Education Drivers

Teacher Preparation: Models

Teacher preparation began in the mid-19th century with the normal school, a 2-year course of study that prepared candidates for teaching. This model remained unchanged until the early 20th century, when universities created the undergraduate model, which currently predominates. Teacher candidates are required to spend 4 years obtaining a bachelor’s degree built around a prescribed course of education study. A second relatively recent modification is the 5-year credential model, requiring candidates to obtain a bachelor’s degree before beginning a 5th year of instruction in teaching. The driving force behind the postgraduate model was the belief that teachers were not respected. It was assumed that a post-bachelor’s and/or graduate degree certificate would confer greater esteem on the profession. This model is offered across the country and is mandated for all new teachers in California. A third option, the alternative credential (AC) model, arose as a solution to teacher shortages. The AC model is distinct from the traditional models in that candidates receive formal preparation coursework while already employed in the classroom. Currently, little evidence exists to support the superiority of any one method over the others.

Teacher Preparation Program Models Overview

Teacher Preparation Models PDF

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2021). Teacher Preparation Models. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institutehttps://www.winginstitute.org/pre-service-teacher-program-models.

Teacher preparation plays an important role in teacher success (Bacharach et al., 2010). Research supports that teachers who are well prepared and have had high-quality preparation experiences (e.g., student teaching) have the greatest influence on student achievement (Wilson et al., 2001).

In particular, the quality of teacher preparation determines how well new teachers manage in their first year in the classroom (Putman & Walsh, 2021). For example, a new teacher who has had strong mentoring learns enough to avoid many mistakes that beginning teachers often make, and can produce student gains similar to those of a teacher with 3 years of experience (Goldhaber et al., 2020).

The K–12 teaching workforce is large; each year 4 million teachers are employed across the United States (Congressional Research Service, 2019). From 2008 to 2016, total enrollment in teacher preparation programs declined by one third, at the same time as an increase in enrollment in bachelor’s degree programs occurred (National Center for Education Statistics tables 303.10 and 303.70, 2018; Sutcher et al., 2016; Walsh, 2016). About 8% of teachers leave the profession in a given year, although the COVID-19 pandemic has added some uncertainty to teacher retention forecasts. A recent Education Week poll found that 33% of teachers were considering leaving the profession in the next 2 years (Loewus, 2021).

In the role of preparing teachers, university programs face multiple challenges. In a survey of university presidents, provosts, and deans, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (2016) found that university-based teacher education programs faced declining enrollment and increasing costs, even as the U.S. student population was growing in size and diversity, increasing the demand for teachers.

The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on the need for high-quality teachers and for teacher preparation that provides teachers who are ready and able to support students from day one. The National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) identified trends in teacher preparation programs (Putman & Walsh, 2021):

  • Many states have lowered or removed academic requirements to enter teacher preparation, a decrease from 2015.
  • Efforts to recruit and support people of color to enter teaching have increased since 2017.
  • Efforts to strengthen the quality of student teaching and clinical in-service, an important part of the teaching preparation, have occurred (see Student Teaching and In-Service Overview).

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the various program models that train teachers for the classroom. The models include 4-year university training, postgraduate training, and alternate certification programs (e.g., Teach for America). This overview is not focused on what teacher preparation should teach (see Teacher Curriculum Content), what teaching methods teacher preparation programs should use (see Teacher Instructional Effectiveness), or teacher recruitment (see Teacher Outreach).

Important questions about program models include:

  • Do teacher preparation program models impact student outcomes?
  • Does the length of teacher preparation impact outcomes?
  • Is there a difference between traditionally and alternatively certified teachers?
  • Do teacher preparation program models impact teacher retention?

History of Teacher Preparation Program Models

For much of American history, entering teaching was relatively easy (Ravitch, 2003) and training occurred in a variety of settings (Larabee, 2008). Requirements for teaching certification increased in the 1800s: In 1834, teachers in Pennsylvania were required to pass a reading test. By 1867 most states required some sort of state teaching certificate, with a focus on content (Ravitch, 2003).

In the 20th century, teacher training became standardized and shifted to state colleges and regional universities; schools of education worked to professionalize teacher training (Larabee, 2008). During this time, schools of education added courses in pedagogy and methods (Ravitch, 2003). Through these transformations, teacher education broadened to include a liberal arts education in addition to courses in instruction and pedagogy (Larabee, 2008)

In the 1980s, teacher preparation shifted again in response to poor test scores and a shortage of certified teachers. The Nation At Risk report (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) prompted worry that American schools were failing, and multiple reform efforts were initiated to address concerns laid out in the report. In particular, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards launched professional standards to strengthen teacher education and certification (Darling-Hammond, 1996). Federal legislation focused on teacher preparation as a way to bolster student achievement (States et al., 2012). Subsequent legislation, including No Child Left Behind Act (2001) and Every Student Succeeds Act (2015) focused on teacher preparation in some way (Klein, 2018).

