Education Drivers

Professional Development

The American education system values in-service training to improve teacher performance, spending an average of $18,000 annually per teacher. Like many promising practices, it has failed to produce as promised. Schools invest extensively in teacher induction in the early years of a teacher, supplemented with in-service training throughout the teacher’s career. Unfortunately, this training is often delivered in unproductive ways, for example, workshop sessions that commonly rely on passive didactic techniques, such as lecturing or reading, shown to have minimal or no impact on the teacher’s use of the practices in the classroom. This is especially true when the outcome, using the practices in the classroom, is assessed. Coaching-based clinical training, with the teacher practicing skills on students in a classroom setting and receiving feedback from the coach, has been found to produce the best results. Sustained professional development with scope and sequence curriculum, accompanied by manuals for interventions in which the teacher is being trained, is superior to single events. Computer-assisted instruction as a companion to systematic training techniques identified above has been found to be a cost-effective adjunct staff development tool.

Publications

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Coaching Overview

Coaching teachers is an established professional development practice in schools and has been a focus of research (Wood, Goodnight, Bethune, Preston, & Cleaver, 2016). Teacher coaching is a method of professional development that incorporates providing feedback and support, often through modeling of a focused practice and classroom observations followed by reflection conversations (Raney & Robbins, 1989; Wesley & Buysse, 2006). The goal is to change teacher behavior with the ultimate goal of improving student achievement.

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

 

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L., & Jabot, M. (2012). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don’t Know, and Must Learn Soon! In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 65-89). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2013WingSummitSF.pdf.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/Accountability%20and%20Autonomy.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
Does the use of coaching as a professional development strategy improve student performance?
This review examines research on the effectiveness of coaching as a teacher training tool that can improve student performance.
States, J. (2011). Does the use of coaching as a professional development strategy improve student performance? Retrieved from does-use-of-coaching.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L. (2010). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-larry-maheady.

Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training
Staff training is often seen as the solution to all performance problems. This paper discusses the choices that have to be made when designing effective staff training.
Detrich, R. (2007). A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-decision-matrix-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-suzanne-fitch.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evaluating a Multimedia Professional Development Package for Improving Implementation of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices

Three 8th grade English teachers participated in this single-case multiple baseline experiment. These teachers were observed daily during classes that were inclusive to students with disabilities. Observations were conducted using the Classroom Teaching Scan (www.classroomteachingscan.com/ctscan/). Within the Classroom Teaching Scan, a checklist of quality indicators for modeling was the primary dependent variable. Additionally, observations were scored using the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observations (PLATO, 2017). Participating students responded to curriculum-based measurement writing prompts throughout the study.

Minor changes in performance on the PLATO and CBM measures were demonstrated. However, these measures were descriptive in nature, not experimental. Therefore, more research over a sustained period of time is necessary to determine the effect of this professional development package on distal measures of teacher quality and student outcomes.

Elwood, J.R. (2017). Evaluating a Multimedia Professional Development Package for Improving Implementation of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices:Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org.

 

Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices.

The primary research questions that drove this study are as follows: (1) To what extent can PBPD help teachers gain knowledge and implement EBCM practices? (2) To what extent does teachers’ use of EBCM practices maintain after the PBPD? (3) To what extent does student engagement increase after a teacher attended EBCM PBPD? (4) To what extent do self-reports of novice teacher efficacy and burnout change after completing EBCM PBPD?

Hirsch, S.E. (2015). Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices. Retrieved from student-research-2015.

Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond.
This study evaluated a multi-tiered system of support for teachers to increase the rate of teacher presented opportunities to respond.
MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2012). Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond. Retrieved from student-research-2012.
Descriptive analysis of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices.
This study identified four mechanisms for effective coaching: (1) prompting (2) fluency building (3) performance feedback (4) adaptation. Teams receiving training after initial training sustained or improved their level of implementation of SWPBIS.
Massar, M. (2014). Descriptive analysis of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices. Retrieved from student-research-2014.
Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures.
This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training and coaching to help new teachers implemented empirically supported practices. Also, evaluated was the quality of implementation (treatment integrity) as function of coaching.
Sawyer, M. (2013). Effects of behavioral skills training and instruction coaching on teachers’ implementation of empirically supported procedures. Retrieved from student-research-2013.
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Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.

