Education Drivers

Teacher Program Models

Teacher preparation began in the mid-19th century with the normal school, a 2-year course of study that prepared candidates for teaching. This model remained unchanged until the early 20th century, when universities created the undergraduate model, which currently predominates. Teacher candidates are required to spend 4 years obtaining a bachelor’s degree built around a prescribed course of education study. A second relatively recent modification is the 5-year credential model, requiring candidates to obtain a bachelor’s degree before beginning a 5th year of instruction in teaching. The driving force behind the postgraduate model was the belief that teachers were not respected. It was assumed that a post-bachelor’s and/or graduate degree certificate would confer greater esteem on the profession. This model is offered across the country and is mandated for all new teachers in California. A third option, the alternative credential (AC) model, arose as a solution to teacher shortages. The AC model is distinct from the traditional models in that candidates receive formal preparation coursework while already employed in the classroom. Currently, little evidence exists to support the superiority of any one method over the others.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get?
The analysis reviews school teacher earned degree data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Digest of Education Statistics (2008).
Keyworth, R. (2010). How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get? Retrieved from how-much-formal-training.
How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential?
This inquiry lookes at two meta-analyses on the importance of subject matter training in teacher pre-service instruction.
States, J. (2010). How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential? Retrieved from how-important-is-it.
How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students?
This literature review tries to answer the question; does the quality and amount of subject matter pre-service training translate into better qualified teachers?
States, J. (2011). How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students? Retrieved from how-important-in-increasing.
What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement?
This analysis lookes at the quality of research comparing four versus five-year teacher credential programs to identify which approach produces the best teachers.
States, J. (2011). What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement? Retrieved from what-does-current-research.
What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results?
This is a review of three meta-analyses on the impact of differing types of teacher field (clinical) experience.
States, J. (2011). What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results? Retrieved from what-field-experience-methods.
Which credential process produces better teachers: traditional or alternative?
This analysis examines research comparing the impact on student achievement for traditional routes to receiving a teaching credential to alternative credential paths.
States, J. (2011). Which credential process produces better teachers: traditional or alternative? Retrieved from which-credential-process-produces.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs
This paper examines effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers into the classroom. Preparation practices are analyzed to determine how well we are succeeding in preparing teachers.
States, J. (2010). What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The
Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/
pubs2011/2011033.pdf
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Class Size Reduction Amendment. Retrieved from
http://www.fdoe.org/classsize/
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W. O., Campbell, A., Crosby, E. A., Foster, C. A., Jr.,
...Wallace, R. (1983). A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter
to the American people. A report to the nation and the secretary of education. Retrieved
from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED226006
Gorman, S. (2010). An Introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from http://nces.
ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/parents/2010468.pdf
Grady, S., & Bielick, S. (2010). Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007 (NCES 2010-
004). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010004.pdf
Hall, D., & Gutierrez, A. S. (1998). Getting Honest about High School Graduation. [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/fles/publications/fles/
Session14GettingHonestAboutHSGraduation.ppt
Howell, W., Peterson, P. E., & West, M. (2007).What Americans think about their schools: The
2007 Education Next—PEPG Survey. Education Next, 7(4), 12-26. Retrieved from http://
educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
Luckie, M. S. (2009). California’s class-size-reduction program: Total spending since 1996.
[Interactive Graph]. Retrieved from http://californiawatch.org/k-12/californias-class-sizereduction-program-total-spending-1996
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Grade
12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. (NCES 2011–455).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2009/2011455.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011a). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://
nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=30
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011b). The Nation’s Report Card:
Mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department
of Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011c). The Nation’s Report Card:
Reading 2011. (NCES 2012–457). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). Data Explorer for Long-Term Trend.
[Data fle]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/lttdata/
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012a). Mathematics: Grade 12 National
Results. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer%20information
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012b). Reading: Grade 12 National Results.
Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer information
Nichols, A., & Özek, U. (2010). Public School Choice and Student Achievement in the
District of Columbia. (Working Paper 53). Retrieved from National Center for Analysis of
Longitudinl Data in Education Research - Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/
url.cfm?ID=1001499
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2006). PISA 2006
Technical Report. Paris: Author.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010a). PISA 2009
Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264083943-en
xxx |
Proceedings of the 5th Annual Summit Introduction
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010b). PISA 2009
Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume
IV). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010c). PISA 2009
Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics
and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics, 2009. (NCES 2010-013).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010013.pdf
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S.A. (2011). Digest of Education Statistics 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Stillwell, R. (2010). Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data:
School Year 2007–08. (NCES 2010-341). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute
of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010341
Zinth, K. (2010). Class-Size Policies. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States
website: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/85/21/8521.pdf

Incoherent by Design: What You Should Know about Differences between Undergraduate and Graduate Training of Elementary Teachers

This brief quantifies the fundamentally chaotic nature of elementary teacher preparation for initial certification, which is by far the most popular choice of individuals who consider teaching. While there is overlap in the topics each undergraduate/graduate program pair covers, what's more striking are the different course requirements--even though both programs are offered by the same education school at the same institution. Ideally, teacher candidates in each program pair should receive preparation that is not only consistent, but also high quality in its design.

Greenberg, J., & Dugan, N. (2015). Incoherent by Design: What You Should Know about Differences between Undergraduate and Graduate Training of Elementary Teachers. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Characteristics of Effective Alternative Teacher Certification Programs

This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials. 

Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record110(1), 1-63.

Fast Start: Training Better Teachers Faster, with Focus, Practice and Feedback

This paper is the story of Fast Start. This paper will explain exactly how they transformed their approach to pre-service training and built Fast Start, and what they’ve learned along the way. They hope that their experience—including our failures—can serve as a road map for other preparation programs that want to find new ways to help new teachers find success.

Menzes, A., & Maier, A. (2014). Fast Start: Training Better Teachers Faster, with Focus, Practice and Feedback. TNTP. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED559704

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other. Includes six references. 

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Transforming Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy To Prepare Effective Teachers
This report commissioned by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), offers recommendations for improving teacher preparation programs
Zimpher, N. et al., (2010). Transforming Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers: Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning. Commissioned by National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

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