Additionally, alternative certification programs were developed in response to teacher shortages in certain areas such as STEM and special education, and in certain regions (Ingersoll et al., 2018). These programs were intended to increase and potentially diversify the teacher applicant pool (Woods, 2016). They have succeeded in recruiting new teachers to the field. In 2015, 20% of the country’s teachers came into the profession through alternative certification programs (DeMonte, 2015).

Research on Teacher Preparation Program Models

In an effort to understand how well teacher preparation programs are doing, NCTQ reviewed 1,668 teacher preparation programs across 836 institutions (Putnam & Walsh, 2021). NCTQ reviewed programs based on 19 criteria ranging from selection criteria, student teaching, content, classroom management, and rigor. More than half of the nation’s programs were unaccredited, and 17 states and Washington, D.C., did not have a top-ranked program. The study found that elementary preparation programs were weaker than secondary programs; 1.7 times more elementary programs than secondary were found to be failing. As one example, only 17% of programs equipped teacher candidates (elementary and special education) in the five fundamental components of reading instruction.

The aspects of high-quality programs and state initiatives that were effective included:

  • Assessing licensure assessments: Massachusetts conducted an assessment of its state licensure tests to ensure that performance on the test was predictive of how a teacher would perform in the classroom. (It was.)
  • Focusing on licensure tests in key areas: Alabama, Arkansas, Maryland, and Texas licensure tests focus on the science of reading, especially on improving how well teachers understand how to teach students to read.
  • Including content knowledge assessments: Colorado, Kansas, Maryland, Nevada, and Texas have changed tests to ensure that teachers are entering the classroom with content knowledge. This is significant because, according to the NCTQ review, district superintendents reported that teachers did not know the core subjects of the elementary curriculum.

While the NCTQ report included a list of the inputs that go into teacher preparation programs, relatively little research has been done on how teacher preparation programs affect teacher and student outcomes.

Do Teacher Preparation Program Models Impact Student Outcomes?

Research does not provide decisive direction on the impact of credentials and pre-service training on teacher quality; in general, the results are mixed (Guarino et al., 2004).

Chingos and Peterson (2011) found that majoring in education or earning a master’s degree in education was not associated with greater effectiveness in the classroom. Likewise, the university that a teacher attended was not associated with greater effectiveness in the classroom.

Clotfelter et al. (2007) studied the effect of teaching credentials on student achievement using a data set from North Carolina of students in grades 3, 4, and 5 from 1994 to 2003. They found that a graduate degree had little effect on student achievement. Teachers without a master’s degree were as effective as teachers who entered teaching with a master’s degree, or who earned it within their first 5 years of teaching.

The factor that did matter was classroom experience, although not necessarily for new teachers. However, when hiring teachers moving from one school to another, it may be worth considering years of experience over education. The general quality of a teacher candidate may impact classroom outcomes. For example, a math teacher who is not well qualified (low scores on a licensing exam, little experience, noncompetitive undergraduate degree, and emergency license) has the same impact on student achievement as parents with less education. This suggests that teachers with weak credentials in classrooms with low-income students could widen existing achievement gaps already associated with socioeconomic differences (Clotfelter et al., 2007). It also points to the importance of hiring the most qualified teachers for the schools and students who need them the most.

Does the Length of Teacher Preparation Impact Outcomes?

If programs provide a longer preparation time (e.g,. 4 year vs. 5 year programs), we do not know a lot about differences in length of teacher preparation programs and outcomes in the classroom. Additional research on how 4-year versus 5-year programs impact teacher preparedness would help universities plan.

Is There a Difference Between Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Teachers?

Alternative certification programs are often started to solve teacher pipeline concerns (e.g., increasing diversity, increasing the number of teachers in high-need areas). Alternative certification refers to programs such as Teach for America (TFA) that provide teaching certifications after a brief training. Sykes and Dibner (2009) reported that high-poverty, high-minority districts were more likely to have a fast-track or alternative certification route to teaching to attract more high-quality applicants. See et al. (2020) found that programs like TFA recruited more teachers and more candidates with higher academic qualifications. Specifically, the New York City Teacher Fellows Math Immersion program attracted more candidates to teaching in a critical area of need (Boyd et al., 2012).

Teacher certification signifies the knowledge and skills that teachers have when they start teaching; it is a minimum proxy for these skills, including knowledge of content, behavior management, and teaching practices (Darling-Hammond et al., 2001). In analyzing 6 years of data (1995–2002) on reading and math tests for grades 4 and 5 in Texas, Darling-Hammond et al. (2005) found that certified teachers produced significantly stronger student achievement gains than uncertified teachers, including alternatively certified teachers, like those in TFA. The effectiveness of teachers was strongly related to the preparation the teachers had received for teaching. The structure of TFA, which requires only a 2-year commitment, has raised questions about retention. Some research has shown that TFA teachers leave the profession before they gain enough experience to be effective (Darling-Hammond, 2011; Ravitch, 2013).

A study of K–5 teachers found no difference between cohorts of alternately and traditionally certified teachers on important criteria. Specifically, there was no statistically significant difference in student outcomes produced by teachers who had completed alternative certification compared with those who had completed traditional certification (Constantine et al., 2009).

