Education Drivers

Professional Development (Inservice)

The American education system values in-service training to improve teacher performance, spending an average of $18,000 annually per teacher. Like many promising practices, it has failed to produce as promised. Schools invest extensively in teacher induction in the early years of a teacher, supplemented with in-service training throughout the teacher’s career. Unfortunately, this training is often delivered in unproductive ways, for example, workshop sessions that commonly rely on passive didactic techniques, such as lecturing or reading, shown to have minimal or no impact on the teacher’s use of the practices in the classroom. This is especially true when the outcome, using the practices in the classroom, is assessed. Coaching-based clinical training, with the teacher practicing skills on students in a classroom setting and receiving feedback from the coach, has been found to produce the best results. Sustained professional development with scope and sequence curriculum, accompanied by manuals for interventions in which the teacher is being trained, is superior to single events. Computer-assisted instruction as a companion to systematic training techniques identified above has been found to be a cost-effective adjunct staff development tool.

Teacher Inservice Professional Development

Teacher Inservice Professional Development PDF

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Inservice. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-development

Quality teachers are an important factor in student achievement (Hattie, 2009; Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004). This is why improving teacher quality—teacher knowledge, skills, and practice—has been a focus of reforms and legislation for decades (No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB], 2001; States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012).

Effective professional development is “structured professional learning that results in changes in teacher practice and improvements in student learning outcomes” (Darling-Hammond, Hyler, & Gardner, 2017, p. v). The idea is that professional development improves teachers’ ability to make decisions that will positively impact student achievement (Yoon, Duncan, Lee, Scarloss, & Shapley, 2007).

For established teachers, in-service professional development has been a way to improve teacher quality and student achievement (Hasoitis, 2015). It is commonly delivered by the school or school district as opposed to being part of induction, which focuses on training new teachers, or additional education that teachers seek on their own. The various in-service professional development experiences in which teachers can engage include 1-day workshops, in-school collaboration, professional learning communities (PLCs), and coaching.

This overview focuses on in-service professional development for established teachers and includes ongoing development provided within the context of teaching. It aims to provide an understanding of the research base on in-service professional development for established teachers, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations.

Important questions include the following:

  • Are 1-day professional development experiences effective?
  • What are the components of high-quality in-service professional development?
  • What is the best way to deliver professional development so that it develops teachers’ skills?
  • How long do teachers need to engage in in-service professional development for it to be effective?
  • Can online in-service professional development be effective?

Current State of In-Service Professional Development

Federal law mandates that teachers receive high-quality ongoing professional development, meaning professional development that has been shown to improve student achievement (Birman et al., 2007; NCLB, 2001). Teachers expect to engage in professional development each school year; for example, in the 2011–2012 school year, 99% of teachers nationwide participated in some form of professional development (Goldring, Gray, & Bitterman, 2013).

Professional development is an investment in time and money. To that end, teachers may receive support from their districts to participate in development. In the 2011-2012 school year, public school teachers reported receiving prescheduled teacher workdays when schools are closed so teachers can attend professional development (79%), or release from teaching time (51%) to attend professional development. In addition, half of teachers received continuing education credits for professional development they completed (Rotermund, DeRoche, & Ottem, 2017).

The most prevalent topic for professional development was teachers’ content area (e.g., math or science). In the 2011–2012 school year, 85% of public school teachers nationwide participated in professional development in their subject area. There was some variation, however; more teachers in elementary school (92%) than middle school (83%) and high school (77%) participated in professional development in specific subject areas (Rotermund et al., 2017).

In the study of that same school year, other common topics for professional development included using computers in instruction (67%), and discipline and classroom management (43%). Less common topics for professional development included teaching students with disabilities (37%) and teaching students who were English language learners (27%) The length of time dedicated to any one topic was relatively brief. In general, teachers spent fewer than 8 hours on any one topic. Two exceptions, in which teachers received at least 8 hours of training, were teaching in their subject matter (21%) and teaching reading (47%) (Rotermund et al., 2017).

Teachers also participated in professional development in a variety of ways, including direct instruction (e.g., workshops) and collaborating with other teachers around a shared professional goal. To be sure, teachers’ experiences with in-service professional development will vary depending on the grade level and content area they teach, as well as their location and school demographics. However, standard expectations of teachers include that they will receive either time or incentive to attend professional development, and that professional development will focus on content and topics they work with on a daily basis (Rotermund et al., 2017).

Research on Teacher In-Service Professional Development

The abundant research on teacher professional development reflects changes in how development has been delivered.

In the early 2000s, most studies examined 1-day “sit and get” workshops, which did not produce results for teacher practice or student outcomes (Hasoitis, 2015). From these studies, a few recommendations emerged. Primarily, teacher professional development should focus on content knowledge, active learning, and coherence with other professional development that teachers receive. Structurally, the form of the activity (e.g., workshop, PLC), collaboration between teachers across a school or grade, and the duration of the professional development are also important (Desimone, Porter, Garet, Yoon, & Birman, 2002; Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001).

            Since then, additional research has focused on a broader range of professional development experiences, such as coaching and PLCs (Hasoitis, 2015). From these studies, we have a more comprehensive understanding of what practices contribute to changing teacher practice and student achievement (Hasoitis, 2015). In one oft-cited review of nine studies on teacher professional development, Yoon et al. (2007) found a positive impact on student achievement when professional development was delivered for more than 19 hours.

In the late 2000s, Garet and colleagues (2008, 2011) studied best practices in teacher professional development. The 2008 study tested the effectiveness of professional development across 2 years in a sample of 90 schools (254 teachers, 4,614 students) from six urban districts. The key student outcome measure was a second-grade standardized reading assessment. Participating schools included a higher percentage of students who received free or reduced price lunch, and a higher percentage of African American students than schools not participating in the study. Teachers were assigned to one of three groups. One group participated in a professional development institute, one group participated in the institute and received coaching, and one was the control group. The institute was designed to increase teacher knowledge in teaching reading, while the institute-plus-coaching group was designed to focus on application of the strategies taught in the institute.

Teachers who received some professional development (institute or institute-plus-coaching) scored higher on overall teacher knowledge than the control group. The effect size, or relationship between two variables, was 0.37 for the institute group and 0.38 for the institute-plus-coaching group compared with the control group. Still, this is a small effect size, indicating that the professional development had a relatively small effect on the teachers’ knowledge. There was no difference between institute only and institute-plus-coaching on teacher knowledge. However, coaching focused on the application of three strategies (explicit instruction, independent student work, and differentiated instruction), not on developing knowledge.

Teachers who received institute or institute-plus-coaching used explicit instruction more than the control group (effect sizes of 0.33 and 0.53, respectively). There were no differences in the impact of the other two strategies among the three groups. The differential impact of coaching on teacher practice was not statistically significant.

Finally, the improvement in teacher knowledge and teacher use of explicit instruction did not translate into improvements in student reading achievement on a standardized reading assessment. Researchers followed up 1 year after the professional development and found no additional effects on teachers’ knowledge of reading content or in teachers’ use of instructional strategies. However, the impacts that were seen did not decline over time.

The cost of institute ($4,797 per teacher) versus institute-plus-coaching ($20,351 per teacher) is also noteworthy. This discrepancy in cost, for no difference in results between the professional development and control groups, raises questions about how districts should focus limited resources and what outcomes can be expected from teacher in-service professional development.