This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).  It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.

Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

The Future Ready District: Professional Learning Through Online Communities of Practice and Social Networks to Drive Continuous Improvement

The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this brief that summarizes research on the role of online communities of practice and social networks in supporting the professional performance of educators.

U.S. Department of Education. (2014, November). The Future Ready District: Professional Learning Through Online Communities of Practice and Social Networks to Drive Continuous Improvement. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Section7-FutureReadyDistrictBrief-Final.pdf.

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. The author defines coaching as the assistance given to a teacher to improve on teaching practices in order to improve student learning. Considering types of coaching models implemented across the United States, the author's inquiry was based on three questions: (1) Is there a difference in student achievement between teachers who are coached and those who aren't?; (2) What is coaching like for teachers, and why does coaching make a difference?; and (3) What coaching model is best and why? The study found five important attributes that should be embedded in all coaching experiences. The coach needs: (1) people skills and a good working relationship with the teacher; (2) to focus on the personal development of each teacher versus rote implementation of programs; (3) time to be available to each teacher; (4) the ability to help teachers understand the use of data to plan instruction; and (5) to focus the coaching work in each school in a side-by-side setting.

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education has called for strengthening teacher preparation by incorporating more fieldwork. Supervision with effective instructional feedback is an essential component of meaningful fieldwork, and immediate feedback has proven more efficacious than delayed feedback. Rock and her colleagues have developed the wireless Bug-in-Ear (BIE) system to provide immediate, online feedback from a remote location (electronic coaching or e-coaching), and they have pioneered the use of BIE e-coaching (BIE2 coaching) in coaching teachers in graduate education. Other research has also documented successful use of the BIE system with teachers. This case study explored the use of the BIE tool for undergraduate student teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. The findings provide support for the use of BIE2 coaching as tool for undergraduate student teacher supervision, based on the changed behaviors during reading instruction exhibited by two out of three student teacher participants. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development

This article reviews empirical articles published over the past two decades to determine what and how student teaching experiences contribute to preservice teachers’ development. While keeping this central focus, the article also considers the implications of student teaching for the schools that play host to it and for the students who attend those schools.

Anderson, L. M., & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development A Review of Research Focused on the Preparation of Teachers for Urban and High-Needs Contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.

Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior

Significant dollars are spent each school year on professional development programs to improve teachers’ effectiveness. This study assessed the integrity with which pre-service teachers used a differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) strategy taught to them during their student teaching experience.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions to different situations. In addition, this study examined the effects of function-based interventions on students’ problem and replacement behaviors. After an initial training on functional behavior assessment and implementation of function-based interventions, the experimenter coached each teacher. Results indicated a functional relationship between coaching and an increase in teacher fidelity scores. Teachers generalized the strategies to other situations with the target students. Although some improvement in student behavior was noted upon teachers’ use of function-based interventions without coaching, this improvement was not consistent for all students and across the replacement behaviors. A functional relationship was found between accurate implementation of the function-based interventions and an increase in the students’ primary replacement behaviors.

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look

The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.

Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. It then suggests some important directions and strategies for extending our knowledge into new territory of questions not yet explored.

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

The Performance Effect of Feedback Frequency and Detail: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Customer Satisfaction

This paper presents the results from a field experiment that examines the effects of nonfinancial performance feedback on the behavior of professionals working for an insurance repair company.