In another study, Bos and Gerdeman (2017) matched teachers through TNTP (previously known as The New Teacher Project) with traditionally trained teachers who were in their first 2 years of teaching and found no difference in teacher performance or student achievement.

Grow Your Own (GYO) teacher preparation programs are partnerships between teacher preparation programs, school districts, and community organizations to recruit and train teachers for local communities. In a descriptive review of GYO programs across the country found the following (Garcia, 2021):

  • Communities have varying goals for GYO programs, including addressing specific teacher shortages, increasing the teacher pipeline, improving teacher retention, and increasing diversity in the teacher pipeline.
  • All but three states (North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming) have at least one GYO program.
  • The funding and program design varied from program to program.

The review did not examine the outcomes that these programs produced, or their outcomes compared with traditional or alternative certification routes.

Alternative certification programs may not produce teachers who are more effective, but they do increase the hiring pool for districts, which serves an important goal. More research is needed to learn how the various program models impact teacher outcomes and student learning, how they compare with one another, and which candidates are best suited for each model.

Do Teacher Preparation Program Models Impact Teacher Retention?

Another consideration for districts is teacher retention. Ingersoll et al. (2014) used data from the National Center for Education Statistics’ 2003–2004 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2004–2005 Teacher Follow-Up Survey to examine the question of whether teacher university education impacted teacher retention.

Beginning teachers varied in the teacher preparation they received. Math and science teachers had more content education and more graduate-level education, and less pedagogy and method instruction than other teachers. After controlling for background characteristics of teachers and schools, the analysis found that the type of college, degree earned, entry route, and certification did not have a significant impact on retention. One consideration is the mission of the alternative certification program; a Mathematica Policy Research study found that the vast majority (87%) of TFA teachers did not plan to stay in teaching for their career, compared with 26% of other teachers (Clark et al., 2017).

The substance and content of teachers’ pedagogical preparation did matter. Teachers with more training in methods and pedagogy, especially practice teaching and classroom observation, were less likely to leave teaching after their first year. This suggests that what happens in the program may be more important than the structure or model itself. Additional research on how teacher preparation program models impact long-term retention, or retention after a teacher’s first year in the classroom, is necessary.

Cost of Teacher Preparation Program Models

The cost of teacher training varies significantly based on inputs (e.g., cost of tuition) and other factors. In one example of a cost analysis, the cost of the Pathways to Careers Program, which produces teachers from a pool of uncertified teachers, was estimated to range from $14,738 to $30,770 (Rice & Brent, 2001). Costs come from a variety of sources, including administration, infrastructure, student recruitment, the academic program, support services, student assessment, and follow-up services. This analysis did not provide information on what accounted for the range of costs or how the cost translated to benefit for teachers, districts, or students.

The actual numbers are not as helpful as understanding the cost categories (Rice & Brent, 2001). The costliest category was the academic program, which included tuition. Administrative and support services were the next highest because of personnel costs (e.g., mentor teachers). Also, this cost study revealed how costs were distributed across various individuals and organizations:

  • Universities assumed many costs associated with the program (administration, infrastructure, tuition).
  • School systems provided support through the allocation of time and resources, and at times, loan forgiveness programs.
  • Students reduced the cost for districts and universities by paying for a portion of tuition, and purchasing books and supplies.

Recommendations for Teacher Preparation Program Models

Despite the importance of understanding the impact of program models, on the whole, we do not know enough about how program models contribute to important outcomes for teachers and students. The following recommendations come from the available research:

  • Having experience in the classroom, and a strong mentor during student teaching may be more important than an advanced degree in teaching (Clotfelter et al., 2007).
  • There seems to be no statistically significant difference between traditionally and alternatively trained teachers in important criteria (Bos & Gerdeman, 2017; Constantine et al., 2009).
  • There is some argument for certification; teachers who were certified produced stronger student achievement gains (Darling-Hammond et al., 2005).
  • The substance and content of a teacher’s program, regardless of model, seems to be the most important aspect in determining how training translates to classroom success (Ingersoll et al., 2014).
  • While GYO models are widespread, little is known about their impact on teacher outcomes and student learning (Garcia, 2021).

Conclusion

Teacher preparation programs include a variety of models: 4-year university training, postgraduate training, and alternative certification programs (e.g., Teach for America). Regardless of model, the content and quality of training that teachers receive contribute to their success in the classroom. Focusing on content and experiences that teachers receive rather than on the model may be more productive. More information is necessary to better understand how teacher preparation program models impact outcomes.

 

Citations

American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2016). Preparing teachers in today’s challenging context: Key issues, policy directions and implications for leaders of AASCU universities.https://www.aascu.org/AcademicAffairs/TeacherEdReport.pdf

Bacharach, N., Heck, T. W., & Dahlberg, K. (2010). Changing the face of student teaching through co-teaching. Action in Teacher Education, 32(1), 3–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2010.10463538

Bos, H., & Gerdeman, D. (2017, May 4). Alternative teacher certification: Does it work? American Institutes of Research. https://www.air.org/resource/blog-post/alternative-teacher-certification-does-it-work

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Hammerness, K., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Recruiting effective math teachers: Evidence from New York City. American Education Research Journal, 49(6), 1008–1047.