In another study, Garet et al. (2011) examined the impact of professional development on middle school math after 1 year. In the study, 100 seventh-grade math teachers across 12 districts received 2 years of professional development on rational number topics (e.g., fractions, decimals, percentages). After 2 years of the program, there was no significant impact on teachers’ total score on a teacher knowledge test. Moreover, the professional development did not have an impact on the average student achievement on a customized test on rational numbers.

The two Garet et al. studies (2008, 2011) are important because they were designed with quality in mind and, overall, did not produce an improvement in teacher knowledge, teacher practice, or student achievement. Also, in both studies, researchers observed that teachers often did not use the techniques in which they had been trained.

Additional studies have examined teacher professional development. Bell, Wilson, Higgins, and McCoach (2010) looked at the impact of Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) professional development program on teachers’ knowledge of teaching mathematics. A comparison of two groups of teachers (those who had completed DMI modules and those who had not) showed that the DMI group outperformed the other group on knowledge of teaching mathematics and math content. The study also found that the teachers’ knowledge was aligned with the expertise of the facilitators. 

Polly et al. (2015) examined the influence of cohorts of elementary school teachers who participated in a three year-long math professional development. Teachers’ knowledge and change in practice had a significant effect on student achievement as measured on student performance on a curriculum-based assessment. The professional development produced an increase in teachers’ math knowledge and a shift towards learner-centered practices. Learner-centered practices involved a focus on student learning data and active learning during professional development to increase knowledge of content and practice. On Teacher Belief Questionnaire and Teacher Practice Questionnaire measures, teacher practices shifted towards student-centered, and none shifted towards teacher-centered. A mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) test was used to gauge teachers’ knowledge. After the professional development, teachers demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge from pretest to posttest. Finally, student achievement on a math assessment also increased after participation in the professional development.

In another study, Gore et al. (2017) provided 192 teachers across 24 schools with professional development that involved quality teaching rounds, which combine PLCs and instruction rounds. Quality teaching rounds consist of teachers reading about and discussing a practice to create shared understanding, researchers observing a lesson being taught and coding it, and discussing the lesson among themselves. The teachers were given a 2-day training on quality teaching rounds and then provided with minimal intervention by the researchers through two follow-ups, one 12 months after the initial professional development, and another 6 months after the study concluded. Interrater reliability for the coding of lessons was 0.76 (95% CI, p < .001). There were positive effects of professional development on teacher quality (effect size 0.4), and the effects were sustained 12 months after the initial professional development and 6 months after the study concluded.

In summary, teacher professional development has been thoroughly researched. There is evidence that, when planned and implemented with high-quality standards in place and delivered for long enough, professional development has a positive impact on student achievement (Polly et al., 2015; Rotermund et al., 2017; Yoon et al., 2007). Professional development can have a positive impact on teachers’ knowledge (Bell et al., 2010; Garet et al., 2008; Polly et al., 2015) and practice (Polly et al., 2015).

Questions About Teacher In-service Professional Development

In thinking about how to develop and implement teacher in-service professional development, there are important questions to consider. 

Are 1-Day Professional Development Experiences Effective?

Teacher professional development is often brief (Rotermund et al., 2017). However, 1-day workshops have not produced changes in teacher practice or student outcomes and, perhaps as a result, there has been a shift away from 1-day workshops in recent years (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Hasoitis, 2015).

The ineffectiveness of brief in-service professional development may relate to the disconnect between 1-day workshops and teachers’ daily work (Ball & Cohen, 1999). In addition, 1-day workshops are noncumulative, meaning that they do not build to improved practice over time (Ball & Cohen, 1999; Penuel, Fishman, Yamaguchi, & Gallagher, 2007). Another explanation for ineffectiveness could come from the brief nature of this method of training; Yoon et al. (2007) found that providing professional development for less than 14 hours did not demonstrate any effects.

What Are the Components of High-Quality In-Service Professional Development?

If workshops are not effective, then the next question is, What is effective?

Research has shown that high-quality teacher professional development includes the following measures (Darling-Hammond et al., 2017; Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Desimone, 2009; Yoon et al., 2007):

  • Focusing content on implementing specific strategies in the classroom context (e.g., reading, math)
  • Practicing strategies in professional development in the same way that teachers will use them in the classroom
  • Providing teachers with a clear model of the practice or outcome (e.g., lesson plans, sample work)
  • Providing teachers with coaching and expert support during implementation
  • Allowing time for teachers to learn, practice, implement, receive feedback on, and reflect on a new practice.

            The description of high-quality indicators reinforces that effective professional development cannot be delivered in a 1-day workshop. Having teachers on campus and working within the teaching context are important.

What Is the Best Way Deliver Professional Development to Develop Teachers’ Skills?

Teacher in-service professional development can produce benefits for teachers and students (Garet, et al. 2008, 2011; Polly et al., 2015). However, certain methods of professional development have been shown to be more effective than others.

Coaching. This method stands out as a particularly effective way to develop teachers (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2018). It often involves observing teachers followed by feedback and reflection (Wesley & Buysse, 2006).

Coaching has been shown to have an impact on teacher practice (Sailors & Price, 2010), particularly when teachers are learning how to perform a new evidence-based practice and must implement it with fidelity (Reinke, Stormont, Herman, & Newcomer, 2014; Simonson et al., 2014). The various forms of coaching that have some research support are peer, side-by-side, and remote coaching.

Peer coaching occurs when teachers are coached by fellow teachers and may involve a focus practice that a teacher is trying to improve or implement. Fisher, Frey, and Lapp (2011) found that student comprehension improved when teachers received peer coaching in teaching reading comprehension.

In side-by-side coaching, a coach provides feedback during a lesson to improve a teacher’s practice. This method has been shown to improve teachers’ use of new strategies and has had positive effects on student learning (Fisher et al., 2011; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010).

One example of remote coaching is the use of video observations. Video coaching has been effective when implemented with an evidence-based practice (Amendum, Vernon-Faegans, & Ginsberg, 2011; Vernan-Feagans et al., 2012).

Performance Feedback. This occurs when teachers receive specific feedback they can use to improve their performance related to a behavior they are working to improve (Mortenson & Witt, 1998; States, 2019). To be effective, performance feedback should be positive, specific, corrective, and provided immediately after the target behavior (Scheeler, Ruhl, & McAfee, 2004). Performance feedback typically accompanies instruction in the target strategy, such as a training session (Scheeler et al., 2004).

Performance feedback has proven more effective than other interventions in improving teacher practice. This may be because of the support provided for teachers when they learn a new practice and receive frequent, specific feedback on that practice (Sweigert, Landrum, & Pennington, 2015). In schools, using data on how teachers are implementing a practice is one way that feedback has improved teacher practice (Scheeler et al., 2004; Solomon, Klein, & Politylo, 2012).

To provide performance feedback, alongside training and coaching, the following actions are required (Stormont & Reinke, 2013):

  • Identify an evidence-based practice.
  • Identify an expert in the practice who can provide effective feedback.
  • Provide teachers with explicit instruction that includes modeling, practice, and feedback.

Ongoing Collaboration: Professional Learning Communities. Using teacher in-service time for intensive, content-rich, collaborative working opportunities can improve teacher practice and student outcomes (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009). This is important because teachers often collaborate with other teachers as a method of professional development (Rotermund et al., 2017).

One vehicle for school-based collaboration is a PLC. Effective PLCs have demonstrated a positive effect on teacher performance and student achievement (Carroll, Fulton, & Doerr, 2016; Leana, 2011; Leana & Pil, 2006; Vescio, Ross, & Adams, 2008).

