledge. Lectures are generally followed by summative assessment in the form of a quiz or an exam, or having the students write a paper (Heward & Wood, 2015). 

Despite being ubiquitous, lecturing falls far short of being the most effective method of instruction. A primary deficit of didactic presentation is thatlistening is a passive experience (Cleaver et al., 2018). It has been found wanting as a technique for mastering skills (Heward & Wood, 2015). Research suggests that active participation, when combined with teacher feedback, is a much more effective way to boost student performance (Freeman et al., 2014; Pratton & Hales, 1986).Allowing only a few students to respond to questions does not offer sufficient opportunities for all students to actively participate and is not a replacement for increasing engagement and the ongoing progress monitoring afforded by ASR. 

A more effective way to maximize learning is for teachers to couple a lecture with a demonstration of the skills being taught, followed by student practice, teacher feedback and, when possible, individual coaching (Joyce & Showers, 2002). In combination, these techniques are superior to didactic lecturing. More important, ASR is a reliable tool that puts the responsibility for ensuring that all students are actively engaged in learning and progressing through a lesson squarely in the hands of the teacher. 

How Do Educators Know If Students Are Actively Engaged?  

Research supports student engagement as a key measure of instruction. It is important to examine the most common ways in which engagement is employed to see which of these methods produces the most accurate and useful data(Ellis et al., 1994; Freeman, et al., 2014; Greenwood, Horton, & Utley, 2002).   

  1. Time-based measures of instruction. A 1984 study (Berliner) calculated that only about 40% of class time was allocated to actual instruction. It is certainly true that the amount of instructional time is relevant to learning (Hattie, 2009; Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1990). Teachers who provide little time for instruction will likely find the performance of their students lagging behind that of students who have more opportunities to be engaged in lessons. Measures taken to increase the time spent in learning include expanding the number of hours in the school day, lengthening the school year, and allocating more time for instruction each day. Research suggests that merely increasing the amount of potential engagement by increasing instructional time has a minimum impact on achievement (Patall, Cooper, & Allen, 2010; States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2013). A serious flaw of time-based measures (available time, allocated time, or instructional time) is they are an indirect measure of engagement and cannot tell teachers how frequently students are actively participating in learning. 
  1. Time-based measures of student participation.Two common ways to measure student participation are student time on task and academic instructional time. Although on-task data is easy to collect, research suggests that it correlates poorly with academic performance. A study using time samples of on-task behavior found that students were engaged in an academic activity only approximately 50% of the time (Yair, 2000). These measures, either duration of time on task or time samples, cannot provide teachers with accurate or valid data on whether students are truly participating in learning. These procedures are not designed to measure the actual time a student is engaged; they are capable only of measuring potential time of engagement. Students might appear to be engaged in learning when they are actually thinking of something else or daydreaming. 
  1. Time- or count-based measures of opportunities to respond (OTR).As a method of measuring responses, OTR is an improvement over the first two measures as it focuses on student responding. However, it fails to deliver the critical information teachers require: how often each student actively responds during the lesson. Having an opportunity to respond is not the same as actual responding. In effect, OTR is a measure of the teacher’s behavior rather than a measure of student behavior. 
  1. Count-based measures of student responses.This is the best option for ensuring students are actively engaged in a lesson (Heward & Wood, 2015). Measuring actual student responses through ASR offers teachers a reliable way to identify the frequency of each student’s responses or the rate of student responding during a lesson (Heward, 2013). Another advantage of ASR is its relative ease of implementation (Tincani & Twyman, 2016). A teacher can simply note the number of responses or have the students collect data on their own active responses.

Figure 3 illustrates the different ways of measuring student participation.


Figure 3. ASR compared with other commonly used measures of instructional delivery and student participation (Heward, 1984)

Is Active Student Responding Right for All Students?

A substantial body of research supports ASR and its positive impact on student achievement, but this is not the only consideration for policymakers and practitioners. Educators must also know how versatile, applicable, practical, and cost-effective a practice is for meeting the needs of the students in a given school. Educators should address these questions:

  • Is ASR effective for use with different populations (general education, special education, range of ages, varying socioeconomic statuses, differing cultural backgrounds)?
  • What curricula and subjects are well suited for use with ASR?
  • What formats of instruction can be adapted for use with ASR?
  • Can ASR be used for different stages of learning?
  • In what settings has ASR been shown to have produced optimum results?
  • How difficult is it to train teachers in ASR?
  • Is ASR a cost-effective way to increase student engagement?
  • IS ASR a good match for the culture of the school?