Chingos, M. M., & Peterson, P. E. (2011). It’s easier to pick a good teacher than to train one: Familiar and new results on the correlates of teacher effectiveness. Economics of Education Review, 30(3), 449–465.

Clark, M. A., Isenberg, E., Liu, A. Y., Makowsky, L., & Zukiewicz, M. (2017). Impacts of the Teach for America investing in innovations scale-up. Mathematica Policy Research.

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2007). How and why do credentials matter for student achievement? National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w12828

Congressional Research Service. (2019). K–12 Teacher recruitment and retention policies in the Higher Education Act: In brief. https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/R45914.html

Constantine, J., Player, D, Silva, T. Hallgren, K., Grider, K., & Deke, J. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification, final report (NCEE 2009- 4043). National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20094043/pdf/20094043.pdf

Darling-Hammond, L. (1996). The right to learn and the advancement of teaching: Research, policy, and practice for democratic education. Educational Researcher, 25(6), 5–17.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2011, March 14). Teacher preparation is essential to TFA’s future. Education Week. www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2011/03/16/24darling-hammond.h30.html

Darling-Hammond, L., Berry, B., & Thoreson, A. (2001). Does teacher certification matter? Evaluating the evidence. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(1), 57–77.

Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(42).

DeMonte, J. (2015). A million new teachers are coming: Will they be ready to teach? Education Policy Center at the American Institutes for Research. https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/2021-06/Million-New-Teachers-Brief-deMonte-May-2015.pdf  

Every Student Succeeds Act. (2015). https://congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf

Garcia, A. (2021). A 50-state scan of Grow Your Own teacher policies and programs. New America. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/reports/grow-your-own-teachers/conclusion

Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Naito, N., & Theobald, R. (2020). Making the most of student teaching: The importance of mentors and scope for change. Education Finance and Policy, 15(3), 581–591.

Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., Daley, G. A., & Brewer, D. J. (2004). A review of the research literature on teacher recruitment and retention. RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR164.html

Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & May, H. (2014). What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition? Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. https://repository.upenn.edu/cpre_researchreports/78

Ingersoll, R., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated October 2018. Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=cpre_researchreports

Klein, A. (2018, July 16). Does ESSA require teachers to be highly qualified? Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/does-essa-require-teachers-to-be-highly-qualified/2018/07

Larabee, D. F. (2008). An uneasy relationship: The history of teacher education in the university. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman Nemser, & D. J. McIntyre (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring issues in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp. 290–306). Association of Teacher Educators.

Loewus, L. (2021, May 4). Why teachers leave—or don’t: A look at the numbers. Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/why-teachers-leave-or-dont-a-look-at-the-numbers/2021/05

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 303.10. (2018) Total fall enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: Selected years, 1947 through 2028.https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d18/tables/dt18_303.10.asp

National Center for Education Statistics Table 303.70. (2018) Total undergraduate fall enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions by attendance status, sex of student, and control and level of institution: Selected years, 1970 through 2028. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d18/tables/dt18_303.70.asp

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. https://edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/A_Nation_At_Risk_1983.pdf

No Child Left Behind Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6310 et seq. (2001). 

Putman, H., & Walsh, K. (2021). State of the states: Teacher preparation policy. National Council on Teacher Quality. https://www.nctq.org/publications/State-of-the-States-2021:-Teacher-Preparation-Policy#diversity

Ravitch, D. (2003, August 23). A brief history of teacher professionalism. U.S. Department of Education, White House Conference on Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers. https://www2.ed.gov/admins/tchrqual/learn/preparingteachersconference/ravitch.html

Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of error: The hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools. Alfred A. Knopf.

Rice, J. K., & Brent, B. O. (2001). Costs and budgeting for success. In B. C. Clewell & A. M. Villegas (Eds.), Ahead of the class: A handbook for preparing new teachers from new sources (pp. 36–40). The Urban Institute. https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Handbook-For-Preparing-New-Teachers-From-New-Sources.pdf

See, B. H., Morris, R., Gorard, S., Kokotsaki, D., & Abdi, S. (2020). Teacher recruitment and retention: A critical review of international evidence of most promising interventions. Education Sciences, 10(262), 1–45.

States, J., Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2012). Effective teachers make a difference. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.), Advances in evidence-based education: Vol. 2. Education at the crossroads: The state of teacher preparation (pp. 1–45). The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol2Ch1.pdf

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016, September 15). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the U.S. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/coming-crisis-teaching.

Sykes, G., & Dibner, K. (2009). Fifty years of federal teacher policy: An appraisal. Center on Education Policy. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505035.pdf

Walsh, K. (2016, December 2). The national teacher shortage is a myth. Here’s what’s really happening. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-national-teacher-shortage-is-a-myth-heres-whats-really-happening/2016/12/02/58fac7d0-b4e5-11e6-a677-b608fbb3aaf6_story.html?utm_term=.6f64e9ecc50f

Wilson, S., Floden, R., & Ferrini-Mundy, J. (2001). Teacher preparation research: Current knowledge, gaps, and recommendations. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.