Effective PLCs involve the following:

  • Common planning time, supportive administration, school culture of risk taking, and teachers acting as decision makers (Louis, Marks, & Kruse, 1996)
  • Time for teachers to develop community, form group identity, and work together (Grossman, Wineburg, & Woolworth, 2001)
  • Peer observations with a clear definition of quality teaching (Little, 2003)
  • Structured dialogue that provides a focus on practice and continual improvement (Hollins, McIntyre, DeBose, Hollins, & Towner, 2004)

How Long Do Teachers Need to Engage in In-service Professional Development for It to Be Effective?

The amount of time that teachers spend in professional development makes a difference. A duration of between 20 and 100 hours over 6 to 12 months is the most effective at impacting specific teacher practice (Blank & de las Alas, 2009; Desimone & Garet, 2015; Yoon et al., 2007). Garet et al. (2008) found that an entire year of in-service professional development produced an increase in teacher knowledge about a topic, although the change in practice was limited. Of course, the amount of professional development provided will depend on factors such as the school calendar and teacher contracts.

Can Online In-service Professional Development Be Effective?

The question of whether online professional development can produce changes in teacher practice and improve student learning is important, especially as more learning shifts online. Online professional development can be built with the same features of high-quality, in-person teacher professional development: structured time, authentic tasks, performance feedback, relevant content, and collaboration/dialogue (King, 2002). There are benefits and drawbacks to online professional development (see Table A).  

Research on Targeted Reading Intervention, which uses one-on-one instructional reading skill lessons and teacher coaching through video observation, provides some support for virtual professional development (Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012). When teachers received virtual coaching, students scored higher on reading skills (Amendum et al., 2011; Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012).

Currently, there is not enough research to draw a definitive conclusion about whether online professional development can deliver the same outcomes as in-person professional development. One study showed no difference in outcomes between professional development delivered online and in-person professional development (Fishman et al., 2013). The cost-effectiveness of online professional development depends on context and may not differ significantly from in-person professional development when the focus is on high quality (Fishman et al., 2013).

The following two questions specifically related to online professional development require further research.

  • Is there a difference between synchronous and asynchronous professional development?
  • Which best practices (e.g., coaching) are most effective for online delivery?

Table A: Benefits and Drawbacks of Online Professional Development

 

 

Adapted from National Research Council, 2007

Cost of Teacher Professional Development

School districts spend a significant amount of money on professional development. One study gauged district spending on professional development at between 2.2 and 3.7 percent of the operating expenditures (Miles, Odden, Fermanich, Archibald, & Gallagher, 2002). This expenditure provided a variety of professional development opportunities, from workshops to coaching.

Recently, Horn and Goldstein (2018) determined that across the U. S., districts spent $18 billion. The cost for individual districts varies based on the type of professional development provided, the number of teachers, the length of time, and other factors.

TNTP (2015) examined the cost of professional development to districts and concluded that districts were spending too much for the benefit received. They recommended that districts reallocate funding to professional development efforts based on impact.

As school leaders think about and plan teacher professional development for veteran teachers, researchers at TNTP (2015) suggested the following considerations:

  • Have a clear, observable, measurable definition of professional development as progress toward a standard definition of teaching and learning.
  • Focus on professional development that gives teachers an understanding of their own performance and encourage improvement with meaningful rewards and consequences.
  • Reevaluate existing professional development and redirect funding for professional development to programs and services based on their impact.

Recommendations for Teacher Professional Development

Teacher professional development should focus on sustained development that incorporates best practices: focus on content, collaboration, coaching and expert support, performance feedback, and reflection (Darling-Hammond et al., 2017; Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Yoon et al., 2007). Expecting brief professional development (i.e., 1-day workshops) to produce results for teachers or students is unrealistic (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009).

High-quality professional development for veteran teachers should be focused on content and on strengthening teachers’ implementation of specific classroom strategies. Teachers should receive coaching and expert support that includes application and performance feedback as well as reflection (Darling-Hammond et al., 2017; Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Desimone, 2009; Yoon et al., 2007). Also, professional development should be delivered across multiple sessions for a minimum of 19 hours (Blank & de las Alas, 2009; Desimone & Garet, 2015; Yoon et al., 2017)

            Ongoing in-service professional development should focus on providing teachers with the instruction, practice, and feedback they need to best implement strategies that are new to them, and to incorporate those strategies into their daily instruction. To this end, providing teachers with enough time to really learn and apply a strategy in the classroom is important (Darling-Hammond et al., 2017; Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009; Desimone, 2009; Yoon et al., 2007).

Providing teachers with coaching, structured collaboration, and performance feedback are all ways to shape teacher practice (Akiba & Liang, 2016; Carroll et al., 2010; Vescio et al., 2008). Coaching, in particular, has been shown to have an impact when teaching teachers to implement a new evidence-based practice (Simonsen et al., 2014).

Performance feedback that is positive, specific, corrective, and related directly to a target behavior can improve teacher practice (Scheeler et al., 2004). In particular, incorporating data about a teacher’s behavior and providing feedback related to that behavior can help shape and improve teacher practice (Scheeler et al., 2004; Solomon et al., 2012).

Teacher collaboration, such as PLCs, is effective when it incorporates support from administration, common time to work, a supportive school culture, and teachers with decision-making capacity (Louis et al., 1996). 

Online professional development has important strengths and can be effective (e.g., Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012). Evaluating the cost-benefit of online professional development is an important next step.

Conclusion

Professional development is a part of each teacher’s year and an investment for school districts. There is a substantial amount of research on teacher professional development. For veteran teachers, sustained, high-quality in-service professional development has been shown to improve teachers’ knowledge, skills, and student achievement. In particular, teacher professional development that incorporates coaching and collaboration is beneficial for teachers as they continue to develop their practice throughout their careers.

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Reinke, W. M., Stormont, M., Herman, K. C., Newcomer, L. (2014). Using coaching to support teacher implementation of classroom-based interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1),150–167.

Rotermund, S., DeRoche, J., & Ottem. (2017). Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics: 2011–2012 (NCES 2017-200). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017200.pdf

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development that supports the teaching of cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110(3), 301–323.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 396–407.

Simonsen, B., Macsuga-Gage, A. S., Briere, D. E., Freeman, J., Myers, D., Scott, T. M., & Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179–190.

Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The effect of performance feedback on teachers’ treatment integrity: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature. School Psychology Review, 41(2), 160–175.

States, J. (2019, January). Maximizing the effectiveness of teacher evaluation. Paper presented at the Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu.

States, J., Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2012). Effective teachers make a difference. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.), Education at the Crossroads: The state of teacher preparation, Vol 2 (pp. 1–45). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol2Ch1.pdf

Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(2), 121–125.

Sweigart, C. A., Landrum, T. J., & Pennington, R. C (2015). The effect of real-time visual performance feedback on teacher feedback: A preliminary investigation. Education and Treatment of Children, 38(4), 429–450.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. New York, NY: Author. https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Vernan-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Amendum, S., Ginsberg, M., Wood, T., & Bock, A. (2012).Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(2), 102–114.

Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 80–91.

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence-based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007-No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/REL_2007033.pdf

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

 

Overview of Teacher Evaluation.

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service

Teacher Professional Development

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Professional Development (Inservice). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L., & Jabot, M. (2012). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don’t Know, and Must Learn Soon! In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 65-89). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2013WingSummitSF.pdf.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/Accountability%20and%20Autonomy.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
Does the use of coaching as a professional development strategy improve student performance?
This review examines research on the effectiveness of coaching as a teacher training tool that can improve student performance.
States, J. (2011). Does the use of coaching as a professional development strategy improve student performance? Retrieved from does-use-of-coaching.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L. (2010). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-larry-maheady.

Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training
Staff training is often seen as the solution to all performance problems. This paper discusses the choices that have to be made when designing effective staff training.
Detrich, R. (2007). A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-decision-matrix-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-suzanne-fitch.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evaluating a Multimedia Professional Development Package for Improving Implementation of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices

Three 8th grade English teachers participated in this single-case multiple baseline experiment. These teachers were observed daily during classes that were inclusive to students with disabilities. Observations were conducted using the Classroom Teaching Scan (www.classroomteachingscan.com/ctscan/). Within the Classroom Teaching Scan, a checklist of quality indicators for modeling was the primary dependent variable. Additionally, observations were scored using the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observations (PLATO, 2017). Participating students responded to curriculum-based measurement writing prompts throughout the study.

Minor changes in performance on the PLATO and CBM measures were demonstrated. However, these measures were descriptive in nature, not experimental. Therefore, more research over a sustained period of time is necessary to determine the effect of this professional development package on distal measures of teacher quality and student outcomes.

Elwood, J.R. (2017). Evaluating a Multimedia Professional Development Package for Improving Implementation of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices:Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org.

 

Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices.

The primary research questions that drove this study are as follows: (1) To what extent can PBPD help teachers gain knowledge and implement EBCM practices? (2) To what extent does teachers’ use of EBCM practices maintain after the PBPD? (3) To what extent does student engagement increase after a teacher attended EBCM PBPD? (4) To what extent do self-reports of novice teacher efficacy and burnout change after completing EBCM PBPD?

Hirsch, S.E. (2015). Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices. Retrieved from student-research-2015.

Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond.
This study evaluated a multi-tiered system of support for teachers to increase the rate of teacher presented opportunities to respond.
MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2012). Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond. Retrieved from student-research-2012.
Descriptive analysis of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices.
This study identified four mechanisms for effective coaching: (1) prompting (2) fluency building (3) performance feedback (4) adaptation. Teams receiving training after initial training sustained or improved their level of implementation of SWPBIS.
Massar, M. (2014). Descriptive analysis of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices. Retrieved from student-research-2014.
Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures.
This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training and coaching to help new teachers implemented empirically supported practices. Also, evaluated was the quality of implementation (treatment integrity) as function of coaching.
Sawyer, M. (2013). Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures. Retrieved from student-research-2013.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.

This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).  It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.

Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations.

This article attempts an analysis of the accumulated literature on collegial relations with the intent of formulating a more robust conception, one that accounts for variation in teachers’ involvements with one another, the circumstances that surround those involvements, the meanings teachers and others attach to them, and the consequences that flow from them.

 Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.

The Future Ready District: Professional Learning Through Online Communities of Practice and Social Networks to Drive Continuous Improvement

The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this brief that summarizes research on the role of online communities of practice and social networks in supporting the professional performance of educators.

U.S. Department of Education. (2014, November). The Future Ready District: Professional Learning Through Online Communities of Practice and Social Networks to Drive Continuous Improvement. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Section7-FutureReadyDistrictBrief-Final.pdf.

Marketing social change: The case of family preservation

This case study examines the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's promotion of the Homebuilders type of family preservation services as the sole model worthy of public support.

Adams, P. (1994). Marketing social change: The case of family preservation. Children and Youth Services Review16(5-6), 417-431.

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Effects of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth.

The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. 

Akiba, M., & Liang, G. (2016). Effects of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth. Journal of Educational Research, 109(1), 99–110. https://www.lib.fsu.edu/sites/default/files/scholarship/effects_of_teacher_pl_activities.pdf

Teacher Preparation and Induction.

This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,

Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-20012(3), n3.

On the Path to Equity: Improving the Effectiveness of Beginning Teachers

This report highlights the work of New Teacher Center (NTC), a national nonprofit organization headquartered in Santa Cruz, California, that has partnered with states, districts, and policymakers to develop programs and policies that accelerate new teacher effectiveness.

Alliance for Excellent Education (2014). On the path to equity: Improving the effectiveness of beginning teachers. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PathToEquity.pdf

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The Clinical Preparation of Teachers: A Policy Brief

This policy brief focuses on the clinical aspects of teacher preparation in each of these key features. These aspects include the typical processes of clinical work, the location, and the duration of the training.

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). (2010). The clinical preparation of teachers: A policy brief. Washington, DC: Author.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

Promoting teacher effectiveness: Conditions for success in teacher induction.

The work of the New Teacher Center (NTC) highlights the importance of the conditions for success in its Program Theory of Action model. This paper also provides Conditions for Success Self-Evaluation Worksheet that will help you to evaluate your program’s readiness to effectively implement the Teacher Induction Pathway presented in the Adult Education Teacher Induction Toolkit. 

American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Literacy Information and Communication System (LINCS). (2015). Promoting teacher effectiveness: Conditions for success in teacher induction. https://lincs.ed.gov/publications/te/conditions.pdf  

 
Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development

This article reviews empirical articles published over the past two decades to determine what and how student teaching experiences contribute to preservice teachers’ development. While keeping this central focus, the article also considers the implications of student teaching for the schools that play host to it and for the students who attend those schools.

Anderson, L. M., & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development A Review of Research Focused on the Preparation of Teachers for Urban and High-Needs Contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.

Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs.

This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.

Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education17(3), 43-53.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources.

This Research & Policy Brief addresses the aspect of the teacher support system that is perhaps the most important and often the most weakly implemented: teacher learning and development.

Archibald, S., Coggshall, J. G., Croft, A., & Goe, L. (2011). High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/docs/HighQualityProfessionalDevelopment.pdf

 
How effective are National Board-Certified teachers?

Are teachers who achieve National Board for Professional Teaching Standards certification more effective than their noncertified peers?

ASCD. (2004, April 13). How effective are National Board-Certified teachers? http://www.ascd.org/publications/researchbrief/v2n08/toc.aspx

 

 
Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior

Significant dollars are spent each school year on professional development programs to improve teachers’ effectiveness. This study assessed the integrity with which pre-service teachers used a differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) strategy taught to them during their student teaching experience.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

The affirmation of the scientist-practitioner: A look back at Boulder.

Discusses the coming professionalization of psychology after World War II with the synthesis of the Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology in 1949.

Baker, D. B., & Benjamin Jr, L. T. (2000). The affirmation of the scientist-practitioner: A look back at Boulder. American Psychologist55(2), 241.

Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education.

This study examined results associated with a field-based undergraduate early childhood teacher education program designed as a response to calls for enhanced field experiences and community-situated teacher education that narrows the preparation-to-practice gap.

Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In G. Sykes & L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3–32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~dkcohen/downloads/developingpractice.pdf

 
Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence?

Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed. 

Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record102(1), 5-27.

Did you know? Your school’s PLCs have a major impact. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences International

Researchers at Learning Sciences International wanted to take a closer look at the impact PLCs have on the schools we work with. We hoped to tease out answers to two related questions about PLCs. When PLCs are working at optimum levels, what is their relationship to student achievement? Secondly, do cohesive and focused high-functioning PLCs have any impact on teacher morale?

Basileo, L. D. (2016). Did you know? Your school’s PLCs have a major impact. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences International. https://www.learningsciences.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Did-You-Know-Your-School%E2%80%99s-PLCs-Have-an-Outsized-Impact.pdf

 
From good to great: Exemplary teachers share perspectives on increasing teacher effectiveness across the career continuum.