The extent of how, where, and when ASR practices can be used is large. ASR has great flexibility and is easily adapted for use in multiple settings, but what does the data tell us?

Populations. ASR is employed across a wide range of student populations. It is used for teaching high achievers, average performers, and students with special needs (Boyle & Forchelli, 2014; Cakiroglu, 2014; Christie & Schuster, 2003; Swanson et al., 2014). ASR has been used effectively to increase engagement in diverse age groups beginning with preschoolers and has proven effective for students in all grades through college (Haydon, Mancil, Kroeger, McLeskey, & Lin, 2011). ASR strategies are used with small groups as well as in whole class lessons (Christie & Schuster, 2003; Swanson et al., 2014). Finally, ASR is effective across the spectrum of socioeconomic populations as well as being adaptable for use with students of varying races and cultures (Cartledge & Kourea, 2008; Stanley & Greenwood, 1983).

Curricula and Subjects. The effectiveness of new curricula is maximized by coupling with ASR, which acts as an independent but complementary practice (Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006). ASR has also been integrated into highly effective curricula packages including direct instruction and Headsprout Early Reading (Hattie, 2009; Heward & Wood, 2015; Layng, Twyman, & Stikeleather, 2003). Research supports the positive impact of ASR in science, reading, and mathematics (Chard & Kame’enui, 2000; Codding, Burns, & Lukito, 2011; Cooke, Galloway, Kretlow, & Helf, 2011; Cuvo et al., 1995; Drevno, Kimball, Possi, Heward, & Gardner, 1994). ASR maximizes engagement in the following instructional areas: words read, sentences written, mathematics problems solved, lengths and weights measured, musical notes played, historical events identified, and chemical compounds analyzed (Heward & Wood, 2015). Additionally, ASR has been found to be an effective tool when teachers transition and integrate students with disabilities into the general curriculum (Tincani & Twyman, 2016).

Instructional Formats. ASR can be adapted for use across a wide range of formats. It works well with whole class instruction (Maheady, Michielli- Pendl, Mallette, & Harper, 2002; Narayan, Heward, Gardner, Courson, & Omness, 1990); small-group instruction (Tincani & Crozier, 2008); peer tutoring (Arreaga-Mayer, 1998;Bowman-Perrott, 2009; Maheady, Mallette, & Harper, 2006); computer-assisted instruction (Tudor, 1995; Tudor & Bostow, 1991); individualized instruction (Heward & Wood, 2015); and self-study (Heward & Wood, 2015).

Stages of Instruction. ASR can be used in all phases of instruction including acquisition, practice upon acquisition, development of fluency, and application in real-world settings, and it is also effective in generalizing knowledge or skills to novel situations (Heward & Wood, 2015).

Settings. ASR is readily applied in multiple settings including academic classroom, science lab, music room, and gymnasium, as well as community-based settings. Griffin & Ryan, 2016). 

Cost-Benefit. ASR offers educators an array of low-cost, high-impact strategies directly associated with improvements in student achievement and reduced misbehavior. Key areas of costs to consider when adopting new practices include commercial package fees, expenditures for equipment required for implementation, professional development expenses, and ongoing maintenance expenditures. A major benefit of ASR is its low cost. The return on investment (ROI) for implementation of ASR techniques is relatively high when compared with structural interventions such as charter schools, school vouchers, class-size reduction, high-stakes testing, and increased spending (States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012). Most of ASR’s written, action, and oral response systems are economical, require only small adjustments by the teacher to current instruction practices and curriculum, have the advantage of being low-tech, and require only paper and pencil (see list of active response strategies). 