Casas‐Arce, P. A. B. L. O., Lourenço, S. M., & MARTÍNEZ‐JEREZ, F. A. (2017). The performance effect of feedback frequency and detail: Evidence from a field experiment in customer satisfaction. Journal of Accounting Research55(5), 1051-1088.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

“I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change

This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information. Participating teachers were involved in a technology demonstration project, the Educators' Electronic Learning Community (EELC). Participants completed pre-interview surveys that had them rate their technological skills and ability to incorporate technology into instruction before and after participating in EELC. The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC; methods used to share learning with colleagues; and factors affecting their ability to share what they learned. Teachers completed a post-interview survey, rating the strength of motivating and restraining factors and ranking their relative importance. Five important barriers to sharing all related to time: feeling overwhelmed; lack of discretionary time to learn; lack of discretionary time to share with colleagues; lack of common time; and lack of a designated time for sharing. Four other aspects of time also hindered learning and dissemination of learning to peers: lack of uninterrupted time; lack of unpressured time; lack of renewal time; and habitual time. 

Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration39(3), 266–281.

Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation

Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. Results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease; whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature are reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward.

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18,105–115.

Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City

This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.

Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.

Impact of In-Service Professional Development Programs for Early Childhood Teachers on Quality Ratings and Child Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines the impact of professional development on program quality and educational outcomes for children in early childhood programs. The study attempts to answer three questions: (1) evaluate the impact of in-service programs for early childhood professional development, (2) identify program characteristics that moderate the effects of training on quality of service, and (3) identify the links between in-service training to childhood outcomes. To be included in this analysis a study must address staff development for early childhood instructors, be a quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental study, and report effect sizes or comparable data. The study reported a positive impact on the quality of services as evidenced by scores on Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation, Environmental Rating Scales, and Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System. A medium effect size of 0.68 was found for improving process outcomes. A second meta-analysis of nine studies provided data on both quality ratings and child development and showed a small effect at child outcomes ES = 0.14. The study found great variances across professional development programs. The researchers established that intensity, duration, and training formats were critical factors in the determination of which programs offering the most effective services. This is not surprising as professional development encompasses a myriad of different practices; some effective and others that produce poor outcomes. This study found programs offering 45-60 hours of training had the greatest impact on process and child outcomes. Programs that offered coaching as an integral component of the training were almost three times as effective as programs that did not.

Egert, F., Fukkink, R. G., & Eckhardt, A. G. (2018). Impact of in-service professional development programs for early childhood teachers on quality ratings and child outcomes: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 88(3), 401-433.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
 
 
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to think alouds in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. The achievement of their students was compared with the achievement of students whose teachers participated in the ongoing professional development but who were not coached. Results indicate that the coached teachers changed their instructional practices and that student achievement improved as a result. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Redefining Accountability to Treat Teachers and Leaders Like the Professionals They Are

The Every Student Succeeds Act creates opportunities for policymakers to re-imagine accountability in schools—and not only by incorporating additional measures of student success into outcome-based accountability regimes.

Gill, B. (2017). Redefining Accountability to Treat Teachers and Leaders Like the Professionals They Are. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/04/13/redefining-accountability-to-treat-teachers-and-leaders-like-the-professionals-they-are/

Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools

An analysis by The New York Times of the city’s signature report-card system shows that schools run by graduates of the celebrated New York City Leadership Academy — which the mayor created and helped raise more than $80 million for — have not done as well as those led by experienced principals or new principals who came through traditional routes.

Gootman, E., Gebeloff, R. (2009). Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/26/nyregion/26principals.html

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12

This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.

Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.

Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

The National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) and the National Center for School Turnaround published the “Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework” as a companion to the Center for School Turnaround’s publication of “The Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: A Systems Framework“. This paper describes “how” to effectively implement lasting school improvement initiatives that maximize leadership, develop talent, amplify instructional transformation, and shift the culture.

Jackson, K., R., Fixsen, D., and Ward, C. (2018). Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development

This piece describes the widely held perception among education leaders that we already  know how to help teachers improve, and that we could achieve our goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if we just applied what we know more widely. Our research suggests that despite enormous and admirable investments of time and money, we are much further from that goal than has been acknowledged, and the evidence base for what actually helps teachers improve is very thin.

Jacob, A., & McGovern, K. (2015). The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development. Brooklyn, NY: TNTP. https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP-Mirage_2015.pdf.