Woods, J. R. (2016). Mitigating teacher shortages: Alternative teacher certification. Education Commission of the States. https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/Mitigating-Teacher-Shortages-Alternative-Certification.pdf

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Preparation: Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the methods of teacher preparation, the current state of research on teacher preparation, challenges, trends, questions, and recommendations for those working to prepare teachers for success in the classroom. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Teacher Preparation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-pre-service.

Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education

This article examines the relationship between school-climate-related research findings on the one hand and educational policy, school improvement practice, and teacher education on the other.

Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers college record111(1), 180-213.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get?
The analysis reviews school teacher earned degree data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Digest of Education Statistics (2008).
Keyworth, R. (2010). How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get? Retrieved from how-much-formal-training.
How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential?
This inquiry lookes at two meta-analyses on the importance of subject matter training in teacher pre-service instruction.
States, J. (2010). How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential? Retrieved from how-important-is-it.
How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students?
This literature review tries to answer the question; does the quality and amount of subject matter pre-service training translate into better qualified teachers?
States, J. (2011). How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students? Retrieved from how-important-in-increasing.
What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement?
This analysis lookes at the quality of research comparing four versus five-year teacher credential programs to identify which approach produces the best teachers.
States, J. (2011). What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement? Retrieved from what-does-current-research.
What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results?
This is a review of three meta-analyses on the impact of differing types of teacher field (clinical) experience.
States, J. (2011). What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results? Retrieved from what-field-experience-methods.
Which credential process produces better teachers: traditional or alternative?
This analysis examines research comparing the impact on student achievement for traditional routes to receiving a teaching credential to alternative credential paths.
States, J. (2011). Which credential process produces better teachers: traditional or alternative? Retrieved from which-credential-process-produces.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs
This paper examines effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers into the classroom. Preparation practices are analyzed to determine how well we are succeeding in preparing teachers.
States, J. (2010). What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-jack-states.
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Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

This paper: reviews research on beginning teacher induction programs, summarizing previous reviews of the topic; identifies various state- and local-level induction programs, analyzing best practices that exist today. 

Arends, R. I., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. J. (2000). Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

Teachers’ subject matter knowledge as a teacher qualification: A synthesis of the quantitative literature on students’ mathematics achievement

The main focus of this study is to find different kinds of variables that might contribute to variations in the strength and direction of the relationship by examining quantitative studies that relate mathematics teachers’ subject matter knowledge to student achievement in mathematics.

Ahn, S., & Choi, J. (2004). Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement. Online Submission.

Teacher Preparation and Induction.

This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,

Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-20012(3), n3.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs

A 10-year comparison of graduates from 4- and 5-year teacher education programs at the same institution revealed significant differences between graduates of the two programs. Limitations of the study and alternative explanations for these differences are discussed.

Andrew, M. D. (1990). Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 45–51

Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs.

This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.

Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education17(3), 43-53.

Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence?

Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed. 

Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record102(1), 5-27.

Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs

This article reviewed a number of comprehensive instructional-mentoring programs and identified three critical factors that seem to be making a positive difference. 

Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week29, 27.

Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement

The author uses teachers’ ratings on the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System to determine whether teacher preparation programs (TPPs) are associated with the evaluation ratings of their initially prepared teachers. 

Bastian, K. C., Patterson, K. M., & Pan, Y. (2017). Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(5), 429–447.

A review of teacher induction in special education: Research, practice, and technology solutions.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about teacher induction in special education and to outline recommendations for the design of induction programs and further research.

Billingsley, B. S., Griffin, C. C., Smith, S. J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. NCIIP Document Number RS-1. National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development.

Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities.

This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.

Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf

The life and times of PSI.

This paper describes the essential features of the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Results from outcome research examining the effectiveness of PSI-based courses relative to traditional methods provide unequivocal support for the superiority of PSI.

Buskist, W., Cush, D., & DeGrandpre, R. J. (1991). The life and times of PSI. Journal of Behavioral Education1(2), 215-234.

Teachers as leaders of professional learning: Lessons from Ontario’s Teacher Learning and Leadership Program

This article discusses Ontario’s Teachers Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP), which aims to support experienced teachers’ professional learning, develop teachers’ leadership skills, and facilitate knowledge exchange to share practices. The author’s research identifies considerable benefits of professional learning led “by, with and for” experienced teachers involving collaborative learning and sharing of practices.

Campbell, C. (2015). Teachers as leaders of professional learning: Lessons from Ontario’s Teacher Learning and Leadership Program (TLLP). Education Canada55(1), 1-3.

Gauging goodness of fit: Teachers’ expectations for their instructional teams in high- poverty schools

Teacher teams are increasingly common in urban schools. In this study, we analyze teachers’ responses to teams in six high-poverty schools. Teachers used two criteria to assess teams’ goodness of fit in meeting the demands of their work: whether their teams helped them teach better and whether the team contributed to a better school.