The main body of the report takes readers through the four stages that this study used to define the teacher career continuum: Preservice, Novice, Career, and Teacher Leader stages.

Behrstock-Sherratt, E., Bassett, K., Olson, D., & Jacques, C. (2014). From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum. Center on Great Teachers and Leaders.

Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas.

This study examines the impact of a nationally disseminated professional development program, Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI), on teachers' specialized knowledge for teaching mathematics and illustrates how such research could be conducted.

Bell, C. A., Wilson, S. M., Higgins, T., & McCoach, D. B. (2010). Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5): 479–512. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Courtney_Bell5/publication/268429188_Measuring_the_Effects_of_Professional_Development_on_Teacher_Knowledge_The_Case_of_Developing_Mathematical_Ideas/links/54f5c6310cf21d8b8a5b791b.pdf

 
Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind.

As part of a federally funded study of NCLB, RAND Corporation researchers, in collaboration with researchers from the American Institutes for Research, analyzed the progress that states, districts, and schools have made in implementing the teacher qualification provisions of NCLB through the 2004–2005 school year. 

Birman, B., Le Floch, K., Klekotka, A., Ludwig, M., Taylor, J., Walters, K…..O’Day, J. (2007). Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9287.html

 
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look

The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.

Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education

The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders

The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) was awarded a grant from the
National Science Foundation to conduct a meta analysis study with the goal of providing
state and local education leaders with scientifically-based evidence regarding the effects of
teacher professional development on improving student learning. 

Blank, R. K., and de las Alas, N. (2009). The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544700.pdf

Effects of the Missouri Career Ladder program on teacher mobility.

This paper seeks to estimate the effect that Career Leader (CL) program has had on teachers’ career decisions, specifically their decisions to stay in a specific school district or to remain in the teaching field.

Booker, K., & Glazerman, S. (2009). Effects of the Missouri Career Ladder program on teacher mobility. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507470.pdf

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

What Do We Know About Principal Preparation, Licensure Requirements, and Professional Development for School Leaders?

CEELO reviewed data on 21 states’ principal licensure requirements, conducted structured interviews with experts on principal preparation and professional development in 7 states, and spoke with staff at the National Association of Elementary School Principals and the National Institute for School Leadership.

Brown, K. C., Squires, J., Connors-Tadros, L., & Horowitz, M. (2014). What do we know about principal preparation, licensure requirements, and professional development for school leaders. New Brunswick, NJ: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes.

Professional community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences.

Using data from a large urban school district, this article tests the impact of structural, human, and social factors on the emergence of school-based professional community and examines the extent to which such developments in turn promote learning and experimentation among faculty

Bryk, A., Camburn, E., & Louis, K. S. (1999). Professional community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(5), 751–781. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karen_Louis/publication/249684711_Professional_Community_in_Chicago_Elementary_Schools_Facilitating_Factors_and_Organizational_Consequences/links/5845de4f08ae8e63e6286a05/Professional-Community-in-Chicago-Elementary-Schools-Facilitating-Factors-and-Organizational-Consequences.pdf

 

 
Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States.

This report tells policymakers what metrics they must track in order to make the best decisions regarding the supply and training of school leaders.

Campbell, C., & Gross, B. (2012). Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Why education experts resist effective practice: Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation

This essay provides examples from reading and math curricula, describes how experts have, for ideological reasons, shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy, then examines how public impatience has forced other professions to “grow up” and accept accountability and scientific evidence. 

Carnine, D. (2000). Why education experts resist effective practices (Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation.

Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts

This document includes the excerpts of five articles that provide a substantial evidence-based argument for the power of collaborative communities to improve teaching and learning. 

Carroll, T., Fulton, K., & Doerr, H. (Eds.) (2010). Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED512177

 
The Performance Effect of Feedback Frequency and Detail: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Customer Satisfaction

This paper presents the results from a field experiment that examines the effects of nonfinancial performance feedback on the behavior of professionals working for an insurance repair company.

Casas‐Arce, P. A. B. L. O., Lourenço, S. M., & MARTÍNEZ‐JEREZ, F. A. (2017). The performance effect of feedback frequency and detail: Evidence from a field experiment in customer satisfaction. Journal of Accounting Research55(5), 1051-1088.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning

This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual and contextual factors.

Clandinin, D. J., Long, J., Schaefer, L., Downey, C. A., Steeves, P., Pinnegar, E., ... & Wnuk, S. (2015). Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning. Teaching Education26(1), 1-16.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation.

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service

Teacher Professional Development

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Professional Development (Inservice). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service.

Research on Methods Courses and Field Experiences

This chapter from "Studying Teacher Education"  focus on the research procedures and the impact claims of researchers who study the complex phenomenon commonly labeled as a methods course or a teacher-
education-related field experience in a school or community. 

Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education309424.

Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices.

This study aimed to look into this by asking, “Which features of high quality online professional development were noted by participating educators in a statewide online teacher professional development program?” A survey was used to collect educators’ voices in this FIP professional development (PD) program.

Collins, L. J., & Liang, X. (2015). Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 6(1), 18–34. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137401.pdf

 
“I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change

This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information. The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC.

Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration39(3), 266–281.

Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching

The framework for teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction that are grounded in a constructivist view of learning and teaching. The framework defines four levels of performance--Unsatisfactory, Basic, Proficient, and Distinguished--for each element, providing a valuable tool that all teachers can use.

Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. ASCD.

Research Review / Teacher Learning: What Matters?

Research shows how schools can create more powerful professional development experiences.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Research review. Teacher learning: What matters? How Teachers Learn, 66(5), 46–53. http://outlier.uchicago.edu/computerscience/OS4CS/landscapestudy/resources/Darling-Hammond-and-Richardson-2009.pdf

 
Effective teacher development.

This paper reviews 35 methodologically rigorous studies that have demonstrated a positive link between teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student outcomes. 

 

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Effective_Teacher_Professional_Development_REPORT.pdf

 
Going Virtual! 2010: The status of professional development and unique needs of K–12 online teachers.

Going Virtual! 2010 is a follow-up report to the Going Virtual! Research series started in 2007. The purpose of the series is to describe current trends on the status of professional development for K-12 online teachers, as well as identify the unique needs and challenges faced by these instructors.

Dawley, L., Rice, K., & Hinck, G. (2010). Going Virtual! 2010: The status of professional development and unique needs of K–12 online teachers. Boise, ID: Boise State University. https://aurora-institute.org/wp-content/uploads/goingvirtual3.pdf

 
Professional development for K–12 online teachers.

This chapter provides a survey of what is known about professional development for both brick and mortar and online teachers and uses this knowledge as a springboard to suggest policy and research implication of professional development and K-12 online teacher. 

Dawson, K., & Dana, N. F. (2018b). Professional development for K–12 online teachers. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 247–260). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf

Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation

Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. 

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18,105–115.

Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualization and measures.

This article offers ideas to improve the quality of inquiry into teacher learning, one of the most critical targets of education reform. 

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualization and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181–199.

Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States

This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD) in the United States (U.S.).

Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015).Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States. Psychology, Society, and Education, 7(3), 252-263. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/31ff/d06b4df5bb399f782d3985f17311d2bc44ae.pdf

Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City

This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.

Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.

Impact of In-Service Professional Development Programs for Early Childhood Teachers on Quality Ratings and Child Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines the impact of professional development on program quality and educational outcomes for children in early childhood programs. The study attempts to answer three questions: (1) evaluate the impact of in-service programs for early childhood professional development, (2) identify program characteristics that moderate the effects of training on quality of service, and (3) identify the links between in-service training to childhood outcomes. 