 

Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction

This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.  The book include: Strategies that teachers, instructional coaches, teams, and administrators can use to get the most out of using video, Tips for ensuring that video recordings are used in accordance with ethical standards and teacher/student comfort level, and protocols, data gathering forms, and many other tools to get the most out of video observations and coaching.

Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

Teacher coaching has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional models of professional development. We review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement. Combining results across 60 studies that employ causal research designs, we find pooled effect sizes of 0.49 standard deviations (SD) on instruction and 0.18 SD on achievement. Much of this evidence comes from literacy coaching programs for prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in the United States. Although these findings affirm the potential of coaching as a development tool, further analyses illustrate the challenges of taking coaching programs to scale while maintaining effectiveness. Average effects from effectiveness trials of larger programs are only a fraction of the effects found in efficacy trials of smaller programs. We conclude by discussing ways to address scale-up implementation challenges and providing guidance for future causal studies.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence.Review of Educational Research, 88,547-588.

Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices. They identified a total of 13 studies from the 20 years of literature they searched. In general, coaching improved the extent to which teachers accurately implement evidence-based practices such as ClassWide Peer Tutoring, Direct Instruction, Learning Strategies, and Positive Behavior Support in classrooms or practicum settings. The retrieved studies also suggest that highly engaged, small-group initial training, followed by multiple observations, feedback, and modeling are critical components across coaching interventions. A few studies also provide promising data to support the consequential effects of coaching on improvements in student achievement. The authors offer suggestions for future research and practice related to preservice and in-service teacher training.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33, 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

Increasing the accurate use of research-based practices in classrooms is a critical issue. Professional development is one of the most practical ways to provide practicing teachers with training related to research-based practices. This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction. Teachers were trained to use a combination of whole-class instruction strategies, including model-lead-test for introducing new concepts and correcting errors, choral responding, and response cards. Results indicated that all teachers improved their delivery of the strategies after the in-service, with a second level of growth achieved after coaching. Improvements also generalized to untrained math sessions. Teachers reported very high levels of satisfaction with the training model.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education, 33, 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units

Early intervention is key to preventing academic failure and referral to special education. General educators are responsible for providing primary instruction for students at risk for failure; however, the training they receive related to specific instructional strategies for these students is often insufficient (e.g., 1-day workshops). Alternative forms of professional development that include a combination of in-service and follow-up support have shown more promise in promoting changes in teaching behaviors. This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units in math. Teachers were trained to use a combination of whole-class instruction strategies, including model-lead-test for introducing new concepts and correcting errors, choral responding, and response cards. Results indicated that all teachers improved their delivery of instruction after the in-service training, with a second level of growth achieved after coaching. Teachers also reported high levels of satisfaction using the strategies. 

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44,234-246.

 

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

Literacy coaches provide job-embedded professional development for teachers, and the number of literacy coaches in elementary schools is increasing. Although literacy coaching offers promise in terms of improving teacher practice and student achievement, guidance is needed regarding the qualifications, activities, and roles of literacy coaches. The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching. The guiding principles address (1) the specialized knowledge needed for literacy coaching, (2) the amount of time that should be focused on working directly with teachers, (3) collaborative relationships with teachers, (4) research-based coaching activities, (5) intentional and "on-the-fly" coaching, (6) the coach as a literacy leader in the school, and (7) the evolution of the literacy coach over time. After each principle is introduced, the specific research that supports the principle is discussed. In addition, a vignette of each guiding principle is provided to illustrate the principle in action.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game.

This study examines the impact of a Teacher Versus Student Game, a program that is based upon The Good Behavior Game (GBG). This paper found that the game increased teachers rates of praise; however, the teachers gradually decreased their use of BSP over time.

 

Lastrapes, R. E., Fritz, J. N., and Hasson, R. C., (2019). Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game. Retrieved from Researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331178227_Increasing_Teachers%27_Use_of_Behavior-Specific_Praise_with_the_Teacher_vs_Student_Game

Gage, N. A., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., & Crews, E. (2017). Increasing teachers’ use of behavior-specific praise using a multitiered system for professional development. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions19(4), 239-251.