Professional Development. A relatively simple concept that has been around for decades and actively engages students in instruction, ASR is also a set of strategies teachers find easy to master (Haydon et al., 2010; Kretlow, Wood, & Cooke, 2011). Heward has spent more than 30 years researching ASR and has developed an assortment of materials to assist schools in training teachers in the use of these strategies. His training aids include articles on ASR, manuals on how to implement strategies, and video demonstrations (Heward, 2013; Heward, Courson, & Narayan, 1989).Training benefits by being constructed around proven explicit instruction methods such as the “I do, we do, you do” model, which promotes learner mastery and independence through elements such as guided practice and independent practice (Fisher, 2008; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Schools can maximize the impact of ASR strategies by offering follow-up coaching and performance monitoring to ensure newly trained skills are actually used in the classroom (Biancarosa, Bryk, & Dexter, 2010; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010; Joyce & Showers 2002). 

Compatibility. As an education practice, ASR has great versatility and is compatible with most curricula. ASR strategies can be implemented systemwide or at the classroom level (Tincani & Twyman, 2016). In a classroom, ASR strategies can be fitted for use across a teacher’s schedule or implemented for specific subjects or projects. ASR has been shown to be adaptable to the teacher’s available time and current practices (Heward & Wood, 2015). 

The great challenge confronting the wider use of ASR isn’t compatibility across curricula, settings, and populations, but rather will teachers and administrators embrace the practice? Is the new practice compatible with the current values and beliefs of educators? Studies support the theory that a practice must fit within the culture and practices espoused by the school’s leadership and teachers for it to have the greatest likelihood of being adopted and sustained (Fixsen et al., 2005).When a new practice runs counter to these values, resistance is more likely, limiting successful adoption (Heward, 2003). Opposition to increased use of ASR often comes from a segment of the education community that characterizes such practices as “drill and kill.” This resistance stems from concerns that ASR hinders creativity and increases student boredom (Morgan, 2018). Countering these concerns, research shows that systematic drill, repetition, practice, and review produce large effect sizes on achievement (Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2006; Dixon & Carnine, 1994). 

Why Are Drill and Practice Important in Learning?  

Only with fluency does the newly acquired knowledge or skill truly become a part of the student’s repertoire. More important, fluency allows students time to focus on the task at hand and not be distracted by having to think about how to perform the skill (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974). When the new skill becomes automatic, students are free to make creative connections between the goal to be accomplished and how they want to employ the skills in their repertoire (Willingham, 2004). For example, it is impossible to complete a creative writing assignment effectively without having first learned the language, mastered the basic skills of decoding and comprehension, and grasped the skills required for writing words and sentences. Without first achieving competency in the core skills of a task, a student will likely struggle with being a creative writer (Chance, 2008; Willingham, 2009). 

Why Being Right Isn’t Enough to Persuade Teachers a Practice is Worthwhile  

ASR falls into the category of instruction called explicit instruction. Research strongly supports explicit instruction as the most powerful model of pedagogy (Hattie, 2009). Still, a large portion of the teaching profession continues to question the model, whichrequires teachers to take responsibility for learning, motivating students, directing instruction, and adjusting instruction to meet the educational needs all the students in the classroom. The model embraces an approach that looks to the teacher as the activator of instruction (Grace, 1955; Hattie, 2009; Schug, 2003). It assumes the teacher is the professional trained to identify what students need to be successful, because it is the teacher who has mastered the most effective practices for delivering instruction and is best qualified to diagnose and adapt lessons for students who are struggling. 

Despite the strength of the available research supporting explicit instruction, many skeptics question the efficacy of its practices such as ASR. Given the need for buy-in from teachers if a practice is to be successfully adopted, it is important to understand these concerns and to develop plans to address them. Challenges are inevitable and real, and must be overcome for ASR to be embraced by teachers and sustained over time. Only when effective implementation plans are deployed can ASR impact student performance and raise academic performance on NAEP and PISA tests, where scores have been stubbornly flat for decades. Effective strategies for implementing new practices are available and can improve student performance and reverse the real problem of most school initiatives being abandoned within 18 months of adoption (Latham, 1988). For resources on strategies for effective adoption and implementation of new practices, refer to the National Implementation Research Network(NIRN) and Positive Behavior Interventions and Support(PBIS).

Summary

The fact that teacher preparation programs often omit ASR leaves teachers underprepared to meet the challenges they will face in the classroom. When teachers are not aware of ASR’s potential to enhance learning, everyone suffers. It means teachers are likely to be suspicious of the unfamiliar and less inclined to embrace the novel practice, seeing it as inconsistent with what their mentors taught them. Getting teachers to adopt and use ASR strategies every day requires an implementation plan designed to address teacher concerns and overcome hurdles commonly encountered when ASR or other innovative practices are introduced into the school.Citations

Citations

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Behr, A. L. (1988). Exploring the lecture method: An empirical study. Studies in Higher Education, 13(2), 189­–200. 