Egert, F., Fukkink, R. G., & Eckhardt, A. G. (2018). Impact of in-service professional development programs for early childhood teachers on quality ratings and child outcomes: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 88(3), 401-433.

Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature

This paper draws upon a structured analysis of over 300 research-based papers on mentoring across three discipline areas in an attempt to make more valid inferences about the nature and outcomes of mentoring.

Ehrich, L. C., Hansford, B., & Tennent, L. (2004). Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature. Educational administration quarterly40(4), 518-540.

Exploring the Nature of Implementation of Principal Professional Development Programs: What are Mechanisms for School Change?

This paper explores the implementation of a professional development program (PDP) for school principals. Two methods for measuring fidelity of implementation of the PDP are examined

exploring the nature of implementatiion

Tapping The Potential: Retaining And Developing High-Quality New Teachers

This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.

Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Administrator career paths and decision processes: Evidence from Delaware

The purpose of this paper is to present qualitative evidence on the processes and forces that shape school administrator career paths.

Farley-Ripple E. N., Raffel, J. A., & Welch, J. C. (2012). Administrator career paths and decision processes: Evidence from Delaware. Journal of Educational Administration50(6), 788–816.

A Conceptual Review of Literature on New Teacher Induction.

This paper reports the results of a literature review on the subject of beginning teacher induction, presenting a conceptually oriented discussion of the induction literature.

Feiman-Nemser, S., Schwille, S., Carver, C., & Yusko, B. (1999). A Conceptual Review of Literature on New Teacher Induction.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation.

This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face. 

Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.

Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and the foundation of education.

Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers. 

Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.

Critical thinking for helping professionals: A skills-based workbook

This workbook provides exercises for improving the decision-making of helping professionals.

Gambrill, E., & Gibbs, L. (2009). Critical thinking for helping professionals: A skills-based workbook. Oxford University Press on Demand. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=RsITDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=Gambrill+Critical+Thinking&ots=MREzsHeI5n&sig=L5KzgI1WBdNU2O3n9tlu2e18sF4

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers.

This study uses a national probability sample of 1,027 mathematics and science teachers to provide the first large-scale empirical comparison of effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers' learning.

Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945. http://www.artsintegrationpd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/What-makes-PD-effective-Garet_et_al.pdf

Redefining Accountability to Treat Teachers and Leaders Like the Professionals They Are

The Every Student Succeeds Act creates opportunities for policymakers to re-imagine accountability in schools—and not only by incorporating additional measures of student success into outcome-based accountability regimes.

Gill, B. (2017). Redefining Accountability to Treat Teachers and Leaders Like the Professionals They Are. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/04/13/redefining-accountability-to-treat-teachers-and-leaders-like-the-professionals-they-are/

Professional Accountability as a Tool for Continuous Improvement in the Age of ESSA

The current paper describes how policymakers and educators might employ professional accountability to address professional practice, using examples from schools that are already doing so.

Gill, B. P., (2017). Professional Accountability as a Tool for Continuous Improvement in the Age of ESSA. Retrieved from https://aefpweb.org/sites/default/files/webform/42/professional%20accountability%20for%20AEFP.pdf

Chock Full of Data: How School Districts Are Building Leader Tracking Systems to Support Principal Pipelines. Stories from the Field

This Story From the Field examines how Denver and five other school districts have constructed and are using these systems as they seek to better train, hire and support school principals.

Gill, J. (2016). Chock Full of Data: How School Districts Are Building Leader Tracking Systems to Support Principal Pipelines. Stories from the Field. Wallace Foundation.

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Results from the frst year of a randomized controlled study

The study examines whether comprehensive teacher induction programs lead to higher teacher retention rates and other positive teacher and student outcomes as compared to prevailing, generally less comprehensive approaches to supporting new teachers

Glazerman, S., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Isenberg, E., Lugo-Gil, J., ... & Ali, M. (2008). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4034. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Final results from a randomized controlled study

To evaluate the impact of comprehensive teacher induction relative to the usual induction support, the authors conducted a randomized experiment in a set of districts that were not already implementing comprehensive induction.

Glazerman, S., Isenberg, E., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Grider, M., & Jacobus, M. (2010). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Can teacher quality be effectively assessed?

In this paper, we describe the results of the first large-scale study, based on a unique data set from North Carolina, assessing the relationship between the certification of teachers by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and elementary level student achievement

Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2004). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington. https://m.cedr.us/papers/value/2007-Can%20Teacher%20Quality.pdf

Creating a new teacher profession

Considering that having a quality teacher is the foremost in-school predictor of students' success, ensuring teacher excellence is vital to the nation's educational system. In "Creating a New Teaching Profession," diverse scholars assess the state of human capital development in the teaching profession today and how to progress.

Goldhaber, D., & Hannaway, J. (2009). Creating a New Teaching Profession. Urban Institute Press. 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.

Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?

In this paper we examine the mobility of early-career teachers of varying quality, measured using value-added estimates of teacher performance.

Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2011). Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management30(1), 57-87.

Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools

An analysis by The New York Times of the city’s signature report-card system shows that schools run by graduates of the celebrated New York City Leadership Academy — which the mayor created and helped raise more than $80 million for — have not done as well as those led by experienced principals or new principals who came through traditional routes.

Gootman, E., Gebeloff, R. (2009). Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/26/nyregion/26principals.html

Toward a theory of teacher community.

The authors use their experience with a professional development project to propose a model of teacher community in the workplace. They describe a project that brought together 22 English and social studies teachers (and a special education and ESL teacher) from an urban high school over a period of 2 1/2 years.

Grossman, P., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 942–1012. https://stacks.stanford.edu/file/druid:ch289xy7677/Grossman-Wineburg-Woolworth.pdf

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12

This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.

Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.

Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership and professional development.

This study will discuss a guiding definition for blended learning, benefits, team support, policy, management issues, rationale for expansion, professional development, purchasing, funding, evaluation, and lenses of the future and implications.

Hilliard, A. T. (2015). Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership and professional development. Journal of International Education Research11(3), 179–188. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1070786.pdf

A New Definition

NSDC opens the door to professional learning that ensures great teaching for every student every day

Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.

Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development

The authors report an investigation of a five-step structured study-group approach to promoting a self-sustaining learning community that supports teachers in developing the ‘habits of mind’ necessary for improving literacy acquisition and development for urban African American students attending a low-performing, high-poverty elementary school. 

Hollins, E. R., McIntyre, L. R., DeBose, C., Hollins, K. S., & Towner, A. (2004). Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(2), 247–264.

 
Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement.

This paper defines and describes what is meant by "professional learning community"; describes what happens when a school staff studies, works, plans, and takes action collectively on behalf of increased learning for students; and discusses what is known about creating such communities of professionals in schools.

Hord, S. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410659.pdf

Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong.

This study have sought to investigate teacher success in Hong Kong. The study aims to achieve the following objectives: to acquire an initial understanding of how Hong Kong teachers conceptualize teacher success, to identify the factors hindering teacher success; to study the relationship between professional development and teacher success.

Hung, C. M., Oi, A. K., Chee, P. K., & Man, C. L. (2007). Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong. In Handbook of teacher education (pp. 415-432). Springer, Dordrecht.

The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says

This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid 1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs— collectively known as induction — for beginning teachers.

Ingersoll, R., & Kralik, J. M. (2004). The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says. GSE Publications, 127.

Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072.