White, K. (2018). Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior Specific Praise Via a Smart Watch.

 

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years. The study used a cluster-randomized trial in which schools were assigned to either CFC or standard practice in the district for literacy coaching. Observers rated classroom text discussions significantly higher in CFC schools. Teachers in the CFC schools participated more frequently in coaching activities that emphasized planning and reflecting on instruction, enacting lessons in their classrooms, building knowledge of the theory underlying effective pedagogy, and differentiating instruction than did the teachers in the comparison condition. Qualitative analyses of coach interviews identified substantive differences in the professional development support available to coaches, scope of coaches’ job responsibilities, and focus of coaching resources in the CFC schools and comparison schools.

 

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Principals in the Pipeline

This paper describe four essential elements of effective principals: principal standards, high-quality training, selective hiring, and a combination of solid on-the-job support and performance evaluation, especially for new hires.

Mendels, P. (2012). Principals in the pipeline. The Learning Professional33(3), 48.

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. Participating teachers (N = 148) from 6 urban cities were randomly assigned to Group 1 (coursework), Group 2 (on-site coaching), or Group 3 (control group). Pre- and postassessments examined teachers' knowledge and quality of language and literacy practices. Analyses revealed no significant improvements between groups on knowledge of early language and literacy. However, those who received coaching made statistically significant improvements in the structural environment both immediately and 5 months later. Effect sizes were substantial for coaching, while those who received coursework made no significant improvements. Analyses of the active ingredients of coaching were examined using logs and interviews to further elucidate these findings. Results indicated that coaching appears to be an effective form of professional development for early childhood educators.

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. Differential effects of technologically mediated (remote) versus in-person (on-site) delivery of individualized coaching with teachers also were examined in a random assignment design. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed positive PD intervention effects on general classroom environment (d = 0.99) and classroom supports for early literacy and language development (d = 0.92), and on children's letter knowledge (d = 0.29), blending skills (d = 0.18), writing (d = 0.17), and concepts about print (d = 0.22). No significant intervention effects on teaching practices and children's outcomes related to oral language were found. There were no differential effects of remote versus on-site delivery of literacy coaching.

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other. Includes six references. 

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. To meet this goal, 44 participating teachers in grades 2-8 learned to teach their students cognitive reading strategies through 1 of 2 models of professional development. One group attended a traditional 2-day summer in-service; the second attended the workshop and received classroom-based support from a reading coach. Using a random-effects, multilevel, pretest-posttest comparison group design and a multilevel modeling analytic strategy, we determined the effects of these 2 models. The full intervention group (teachers who were coached) outperformed the partial intervention group (workshop only) in all the teacher observation and student achievement measures. This study demonstrates the potential of coaching as a viable model of the professional development of reading teachers.

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?

This article discuss how "Micro-Credentialing" offer an opportunity to shift away from credit-hour and continuing-education requirements that dominate the PD apparatus in most states, toward a system based on evidence of progress in specific instructional skills.

Sawchuk, S. (2016). Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.nysed.gov/common/nysed/files/principal-project-phase-2-micro-credentials-edweek.pdf

Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look

The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. One of the follow-up reports tracks information specifically on traditional public and charter school principals across various school and student characteristics (e.g. number of principals, age, advance degrees, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.). A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. The higher the percent of a school’s students qualifying for free- or reduced-price lunches, the shorter the tenure of the school’s principal. Charter school principals are paid less than those in traditional public school; they have a lower percentage of advanced college degrees; they are younger; and they have more control over standards, curriculum, and professional development.

 

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 201516 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely. However, research suggests that despite enormous and admirable investments of time and money, education leaders are much further from that goal than has been acknowledged, and the evidence base for what actually helps teachers improve is very thin. Like a "mirage," it is not a hallucination but a refraction of reality: Growth is possible, but the goal of widespread teaching excellence is further out of reach than it seems. This report presents findings from surveys and interviews and offers recommendations including: (1) "Redefining" what it means to help teachers improve; (2) "Reevaluating" existing professional learning supports and programs; and (3) "Reinventing" how we support effective teaching at scale. The following are appended: (1) The Mirage: Technical Appendix of Data and Analysis; (2) Detailed Summary Method for Estimating Teacher Improvement Spending; and (3) Overview of the Development Profile Analysis. Endnotes are also included.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Designing Online Communities of Practice for Educators to Create Value

The U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology published this report that details the results of exploratory research on how to design and manage online communities of practice for educators.