Charner-Laird, M., Ng, M., Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., Papay, J. P., & Reinhorn, S. K. (2017). Gauging goodness of fit: Teachers’ responses to their instructional teams in high-poverty schools. American Journal of Education123(4), 553-584.

Teacher Preparation: Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the methods of teacher preparation, the current state of research on teacher preparation, challenges, trends, questions, and recommendations for those working to prepare teachers for success in the classroom. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Teacher Preparation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-pre-service.

Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Research on Methods Courses and Field Experiences

This chapter from "Studying Teacher Education"  focus on the research procedures and the impact claims of researchers who study the complex phenomenon commonly labeled as a methods course or a teacher-
education-related field experience in a school or community. 

Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education309424.

Studying teacher preparation: The questions that drive research. European Educational Research Journal, 14(5), 379–394

This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of “research as historically situated social practice,” which emphasizes that researchers’ interests, commitments, and social experiences guide the research questions they pursue and the theories and perspectives they adopt.

Cochran-Smith, M., & Maria Villegas, A. (2015). Studying teacher preparation: The questions that drive research. European Educational Research Journal14(5), 379-394.

Strengthening clinical preparation: The holy grail of teacher education.

This article outlines the challenges to creating productive clinical experiences for prospective teachers, and identifies strategies that have been found successful in confronting these challenges

Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Strengthening clinical preparation: The holy grail of teacher education. Peabody Journal of Education89(4), 547-561.

2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction

New data and analysis from the National Council on Teacher Quality finds significant progress on the science of reading instruction in teacher preparation. 

Drake, G., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from www.nctq.org/publications/2020-Teacher-Prep-Review:-Program-Performance-in-Early-Reading-Instruction

Teacher prep review: Program Performance in Early Reading Instruction.

The National Council of Teacher Quality (NCTQ) review examines teacher preparation program progress in adopting the necessary components of evidence-based reading instruction. The report continues the effort of two previous reports offering educators a look at trends on preparation program progress on providing this essential training.

Drake, G., et al. (2020). Teacher Prep Review: Program Performance in Early Reading Instruction. National Council on Teacher Quality.https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/NCTQ_2020_Teacher_Prep_Review_Program_Performance_in_Early_Reading_Instruction

Research Synthesis of Meta-Analyses of Preservice Teacher Preparation Practices in Higher Education

This research examines meta-analyses on the topic to identify those practices that predictably lead to effective classroom instruction. The paper examines practices such as teacher degrees, preparation models, methods of course delivery, technology-based instruction, cooperative learning practices, instruction methods, field experience, field experience supervision, and induction practices.

Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Howse, R. B., Wilkie, H., & Annas, K. (2020). Research Synthesis of Meta-Analyses of Preservice Teacher Preparation Practices in Higher Education. Higher Education10(1).

Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues

Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the
public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the
eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing
concern during their early teaching years.

Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Routledge.

Tapping The Potential: Retaining And Developing High-Quality New Teachers

This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.

Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.

Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation.

This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face. 

Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.

Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and the foundation of education.

Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers. 

Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.

A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools

A review of the literature demonstrates that schools are frequently called upon to improve by developing high levels of teacher collaboration. At the same time, there is a paucity of research investigating the extent to which teachers’ collaborative school improvement practices are related to student achievement.

Goddard, Y., Goddard, R., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers college record109(4), 877-896.

The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis

The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement 

Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September3, 2009.

Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings

This paper provides the first empirical examination of National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) ratings,  beginning with a descriptive overview of the ratings and documentation of how they evolved from 2013-2016, both in aggregate and for programs with different characteristics.

Goldhaber, D., & Koedel, C. (2019). Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings. American Educational Research Journal, 0002831218820863.

Incoherent by Design: What You Should Know about Differences between Undergraduate and Graduate Training of Elementary Teachers

This brief quantifies the fundamentally chaotic nature of elementary teacher preparation for initial certification, which is by far the most popular choice of individuals who consider teaching. While there is overlap in the topics each undergraduate/graduate program pair covers, what's more striking are the different course requirements--even though both programs are offered by the same education school at the same institution. Ideally, teacher candidates in each program pair should receive preparation that is not only consistent, but also high quality in its design.

Greenberg, J., & Dugan, N. (2015). Incoherent by Design: What You Should Know about Differences between Undergraduate and Graduate Training of Elementary Teachers. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Teachers leading educational reform: The power of professional learning communities

Teachers Leading Educational Reform explores the ways in which teachers across the world are currently working together in professional learning communities to generate meaningful change and innovation in order to transform pedagogy and practice. By discussing how teachers can work collectively and collaboratively on the issues of learning and teaching that matter to them, it argues that through collective action and collaborative agency, teachers are leading educational reform.

Harris, A., Jones, M., & Huffman, J. B. (Eds.). (2017). Teachers leading educational reform: The power of professional learning communities. Routledge.

Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper.

This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels. 

Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review

The most successful teacher induction programs reported here include opportunities for experts and neophytes to learn together in a supportive environment promoting time for collaboration, reflection and acculturation into the profession of teaching. 