Bennett, B., & Rolheiser, C. (2001). Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration.Toronto, ON: Bookation. 

Berliner, D. C. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching. In P. L. Hosford (Ed.), Using what we know about teaching(pp. 51–77). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning. The Elementary School Journal, 111(1), 7–34. 

Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities.Learning and Individual Differences, 35, 9–14.

Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 259–267.

Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(1), 73–85. 

Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional Children, 74(3), 351–371. 

Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(3), 354–380. 

Chance, P. (2008). The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching.Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. 

Chard, D. J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2000). Struggling first-grade readers: The frequency and progress of their reading. Journal of Special Education,  34(1),28–­38. 

Christie, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12(3), 147–165. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback 

Codding, R. S., Burns, M. K., & Lukito, G. (2011). Meta-analysis of mathematic basic-fact fluency interventions: A component analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(1), 36–47. 

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Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(23), 8410–8415. 

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Hattie, J. A. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of 800+ meta-analyses on achievement. New York, NY: Routledge. 

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Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27–40. 

Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure, 55(4), 226–231. 

Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure, 57(4), 181–188. 

Heward, W. L. (1994). Three” low-tech” strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction. In R. Gardner III et al. (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction(pp. 283–320). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes.Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Academy of Teaching. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1811/34578 

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Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(3), 72–75. 

Heward, W. L. & Wood, C. L. (2015). Improving educational outcomes in America: Can a low-tech, generic teaching practice make a difference. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/2013WingSummitWH.pdf 

Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure, 59(1), 30–39.

Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 13–23. 

Joyce, B. R., and B. Showers (2002). Student achievement through staff development(3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 

Kagan, S., & Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan cooperative learning.San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. 

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254. 

Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46(3), 131–140. 

Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research,137–144. 

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279–299. 

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234–246. 

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Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88–99. 

Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal, 68(1), 41–43. 

Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral Technology Today, 3, 7–20. 

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Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2018). Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological Science, 29(7), 1202–1204.

Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 65–89.

Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1), 55–70. 

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Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner R. III, Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(4), 483–490. 

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States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2013). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/does-longer-school-year

Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68–81.

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Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Teaching Functional Life Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities

In this chapter we describe systematic instructional practices that are necessary for individuals with disabilities to benefit from educational services.

Detrich, R., & Higbee, T. S. (2009). Teaching Functional Life Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities. Practical Handbook of School Psychology: Effective Practices for the 21st Century, 371.

Improving Educational Outcomes in America: Can A Low-Tech, Generic Teaching Practice Make A Difference

Heward and Wood consider a range of instructional practices that were identified by participants of the eighth Wing Institute summit and make an argument that Active Student Responding (ASR) has the potential to significantly improve student learning. The authors consider ASR in the context of the positive benefits and the cost considerations including equipment/materials, training, logistical fit, and the fit with the teacher's belief about effective instruction.

Heward, W.L. & Wood, C.L. (2015). Improving Educational Outcomes in America: Can A Low-Tech, Generic Teaching Practice Make A Difference Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2013WingSummitWH.pdf.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategy designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance?
The analysis examines direct influences tht have the greatest impact on student performance. 28 categories were distilled by combining the effect size along professional judgment of educational experts.
States, J. (2010). What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance? Retrieved from what-are-critical-influences808.
What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom?
This analysis examines meta-analyses to identify teaching practices that have the greatest impact on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom? Retrieved from what-practices-make-difference.
What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance?
This analysis looks at meta-analyses on teaching strategies that have the largest effect on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance? Retrieved from what-teaching-strategies-make.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field
This paper distills the research on effective teaching practices to basic assumptions and core practices. It presents a impact-cost paradigm for rating and prioritizing such practices.
Heward, W. (2013). Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-william-heward.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond.
This study evaluated a multi-tiered system of support for teachers to increase the rate of teacher presented opportunities to respond.
MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2012). Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond. Retrieved from student-research-2012.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom

Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.

 

Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.