This research evaluated the impact of structured and intensive teacher induction programs over a three-year time period, beginning when teachers first enter the teaching profession. The current report presents findings from the second year of the evaluation and a future report will present findings from the third and final year.

Isenberg, E., Glazerman, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Lugo-Gil, J., Grider, M., ... & Britton, E. (2009). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

This paper describes “how” to effectively implement lasting school improvement initiatives that maximize leadership, develop talent, amplify instructional transformation, and shift the culture.

Jackson, K., R., Fixsen, D., and Ward, C. (2018). Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development

This piece describes the widely held perception among education leaders that we already  know how to help teachers improve, and that we could achieve our goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if we just applied what we know more widely. 

Jacob, A., & McGovern, K. (2015). The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development. Brooklyn, NY: TNTP. https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP-Mirage_2015.pdf.

 

Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions.

This article reports on a longitudinal study designed to explore these questions. In 1999, researchers from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers selected and interviewed a diverse group of 50 new teachers in the Massachusetts public schools.

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal40(3), 581-617.

How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement.

the authors build on this body of work by further examining how working conditions predict both teachers‘ job satisfaction and their career plans.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record114(10), 1-39.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction

This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.  

Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge.

The authors introduce Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) as a way of representing what teachers need to know about technology and argue for the role of authentic design-based activities in the development of this knowledge.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2) 131–152. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.983.6956&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer

This article discusses differences that are hypothesized to exist between hard‐ (technical) and soft‐ (intrapersonal and interpersonal) skills training that we believe impact the degree of training transfer achieved. 

Laker, D. R., & Powell, J. L. (2011). The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(1), 111-122.

Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game.

This study examines the impact of a Teacher Versus Student Game, a program that is based upon The Good Behavior Game (GBG). This paper found that the game increased teachers rates of praise; however, the teachers gradually decreased their use of BSP over time.

 

Lastrapes, R. E., Fritz, J. N., and Hasson, R. C., (2019). Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game. Retrieved from Researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331178227_Increasing_Teachers%27_Use_of_Behavior-Specific_Praise_with_the_Teacher_vs_Student_Game

 

The missing link in school reform.

In trying to improve American public schools, educators, policymakers, and philanthropists are overselling the role of the highly skilled individual teacher and undervaluing the benefits that come from teacher collaborations that strengthen skills, competence, and a school’s overall social capital.

Leana, C. (2011). The missing link in school reform. Stanford Social Innovation Review.https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_missing_link_in_school_reform

 
Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools

In this paper we examine social capital and its relationship with performance at the organizational level.

Leana, C., & Pil, F. (2006). Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools. Organization Science, 17(3), 353–366.

 
Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between principal leadership, dimensions of school capacity, and teacher professional learning in 32 Hong Kong primary schools.

Li, L., Hallinger, P., & Ko, J. (2016). Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management30(1), 76-100.

Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice.

This paper draws on intensive case studies of teacher knowledge, practice, and learning among teachers of mathematics and English in two high schools to take up the problem of how classroom teaching practice comes to be known, shared, and developed among teachers through their out-of-classroom interactions.

Little, J. W. (2003). Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 913–945. 

 
Effective schools: Teacher hiring, assignment, development, and retention

In this paper, the authors use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school’s effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development and retention of its teachers.

Loeb, S., Béteille, T., & Kalogrides, D. (2012). Effective schools: Teacher hiring, assignment, development, and retention. Education Finance and Policy7(3), 269–304.

Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools.

This paper reports findings of a study that is grounded in the assumption that the ways in which teachers interact outside their classrooms may be critical to the future of school restructuring and the effects of restructuring on students.

Louis, K. S., Marks, H. M., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 757–798. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED381871.pdf

Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L., & Jabot, M. (2012). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don’t Know, and Must Learn Soon! In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 65-89). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance

This study investigates teacher empowerment in schools that have at least four years of experience with some form of decentralized or school-based management. 

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational evaluation and policy analysis19(3), 245-275.

Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching

The authors show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops. 

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Ascd.

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Principals in the Pipeline

This paper describe four essential elements of effective principals: principal standards, high-quality training, selective hiring, and a combination of solid on-the-job support and performance evaluation, especially for new hires.

Mendels, P. (2012). Principals in the pipeline. The Learning Professional33(3), 48.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Why Professional Development Matters

Th is publication is an eff ort to answer basic questions and to inform and engage more people in strengthening the quality and improving the results of professional development.

Mizell, H. (2010). Why professional development matters. Oxford, OH: Learning Forward. https://learningforward.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/professional-development-matters.pdf

 
Professional standards for educational leaders

This book introduces the foundations of the recently revised professional educational leadership standards and provides an in-depth explanation and application of each one.

Murphy, J. F. (2016). Professional standards for educational leaders: The empirical, moral, and experiential foundations. Corwin Press.

Enhancing professional development for teachers: Potential uses of information technology. Report of a Workshop.

The book recommends that federal and state policy makers take on the responsibility of promoting equal access to technology while the federal government and foundations play an important role by supporting the development, evaluation, and revision of OTPD.

National Research Council. (2007). Enhancing professional development for teachers: Potential uses of information technology. Report of a Workshop. Committee on Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers, National Academies Teacher Advisory Council. Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/read/11995/chapter/1 

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Counting the cost: A commitment to educational equity that yields results.

NTC's most recent report explores: 1) The impact on teacher retention rates, 2) Expected months of additional learning for students and potential of lifetime earnings, 3) Districts' expected savings on this investment. 4) Long-term economic impact of students and in their communities.

New Teacher Center (2019). Counting the cost: A commitment to educational equity that yields results. Santa Cruz, CA: Author. https://info.newteachercenter.org/Counting-the-Cost

 
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization

No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)

The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children.

In this article, implementation is proposed as the link between evidence-based practices and positive outcomes. Strategies for promoting implementation through “enlightened professional development” are proposed.

Odom, S. L. (2009). The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education29(1), 53-61.

Meeting the highly qualifed teachers challenge: The secretary’s annual report on teacher quality.

Under the 1998 reauthorization of Title II of the Higher Education Act, the secretary of education is required to issue annual reports to Congress on the state of teacher quality nationwide. "Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge" is the inaugural report on this important issue.

Paige, R. (2002). Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge: The Secretary's Annual Report on Teacher Quality. US Department of Education.

What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs

This policy report provides a look at the decline in the enrollment of American teacher preparation programs, along with potential consequences for schools and the student they serve. 

Partelow, L. (2019). What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2019/12/03/477311/make-declining-enrollment-teacher-preparation-programs/

Powerful learning: Creating learning communities in urban school reform. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision

This article focuses on the response of one urban middle school to a major school reform initiative.

Phillips, J. (2003). Powerful learning: Creating learning communities in urban school reform. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(3), 240–258. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~coesyl-p/principle7-article2.pdf

The influence of salary in attracting and retaining school leaders.

This article examines the salary trajectory of teachers as they move up the career ladder into leadership positions.

Pijanowski, J. C., & Brady, K. P. (2009). The influence of salary in attracting and retaining school leaders. Education and Urban Society42(1), 25–41.

Linking professional development, teacher outcomes, and student achievement: The case of a learner-centered mathematics program for elementary school teachers.

This study examined the influence of three year-long cohorts of elementary school teachers' participating in a learner-centered mathematics professional development program.

Polly, D., McGee, J., Wang, C., Martin, C., Lambert, R., & Pugalee, D. K. (2015). Linking professional development, teacher outcomes, and student achievement: The case of a learner-centered mathematics program for elementary school teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 26–37. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883035515000282

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Career paths of beginning school teachers: Results for the first through fifth waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study

This report examines the career paths of beginning public school teachers and how these career paths vary by characteristics during the teachers' first year of teaching and most recent year of teaching. 