Howe, E. R. (2015). Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review. In In Search of Subjectivities (pp. 33-44). Routledge.

The model of the independent artisan in teachers’ professional relations.

This article explores the role and contribution of narrative interviews in educational research, by studying its application as data collecting technique in two different case studies: narrative interviews with directors of an academic college of education and with preschool teachers in Israel. The paper presents two case studies in which the narrative interview was used as a key methodological tool reflecting and describing the historical, cultural and educational contexts in which the subjects act, thus enabling a better understanding of the meaning of their behavior. 

Huberman, M. (1993). The model of the independent artisan in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts, 11-50.

Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs.

This paper describes some implication of research on learning to teach to the design of induction and mentoring programs. 

Huling-Austin, L. (1992). Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs. Journal of teacher education43(3), 173-180.

Characteristics of Effective Alternative Teacher Certification Programs

This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials. 

Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record110(1), 1-63.

Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?

This study examines whether such supports have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers. The study also focuses on different types and components of induction, including mentoring programs, collective' group activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads. 

Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?. NASSP bulletin88(638), 28-40

Not so elementary: Primary school teacher quality in top-performing systems

This report is one of a series of reports on teacher quality systems in top-performing countries commissioned by the Center on International Education Benchmarking of the National Center on Education and the Economy. In addition to these reports, researchers have collected authentic tools used by the systems highlighted to assist policymakers and practitioners interested in adapting lessons learned for their own context and culture.

Jensen, B., Roberts-Hull, K., Magee, J., & Ginnivan, L. (2016). Not So Elementary: Primary School Teacher Quality in Top-Performing Systems. National Center on Education and the Economy.

What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City

The authors use six years of data on student test performance to evaluate the effectiveness of certified, uncertified, and alternatively certified teachers in the New York City public schools. This study also evaluates turnover among teachers with different certification status and the impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover

Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education review27(6), 615-631.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

“Good-bye, teacher...”

An overview of teaching and classroom management techniques for learning for student paced learning from 1963.

Keller, F. S. (1968). Good-bye, teacher... Journal of applied behavior analysis1(1), 79.

Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K–12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs

This study shares the results of a national survey targeting teacher education programs’ efforts to help prepare preservice teachers for K-12 online learning. Data show that only 1.3% of responding teacher education programs are addressing this need via field experiences in virtual schools. Implications for policy and practice in the field of teacher education are examined

Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012b). Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K–12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(3), 185–200.

 
Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development.

This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education. 

King, K. P. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education5(3), 231–246.

 
Changes in teacher education: The Holy Grail of quality

The Teacher Education Committee at Northwestern Oklahoma State University approved the development of a competency-based teacher education program. A subcommittee identified and wrote professional education competencies which students should master prior to program completion.

Lehr, M. (1981). Changes in Teacher Education: The Holy Grail of Quality.

Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers.

This report is based on efforts by the National Center for Education Statistics to collect data on teacher preparation and qualifications using a nationally representative survey of full-time public school teachers whose main teaching assignment is in English/language arts, social studies/social sciences, foreign language, mathematics, or science (or who teach a self-contained classroom).

Lewis, L., Parsad, B., Carey, N., Bartfai, N., Farris, E., & Smerdon, B. (1999). Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers. NCES 1999-080. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999080.pdf

National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning?

This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards'(NBPTS)
assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from
the participants.

Lustick, D., & Sykes, G. (2006). National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(5), 1– 43. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/76/202

 
Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring

This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils’ academic performance.

Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B., & Karnes, M. (2004). Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring. Teacher Education and Special Education27(4), 408-418.

 
A field of IEP dreams: Increasing general education teacher participation in the IEP development process

As special education professionals, we sometimes feel we are working in a field of dreams. This field of dreams is created by idealistic visionaries, who develop legislation, regulations, and mandates that we must put into practice in actual school settings with limited time and resources.

Menlove, R. R., Hudson, P. J., & Suter, D. (2001). A field of IEP dreams increasing general education teacher participation in the IEP Development Process. Teaching Exceptional Children33(5), 28-33.

Fast Start: Training Better Teachers Faster, with Focus, Practice and Feedback

This paper is the story of Fast Start. This paper will explain exactly how they transformed their approach to pre-service training and built Fast Start, and what they’ve learned along the way. They hope that their experience—including our failures—can serve as a road map for other preparation programs that want to find new ways to help new teachers find success.

Menzes, A., & Maier, A. (2014). Fast Start: Training Better Teachers Faster, with Focus, Practice and Feedback. TNTP. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED559704

The condition of education 2018: Characteristics of public school teachers

National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education presents the data of public school teachers who held a postbaccalaureate degree, public school teachers who held the certificate, and the year of experience.

National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education. (2018b). The condition of education 2018: Characteristics of public school teachers. NCES 2018-144. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=58

Who Knows if our Teachers are Prepared? Three Different Perspectives on Graduates' Instructional Readiness and the Features of Preservice Preparation that Predict them

This study follows 305 preservice teachers (PSTs) who student taught in Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 2014-15 and were subsequently hired in CPS in 2015-16. 