Increasing Active Student Responding and Improving Academic Performance Through Classwide Peer Tutoring

Classwide Peer Tutoring is a powerful instructional procedure that actively engages all students in a classroom and that promotes mastery, accuracy, and fluency in content learning for students with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss Classwide Peer Tutoring as an effective instructional procedure.

Arreaga-Mayer, C. (1998). Increasing active student responding and improving academic performance through classwide peer tutoring. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(2), 89-94.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration.

This book delivers teaching practice highlights and some strategies introduced in schools to give educators, evaluators, and researchers comprehensive evidence found on the best instructional strategies schools could use to improve student outcomes significantly.

Bennett, B., Rolheiser, C., & Normore, A. H. (2003). Beyond monet: The artful science of instructional integration. Alberta Journal of Educational Research49(4), 383.

The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

This paper is a research review which explores factors that can be controlled or influenced by teachers and that are known to affect student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. Pre-instructional factors include decisions about content, time allocation, pacing, grouping, and activity structures. 

Berliner, D. C. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder

Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic44(5), 259-267.

Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities

In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.

Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences35, 9-14.

What Is My Next Step? School Students' Perceptions of Feedback

This 2019 study attempts to increase our knowledge base by examining the power of different forms of feedback as a means to increase the impact of teacher delivered feedback. The paper aims to investigate student perceptions of feedback through designing a student feedback perception questionnaire (SFPQ) based on a conceptual model of feedback.

Brooks, C., Huang, Y., Hattie, J., Carroll, A., & Burton, R. (2019). What is my next step? School students’ perceptions of feedback. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 4, p. 96). Frontiers.

Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability39(1), 73-85.

Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take To Make Education More Like Medicine

The first section of this essay provides examples from reading and mathematics curricula that show experts dispensing unproven methods and flitting from one fad to another. The middle section describes how experts, for ideological reasons, have shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy. The following sections show how public impatience has forced other professions to "grow up" and accept accountability and scientific evidence. The paper concludes with a plea to develop education into a mature profession.

Carnine, D. (2000). Why Education Experts Resist Effective Practices (And What It Would Take To Make Education More Like Medicine).

 

Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.

This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda

Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children74(3), 351-371.

Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.

A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect was performed to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles.

Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological bulletin132(3), 354.

The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching

The author argues that there is a body of evidence that shows quite clearly how to teach so that students will learn far more than they are learning today. This reader-friendly volume provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching.

Chance, P. (2008). The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching.Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. 

Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading.

The oral reading of 65 first-graders experiencing difficulties in beginning reading was observed during primary reading instructional time. Findings indicate most instruction for struggling readers was not aligned with recent research on preventing reading difficulties, and even struggling readers receiving reading instruction aligned with best practices are making minimal progress. 

Chard, D. J., & Kameenui, E. J. (2000). Struggling first-grade readers: The frequency and progress of their reading. The Journal of Special Education34(1), 28-38.

The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction.

This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design. 

Christle, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education12(3), 147-165.

Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Meta-Analysis of Mathematic Basic-Fact Fluency Interventions: A Component Analysis

Mathematics fluency is a critical component of mathematics learning yet few attempts have been made to synthesize this research base. Seventeen single-case design studies with 55 participants were reviewed using meta-analytic procedures.

Codding, R. S., Burns, M. K., & Lukito, G. (2011). Meta‐analysis of mathematic basic‐fact fluency interventions: A component analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice26(1), 36-47.

Teacher-Delivered Strategies to Increase Students’ Opportunities to Respond: A Systematic Methodological Review.

This systematic review of the literature examines the evidence behind teacher-directed strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) during whole-group instruction. 

Common, E. A., Lane, K. L., Cantwell, E. D., Brunsting, N. C., Oakes, W. P., Germer, K. A., & Bross, L. A. (2019). Teacher-delivered strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond: A systematic methodological review. Behavioral Disorders, 0198742919828310.

Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills

This study sought to investigate the impact of a supplemental program’s script on the rate of on-task and off-task instructional opportunities offered by the instructor for students to practice the specific skills targeted in lesson exercises.

Cooke, N. L., Galloway, T. W., Kretlow, A. G., & Helf, S. (2011). Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills. The Journal of Special Education45(1), 28-42.

Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary

Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.

Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(2), 155-173.

Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education.