Raue, K., & Gray, L. (2015). Career Paths of Beginning Public School Teachers: Results from the First through Fifth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-196. National Center for Education Statistics.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).

Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

Growing Great Teachers: How School System Leaders Can Use Existing Resources to Better Develop, Support, and Retain New Teachers--and Improve Student Outcomes

The authors use research-based "impact modeling" to show how a strategic approach to recruiting and supporting rookie teachers could yield as much as 4.2 extra months of student learning. We provide 5 recommendations for school systems to leverage their investment in structures that provide rookie teachers with both shelter and development.

Rosenberg, D., & Miles, K.H. (2018). Growing Great Teachers: How School System Leaders Can Use Existing Resources to Better Develop, Support, and Retain New Teachers--and Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED593368.pdf

Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics

This Statistics in Brief provides a snapshot of the state of teacher professional development activities among U.S. public school teachers using data collected through the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Public School Teacher Questionnaire.

Rotermund, S., DeRoche, J., & Ottem, R. (2017). Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics, 2011–12 (NCES 2017-200). Stats in Brief. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED573871.pdf

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of National Board Certification.

This study examines how mathematics and science teachers' classroom assessment
practices were affected by the National Board Certification process.

Sato, M., Wei, R. C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of National Board Certification. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 669–700. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.872.5162&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?

This article discuss how "Micro-Credentialing" offer an opportunity to shift away from credit-hour and continuing-education requirements that dominate the PD apparatus in most states, toward a system based on evidence of progress in specific instructional skills.

Sawchuk, S. (2016). Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.nysed.gov/common/nysed/files/principal-project-phase-2-micro-credentials-edweek.pdf

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

Principal compensation and performance incentives. Guide to implementation: Resources for applied practice.

This module will not focus on the empirical challenges to developing measures of principal effectiveness and their accompanying reward systems, but rather will focus on what is known and will provide guidance on those issues upon which there is agreement.

Schuermann, P. J., Guthrie, J. W., Prince, C. D., & Witham, P. J. (2009). Principal compensation and performance incentives. Guide to implementation: Resources for applied practice. Washington, DC: Center for Educator Compensation Reform, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://www.tifcommunity.org/sites/default/files/resources/prin_comp_incentives.pdf

How Personalized Learning Can Support Equity and Excellence

In our day-to-day roles as a school system leader and the CEO of the nonprofit curriculum publisher Zearn, we focus on the moments of learning that occur between students and teachers—and on how personalized learning can make those moments richer and more frequent. 

Sharma, S., & Kockler, R. (2018). How Personalized Learning Can Support Equity and Excellence. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/how-personalized-learning-can-support-equity-excellence-problem-solving/

What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?

This study examines whether such programs - collectively known as induction - have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers.

Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?. American educational research journal41(3), 681-714.

The hidden costs of teacher turnover.

High teacher turnover imposes numerous burdens on the schools and districts from which teachers depart. Some of these burdens are explicit and take the form of recruiting, hiring, and training costs. Others are more hidden and take the form of changes to the composition and quality of the teaching staff. This study focuses on the latter. 

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working paper 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2332858420905812

 
Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Promoting a collaborative professional culture in three elementary schools that have beaten the odds

This 3-year study examined the dynamics of school culture in 3 elementary schools that
have beaten the odds in improving low-income and minority student achievement.

Strahan, D. (2003). Promoting a collaborative professional culture in three elementary schools that have beaten the odds. Elementary School Journal, 104(2), 127–146.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look

The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. 

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 201516 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction
The main aim of this report is to identify and map studies that will shed light on the impact of induction programmes on teacher performance, career development and retention rates.

Totterdell, M., Bubb, S., Woodroffe, L., & Hanrahan, K. (2004). The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction. Research evidence in education library.

Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust.

The hypothesis that guided this study was that the degree of teacher professionalism in a school would be related to (a) the professional orientation of principals in their exercise of administrative authority—especially, the extending of adaptive discretion to teachers in the conduct of their work—and (b) the trust evident among various actors in the school community.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly45(2), 217-247.

Designing Online Communities of Practice for Educators to Create Value

The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this report that details the results of exploratory research on how to design and manage online communities of practice for educators.

 

U.S. Department of Education. (2014, April). Designing Online Communities of Practice for Educators to Create Value. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Exploratory-Research-on-Designing-Online-Communities-FINAL.pdf.

A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms

A year-long researcher-teacher professional development group with a next-year followup was conducted with seven general education teachers from two elementary schools in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. The components of successful professional development programs are discussed and implications for teacher education are offered. 

Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., Schumm, J. S., & Klingner, J. (1998). A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms. Learning disability quarterly21(1), 57-74.

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and five-year rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers.

This study describes a benefit-cost analysis of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers conducted in a medium-sized California school district.

Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and fiveyear rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum25(3), 1-17.

Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development

In a randomized control study, Head Start teachers were assigned to either an intervention group that received intensive, ongoing professional development (PD) or to a comparison group that received the “business as usual” PD provided by Head Start. The PD intervention provided teachers with conceptual knowledge and instructional strategies that support young children’s development of vocabulary, alpha- bet knowledge, and phonological sensitivity.

Wasik, B. A., & Hindman, A. H. (2011). Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 455.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

WWC Examines the Evidence on Two Teacher Training Programs

If teachers are to have a significant impact on student learning it is necessary for them to be well trained and prepared for the role of teacher.  This report examined the effectiveness of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and My TeachingPartner Pre-K.  The NBPTS is a professional certification program for teachers that have taught at least three years and can meet the NBPTS standards.  My TeachingPartner Pre-K incorporates multiple media and coaching to prepare early education teachers.  The results of the What Works Clearinghouse review of NBPTS is that it had mixed effects in mathematics in grades 3-8 and no discernable effect on English language arts achievement.  There were no studies that met WWC standards for review so no judgment can be made about its effectiveness.  The results of this review highlight the necessity of evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training programs.  The stakes are very high for the students and families being served by teachers and nationally very large amount of money is spent on training teachers.  It would be nice to know which approaches to teacher professional development are effective and which have no beneficial effect.

What Works Clearinghouse, Institute for Education Science (2018).  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification Intervention Report. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/InterventionReport/689

A review of literature on beginning teacher induction.

This review of teacher induction4 literature is designed to summarize current research on the practices, policies, and programs intentionally developed to support novice teachers.

Whisnant, E., Elliott, K., & Pynchon, S. (2005). A review of literature on beginning teacher induction. Center for Strengthening the teaching profession.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

Using Implementation Intentions to Teach Practitioners: Changing Practice Behaviors via Continuing Education
This study evaluates the effectiveness of implementation on increasing the use of a practice behavior who attended a one-day continuing education class.
Casper, E. (2008). Using implementation intentions to teach practitioners: Changing practice behaviors via continuing education. Psychiatric Services, 59(7), 747-752.
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Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
This organization develops and delivers innovative programs, products, and services to educators in support student learners with a focus on professional development support.
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
Resources Toolkit for New Teachers

This section of the Edutopia website provides new teachers with resources for becoming an effective classroom teacher.

Steps: Student Training and Education in Public Service
How to Survive Your First Year Teaching

Do’s and don’ts, resources, and expert advice on how to navigate challenges as a new teacher and make the successful transition from college to classroom.

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