Ngang, T. K., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences186, 835-840.

Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks

This chapter presents a taxonomy that distinguishes among different categories of theories, models and frameworks used in implementation science. The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; determinant frameworks, classic theories and implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation.

Nilsen, P. (2020). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.

How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy

The authors use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement. Teacher effects are estimated as between-teacher (but within-school) variance components of achievement status and residualized achievement gains.

Nye, N., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis26(3), 237–257. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737026003237

 
What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs

This policy report provides a look at the decline in the enrollment of American teacher preparation programs, along with potential consequences for schools and the student they serve. 

Partelow, L. (2019). What to Make of Declining Enrollment in Teacher Preparation Programs. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-k-12/reports/2019/12/03/477311/make-declining-enrollment-teacher-preparation-programs/

A historical perspective on the role of collaboration in teacher education reform: Making good on the promise of teaching all students

This article provides an analysis of how collaborative teacher education has developed in terms of practice, discourse, and the relationship between general and special education across three historical stages. It explores how collaborative teacher education between general and special education has been positioned over time in relationship to larger national reform efforts in teacher education.

Pugach, M. C., Blanton, L. P., & Correa, V. I. (2011). A historical perspective on the role of collaboration in teacher education reform: Making good on the promise of teaching all students. Teacher Education and Special Education34(3), 183-200.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

The Mega System: Deciding. Learning. Connecting

The term “mega system” derives from a field research project at the Laboratory for Student Success at Temple University that studied comprehensive school reform. Comprehensive school reform moves a whole school forward by dramatically changing the way it operates.

Redding, S. (2006). The mega system: Deciding. learning. connecting. Academic Development Institute.

Report-do-report: Promoting setting and setting-time generalization

In a multiple baseline across students design three third grade children were exposed to report-do-report correspondence training. Training involved teaching the children to prompt praise following completing math work in training and classroom setting. The implications of this procedure for promoting setting and time-setting generalization were discussed. 

Roca, J. V., & Gross, A. M. (1996). Report-do-report: Promoting setting and setting-time generalization. Education and Treatment of Children, 408-424.

Does cooperating teachers’ instructional effectiveness improve preservice teachers’ future performance?

Increasingly, states and teacher education programs are establishing minimum requirements for cooperating teachers’ (CTs’) years of experience or tenure. Undergirding these policies is an assumption that to effectively mentor preservice teachers (PSTs), CTs must themselves be instructional effective. The authors test this assumption using statewide administrative data on nearly 2,900 PSTs mentored by over 3,200 CTs.

Ronfeldt, M., Brockman, S. L., & Campbell, S. L. (2018). Does cooperating teachers’ instructional effectiveness improve preservice teachers’ future performance. Educational Researcher, 47(7), 405–418.

Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement

This study draws upon survey and administrative data on over 9,000 teachers in 336 Miami-Dade County public schools over 2 years to investigate the kinds of collaborations that exist in instructional teams across the district and whether these collaborations predict student achievement. While different kinds of teachers and schools report different collaboration quality, we find average collaboration quality is related to student achievement.

Ronfeldt, M., Farmer, S. O., McQueen, K., & Grissom, J. A. (2015). Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal52(3), 475-514.

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives.

This paper is part of a bigger research project and focuses on issues related to soft skills and teaching professional training. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of soft skills that has been integrated in teaching professional training from the novice teachers’ perspectives.

Tang, K. N., Yunus, H. M., & Hashim, N. H. (2015). Soft skills integration in teaching professional training: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 835–840.

 
Teach for America: A Return to the Evidence

The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.

Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.

A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms

A year-long researcher-teacher professional development group with a next-year followup was conducted with seven general education teachers from two elementary schools in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. The components of successful professional development programs are discussed and implications for teacher education are offered. 

Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., Schumm, J. S., & Klingner, J. (1998). A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms. Learning disability quarterly21(1), 57-74.

Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

This report examines research on teacher certification, reviewing every published study or paper, and many unpublished dissertations, cited by prominent advocates of teacher certification.

Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

Will the science of reading catch on in teacher prep?

For many decades, teacher educators were divided into two camps: those who favored whole language, characterized by the idea that reading is a natural process gained through exposure to authentic texts, and those who believed in systematic phonics instruction, which is the explicit teaching of sound-letter relationships.

Will, M. (2019). Will the science of reading catch on in teacher prep. Education Week.

Tier I implementation supports for classroom management: A pilot investigation targeting teachers’ praise.

Evidence-based classroom management practices have profound effects on student outcomes. Yet teachers commonly struggle to effectively implement these practices, imploring the provision of implementation supports within a multitiered framework for promoting teachers’ practices.

Zakszeski, B., Thomas, L., & Erdy, L. (2020). Tier I implementation supports for classroom management: A pilot investigation targeting teachers’ praise. School Psychology35(2), 111.

Transforming Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy To Prepare Effective Teachers

This report commissioned by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), offers recommendations for improving teacher preparation programs

Zimpher, N. et al., (2010). Transforming Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers: Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning. Commissioned by National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.

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National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

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