The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.

Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education28(3), 356-367.

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Distribution Of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don't

This meta-analysis reviews 63 studies on the relationship between conditions of massed practice and spaced practice with respect to task performance, which yields an overall mean weighted effect size of 0.46.

Donovan, J. J., & Radosevich, D. J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don't. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 795.

Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology

The language of life as well as of science in attributing a memory to the mind attempts to point out the facts and their interpretation 

Ebbinghaus, H. (2013). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. Annals of Neurosciences, 20(4), 155–156. 

Learner Response System. Education Endowment Foundation

A Learner Response System (LRS) is a classroom feedback tool that is becoming increasing popular. LRS is the practice of teachers and pupils using electronic handheld devices to provide immediate feedback during lessons. Given that feedback has been found to be a powerful tool in learning, it is not surprising that LRS are being adopted. The important question remains, do LRS increase student performance. This study tests a Learner Response System using Promethean handsets to assess whether it improves student outcomes. The study found no evidence that math and reading were improved using the system for 2 years.

Education Endowment Foundation (2017). Learner Response System. Education Endowment Foundation. Retrieved https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/projects-and-evaluation/projects/learner-response-system/.

Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators

This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.

Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.

Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model

This evidence on effective literacy teaching, which includes small group instruction, differentiation, and a response to intervention, presents a challenge for many teachers and schools.

Fisher, D. (2008). Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model. Author Monographs, 1­–4. 

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

This meta-analysis examined the impact of lecturing as compared to active methods of instruction on learning and course performance. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies).

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.

Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis

In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.

Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: A report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education

A report entitled A Nation at Risk was published based on information distilled from commissioned research papers and public hearings. The report contains summaries of the papers and hearings; a list of findings in content, expectations, time, and teaching; a set of recommendations; and aspects of implementation related to con

Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W., Campbell, A., & Crosby, E. A. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform (p. 65). Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.

Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education

Using the teacher‐centered systemic reform model as a framework, the authors explore the connection between chemistry instructors’ beliefs about teaching and learning and self‐efficacy beliefs, and their enacted classroom practices. 

Gibbons, R. E., Villafañe, S. M., Stains, M., Murphy, K. L., & Raker, J. R. (2018). Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching55(8), 1111-1133.

Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion

This paper provides students with an opportunity to improve their reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The activity, which can be used with intermediate and advanced learners, is ideal for English language learners in content classes and is particularly useful for building foundational knowledge of a new topic.

Giovacchini, M. (2017). Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion. In English Teaching Forum (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 36-39). US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037.

The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, choral responding, the response card) on student participation and ontask behavior in preschool children with attending problems. 

Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The Effects of Three Techniques on Student Participation with Preschool Children with Attending Problems. Education & Treatment of Children26(3).

The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, choral responding, the response card) on student participation and ontask behavior in preschool children with attending problems. 

Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The Effects of Three Techniques on Student Participation with Preschool Children with Attending Problems. Education & Treatment of Children26(3).

A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails.

This paper confirms the predominance of lecture and adds to the existing literature by asking why principles instructors have selected their particular teaching methods.

Goffe, W. L., & Kauper, D. (2014). A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails. The Journal of Economic Education45(4), 360-375.

Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice.

A brief perspective is offered on the development and validation of one enabler—engagement in academic responding—and recent findings are provided of an effort to bridge the gap between research and practice by employing this knowledge in Title 1 elementary schools to improve instruction.

Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives in research and practice. School Psychology Review31(3).

Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice.

A brief perspective is offered on the development and validation of one enabler—engagement in academic responding—and recent findings are provided of an effort to bridge the gap between research and practice by employing this knowledge in Title 1 elementary schools to improve instruction.

Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives in research and practice. School Psychology Review31(3).

Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies

This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.

Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.

Empowering students through speaking round tables

This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.

Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia4(1), 39-59.

The Rise of Universities

The Rise of Universities goes far beyond its central subject to offer a broad description of the social conditions in which universities took root and flourished. 

Haskins, C. H. (2017). The rise of universities. Routledge.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.

This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.

Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.

A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content.

The purpose of this article is to examine research on the effectiveness of guided notes. Results indicate that using guided notes has a positive effective on student outcomes, as this practice has been shown to improve accuracy of note taking and student test scores.

Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth55(4), 226-231.

A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature

This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.

Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth57(4), 181-188.

A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature

This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.

Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth57(4), 181-188.

Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.

Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.

Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education.

This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.

Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education36(4), 186-205.

Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes

This paper briefly discuss some pros and con of lecturing as a teaching method, describe how a strategy called "guided notes" can make lecturing more effective, and offer some specific suggestions for developing and using guided notes.

Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes. Talking About Teaching.

Exceptional Children: An Introduction To Special Education.

This book for teachers in the area of Special Education looks at highly effective, research-based practices described in a very step-by-step, applied manner.

Heward, W. L. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Pearson.

Using choral responding to increase active student response.

There are numerous practical strategies for increasing active student response during group instruction. One of these strategies, Choral Responding, is the subject of this article. 

Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children21(3), 72-75.

Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping

This study aimed to examine active instruction and engagement across elementary, middle, and high schools using a large database of direct classroom observations. 

Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(1), 30-39.

The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities.

An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.

Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology20(3), 13-23.

Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions

Demonstrates the experimenting society model using data-based decision making and collaborative consultation to evaluate behavior-management intervention strategies in 25 seventh graders. Each intervention results in improved behavior, but active teaching of classroom rules was determined to be most effective. 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review25(2), 199-214.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with several suggestions for creating and using guided notes to enhance other effective teaching methods, support students’ studying, and promote higher order thinking.

Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in school and clinic46(3), 131-140.

Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.

Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.

Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices.

This paper provides a review of the theoretical discussions and practical studies relating to fluency instruction and reading development.

Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of educational psychology95(1), 3.

Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.

The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.

Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(2), 88-99.

The Birth and Death Cycles of Educational innovations

A study of 27 promising programs reveals 8 common reasons that educational innovations fail, including disenchanted practitioners; departure of innovation supporters; lack of personnel training; disappearing funding; inadequate supervision; and lack of accountability, administrative support, and termination consequences. Innovations succeed by avoiding overload, complementing school mission, and securing board approval

Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal68(1), 41-43.

Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read.

Headsprout Early Reading™ is a new engaging, Internet-based reading program that effectively teaches the essential skills and strategies required for rapid reading success.

Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral technology today3(7), 20.

Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: A quantitative synthesis.

The overall effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on classroom learning are estimated. The constancy of effects of these instructional qualities were explored across characteristics of students, and educational and contextual conditions. The results confirm the Dollard-Miller-Carroll-Bloom theory that has evolved during the past four decades. 

Lysakowski, R. S., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis. American Educational Research Journal19(4), 559-78.

Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis research cover all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated in search of empirical evidence. The authors conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.

Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological science25(8), 1608-1618.

Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice

In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.

Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly22(1), 65-89.

A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class

Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class. 

Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education25(1), 55-70.

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd

Effects of The Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension.

The effects of a cloze procedure developed from transfer feature theory of processing in reading on immediate and delayed recall of good and poor readers were studied

Mcgee, L. M. (1981). Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior13(2), 145-156.

Should U.S. Students Do More Math Practice and Drilling?

Should U.S. students be doing more math practice and drilling in their classrooms? That’s the suggestion from last week’s most emailed New York Times op-ed. The op-ed’s author argued that more practice and drilling could help narrow math achievement gaps. These gaps occur in the U.S. by the primary grades.

Morgan, P. L. (2018). Should U.S. students do more math practice and drilling? Psychology Today.Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/children-who-struggle/201808/should-us-students-do-more-math-practice-and-drilling 

Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.

The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design. 

Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(4), 483-490.

The Nation’s Report Card, 2017

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a national assessment of what America's students know in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history.

Nation’s Report Card. (2017). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from the NAEP Data Explorerhttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/

The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.

In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.

Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record107(5), 895-934.

Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research

The school year and day length have varied over time and across localities depending on the particular needs of the community. Proponents argue that extending time will have learning and nonacademic benefits. Opponents suggest increased time is not guaranteed to lead to more effective instruction and suggest other costs. 

Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Allen, A. B. (2010). Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research (1985–2009). Review of educational research80(3), 401-436.

Active Student Response Strategies

a written guide for Active Student Response Strategies.

Pearce, A. R. (2011). Active student response strategies. CDE Facilities Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/facilityschools/download/pdf/edmeetings_04apr2011_asrstrategies.pdf 

 

The effects of active participation on student learning.