 

U.S. Department of Education. (2014, April). Designing Online Communities of Practice for Educators to Create Value. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Exploratory-Research-on-Designing-Online-Communities-FINAL.pdf.

Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development

In a randomized control study, Head Start teachers were assigned to either an intervention group that received intensive, ongoing professional development (PD) or to a comparison group that received the “business as usual” PD provided by Head Start. The PD intervention provided teachers with conceptual knowledge and instructional strategies that support young children’s development of vocabulary, alpha- bet knowledge, and phonological sensitivity.

Wasik, B. A., & Hindman, A. H. (2011). Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 455.

WWC Examines the Evidence on Two Teacher Training Programs

If teachers are to have a significant impact on student learning it is necessary for them to be well trained and prepared for the role of teacher.  This report examined the effectiveness of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and My TeachingPartner Pre-K.  The NBPTS is a professional certification program for teachers that have taught at least three years and can meet the NBPTS standards.  My TeachingPartner Pre-K incorporates multiple media and coaching to prepare early education teachers.  The results of the What Works Clearinghouse review of NBPTS is that it had mixed effects in mathematics in grades 3-8 and no discernable effect on English language arts achievement.  There were no studies that met WWC standards for review so no judgment can be made about its effectiveness.  The results of this review highlight the necessity of evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training programs.  The stakes are very high for the students and families being served by teachers and nationally very large amount of money is spent on training teachers.  It would be nice to know which approaches to teacher professional development are effective and which have no beneficial effect.

What Works Clearinghouse, Institute for Education Science (2018).  National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification Intervention Report. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/InterventionReport/689

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

Professional development through in-service training may not be of sufficient duration, intensity, and specificity to improve teachers' instructional skills. Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching, and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement

The Regional Educational Laboratory - Southwest (REL Southwest) conducted a systematic and comprehensive review of the research-based evidence on the effects of professional development (PD) on growth in student achievement in three core academic subjects (reading/ELA, mathematics, and science). The primary goal of this study was to address the question, What is the impact of teacher participation in professional development on student achievement? Nine studies emerged as meeting What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards, from more than 1,300 manuscripts identified as potentially relevant. Although the number of studies that met evidence standards was small, the average overall effect size of 0.54 was observed when examined within the three content areas included in the review. The consistency of this effect size indicates that across all forms and content of PD, providing training to elementary school teachers does have a moderate effect on their students' achievement. However, because the average number of contact hours averaged almost 49 hours across the nine studies, the total contact hours must be substantial to get such an effect size. Because of the limited number of studies and the variability in the PD that was represented among the nine studies we examined, we were unable to make any conclusions about the effectiveness of specific PD programs or about the effectiveness of PD by form, content, or intensity. The following are appended: (1) Methodology; (2) Protocol for the review of research-based evidence on the effects of professional development on student achievement; (3) Key terms and definitions related to professional development; (4) List of keywords used in electronic searches; and (5) Relevant studies, listed by coding results. 

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement(Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007-No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/REL_2007033.pdf

Using Implementation Intentions to Teach Practitioners: Changing Practice Behaviors via Continuing Education
This study evaluates the effectiveness of implementation on increasing the use of a practice behavior who attended a one-day continuing education class.
Casper, E. (2008). Using implementation intentions to teach practitioners: Changing practice behaviors via continuing education. Psychiatric Services, 59(7), 747-752.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
This organization develops and delivers innovative programs, products, and services to educators in support student learners with a focus on professional development support.
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
Resources Toolkit for New Teachers

This section of the Edutopia website provides new teachers with resources for becoming an effective classroom teacher.

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