The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. t was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.

Pratton, J., & Hales, L. W. (1986). The effects of active participation on student learning. The Journal of Educational Research79(4), 210-215.

Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading

The terms cloze procedure and cohesion are associated with reading development. Specifically, doze applies to the testing and teaching of reading while cohesion applies to a description of how the way in which reading material is written can affect reading development. 

Raymond, P. (1988). Cloze procedure in the teaching of reading. TESL Canada Journal, 6(1), 91–97. 

Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness

The authors extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing their work on processing experiences. This research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience.

Reber, R., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Winkielman, P. (2002). Processing fluency as the source of experiences at the fringe of consciousness. Psyche8(10), 1-21.

Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.

This article discuss about automaticity theory and attempt to do 2 things: 1. describe automaticity theory and its practical applications; and 2. explain some of the new ideas about automaticity. 

Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited.

Teacher-centered instruction: The Rodney Dangerfield of social studies.

Teacher-centered instruction implies a high degree of teacher direction and a focus of students on academic tasks. And it vividly contrasts with student-centered or constructivist approaches in establishing a leadership role for the teacher

Schug, M. C. (2003). Teacher-centereed instruction. Where did social studies go wrong, 94-110.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Replication

Replication has taken on more importance recently because the ESSA evidence standards only require a single positive study. To meet the strong, moderate, or promising standards, programs must have at least one “well-designed and well-implemented” study using randomized (strong), matched (moderate), or correlational (promising) designs and finding significantly positive outcomes. 

Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/

Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress.

A commentary on: Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress

Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science354(6315), 1046-1048.

Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Several barriers can impede critical thinking instruction. However, actively engaging students in project-based or collaborative activities can encourage students’ critical thinking development if instructors model the thinking process, use effective questioning techniques, and guide students’ critical thinking processes.

Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. The Journal of Research in Business Education50(2), 90.

How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?

The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program

Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.

How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategies that designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools.

This article presents an analysis of data collected across 35 general education classrooms in four elementary schools, assessing instructional variables associated with OTR. The relationship among opportunities to respond (OTR), measures of classroom management, and student work products was analyzed across Title and non-Title schools. 

Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high-and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions11(2), 68-81.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.

Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities47(2), 178-195.

Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis.

The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.

Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(2), 109-119.

A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning.

The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.

Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.

Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.

This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning. 

Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..

Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.

This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction

Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education16(4), 355-367.

Enhancing engagement through active student response.

Student engagement is critical to academic success. High-Active Student Response (ASR) teaching techniques are an effective way to improve student engagement and are an important component of evidence-based practice. . This report provides techniques and strategies to enhance engagement through ASR. Key terms are appended.

Tincani, M., & Twyman, J. S. (2016). Enhancing Engagement through Active Student Response. Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University.

Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction

This experiment evaluated the effects of requiring overt answer construction in computer-based programmed instruction using an alternating treatments design.

Tudor, R. M. (1995). Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(3), 343-344.

Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application.

A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program. 

Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis24(2), 361-368.

Productive teaching

This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods

Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.

What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.

This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.

Practice makes perfect—but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection.

On the one hand, it seems obvious that practice is important. After all, "practice makes perfect." On the other hand, it seems just as obvious that practicing the same material again and again would be boring for students. How much practice is the right amount?

Willingham, D. T. (2004). Ask the Cognitive Scientist Practice Makes Perfect, But Only If You Practice Beyond the Point of Perfection. American Educator28(1), 31-33.

Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom

The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.

Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.

Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.

This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.

Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly28(2), 39-47.

Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction.

This study shows that gaps between opportunities to learn and students' appropriation of those opportunities are instructionally produced and socially distributed via mechanism that affect engagement and lead to alienation from instruction - the dissociation between students' physical presence in academic classes and their thoughts while in class. 

Yair, G. (2000). Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction. Sociology of Education, 247-269.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Active Student Responding Strategies

This web site provides a document for teachers with a list of active student responding strategies.

Active Student Responding: Supporting Student Learning and Engagement

This web site offers a clear and concise review of Active student responding.

National Council of Teachers of English

This web site provides resources for teachers of English in lesson plans and other teaching resources.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

PISA is a triennial international survey that evaluates education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students.

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