Education Drivers

Grades

Report cards have been a staple of the education system for over 100 years. Grades are employed as a high stakes method to determine advancement from one grade to the next and, along with standardized tests (e.g. SAT and ACT), the traditional basis for determining admissions into college. Aggregated grades are also commonly used as a way to measure the overall success of school systems. Despite the widespread use of grades, issues regarding the reliability and validity of grades exist. Concerns pertaining to differing standards used for assigning grades along with grading inflation bring into question the validity of grades as a high-stakes tool in education. Standardized tests are purported by the College Board and testing companies to be more rigorous, providing a more consistent and accurate measure of student skill acquisition and achievement. While improvements in how grades are assigned can and should be pursued, research finds high-school grade point average to be a consistent and reliable predictor of grades in the college freshman year, dropping out of college, and overall college performance.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Overview of Education Assessment

Research recognizes the power of assessment to amplify learning and skill acquisition. Assessing students is a fundamental ingredient of effective teaching. It is the tool that enables teachers to measure the extent to which a student or group of students have mastered the material taught in a lesson or a class or during the school year, and it gives instructors the necessary information to modify instruction when progress falters. Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional strategies, curriculum, special education placement, and funding. It works to improve instruction in the following ways: (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) by providing feedback on progress measured against benchmarks, (3) as a motivating factor, and (4) as an accountability instrument for improving systems.

 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Education Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/student-formative-assessment.

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, MB. (2011). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-mary-beth-celio.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Chronic Student Absenteeism: A Significant and Overlooked Obstacle to Student Achievement

This overview examines the best available evidence from a wide range of descriptive and correlational analyses executed by various state and city education departments, research groups, and academic researchers. Fortunately, the data paint an unequivocal picture. The results are overwhelmingly consistent across levels of analysis (school, students), units of measurement (achievement tests, graduation rates, dropout rates), areas of focus (reading, math, social indicators), units of education (grades, schools), and students of all demographics. Additionally, each analysis shows a linear relationship between absences and performance; the greater the number of absences, the worse the performance.

Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Olson, L. S. (2001). Schools, achievement, and inequality: A seasonal perspective. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(2), 171–191. 

Allison, M. A., Attisha, E., & AAP Council on School Health. (2019). The link between school attendance and good health. Pediatrics, 143(2). e20183648

Anguiano, M., Eastin D., Fine, M, Lockyer, B., Robles, D., Santana, M.,…Wong, K. (2015). Los Angeles Unified School District Report of the Independent Financial Review Panel. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Unified School District.

Applied Survey Research. (2011). Attendance in early elementary grades: Associations with student characteristics, school readiness, and third grade outcomes. San Francisco, CA: Attendance Works.

Ashby, C. M. (2010). K–12 education: Many challenges arise in educating students who change schools frequently.Report to Congressional Requesters (GAO-11-40). Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

Attendance Works. (2018).3 tiers of intervention.Retrieved from https://www.attendanceworks.org/chronic-absence/addressing-chronic-absence/3-tiers-of-intervention/

Attendance Works and Everyone Graduates Center. (2017). Portraits of change: Aligning school and community resources to reduce chronic absence.Retrieved from https://www.attendanceworks.org/portraits-of-change/

Balfanz, R., & Byrnes, V. (2012). The importance of being in school: A report on absenteeism in the nation’s public schools. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools.

Balfanz, R., & Byrnes, V. (2013). Meeting the challenge of combating chronic absenteeism: Impact of the NYC mayor’s interagency task force on chronic absenteeism and school attendance and its implications for other cities. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins School of Education.

Balfanz, R., Durham, R., & Plank, S. (2008). Lost days: Patterns and levels of chronic absenteeism among Baltimore City public school students 1999-00 to 2005-06. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Education Research Consortium.

Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., & Mac Iver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle-grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist42(4), 223–235. 

Baltimore Education Research Consortium. (2011). Destination graduation: Sixth grade early warning indicators for Baltimore city schools. Their prevalence and impact. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Bauer, L., Liu, P., Whitmore Schanzenbach, D., & Shambaugh, J. (2018). Reducing chronic absenteeism under the every student succeeds act. The Hamilton Project. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/reducing_chronic_absenteeism_under_the_every_student_succeeds_act.pdf

Buehler, M. H., Tapogna, J., Chang, H. N., & ECO Northwest, Ltd. (2012). Why being in school matters: Chronic absenteeism in Oregon Public Schools. Attendance Works. 

Burkam, D. T., Ready, D. D., Lee, V. E., & LoGerfo, L. (2004). Social-class differences in summer learning between kindergarten and first grade: Model specification and estimation. Sociology of Education, 77(1), 1­–31.

Chang, H. N., Bauer, L., & Byrnes, V. (2018). Data matters: Using chronic absence to accelerate action for student success.Attendance Worksand Everyone Graduates Center. 

Chang, H. N., & Romero, M. (2008). Present, engaged, and accounted for: The critical importance of addressing chronic absence in the early grades.New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty. 

Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1995). Motivation and mathematics achievement: A comparative study of Asian‐American, Caucasian‐American, and East Asian high school students. Child Development66(4), 1215–1234. 

Chingos, M., & Blagg, K. (2017). Making sense of state school funding policy.Washington, DC: Urban Institute. 

Coelho, R., Fischer, S., McKnight, F., Matteson, S., & Schwartz, T. (2015). The effects of early chronic absenteeism on third-grade academic achievement measures.Madison, WI: Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin.

Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L. (1994). Educational risk and resilience in African‐American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development65(2), 493­–506.

da Costa Nunez, R., Erb-Downward, J., & Shaw-Amoah, A. (2015). Empty seats: The epidemic of absenteeism among homeless elementary students. New York, NY: Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness. Retrieved from https://www.attendanceworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/ICPH-Policy-Report_Empty-Seats_Chronic-Absenteeism.pdf

Digest of Education Statistics. (2017). Homeless students enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade, primary nighttime residence, and selected student characteristics: 2009-10 through 2015–16.Table 204.75a.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Downey, D. B., von Hippel, P. T., & Broh, B. A. (2004). Are schools the great equalizer? Cognitive inequality during the summer months and the school year. American Sociological Review, 69(5), 613–635.

Durán-Narucki, V. (2008). School building condition, school attendance, and academic achievement in New York City public schools: A mediation modelJournal of environmental psychology28(3), 278–286.

Epstein, J. L. & Sheldon, S. B. 2002. Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvementJournal of Educational Research 95(5): 308–318.

Fantuzzo, J. W., LeBoeuf, W. A., Chen, C. C., Rouse, H. L., & Culhane, D. P. (2012). The unique and combined effects of homelessness and school mobility on the educational outcomes of young children. Educational Researcher, 41(9), 393–402.

Fiester, L. (2010). Early warning! Why reading by the end of third grade matters.Kids Count special report. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

GAO, (1994) Elementary school children: Many change schools frequently, harming their education,GAO/HEHS-94-45 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 4, 1994).

Ginsburg, A., Jordan, P., & Chang, H. (2014). Absences Add Up: How School Attendance Influences Student Success. Attendance Works.

Gottfried, M. A. (2010). Evaluating the relationship between student attendance and achievement in urban elementary and middle schools: An instrumental variables approach. American Educational Research Journal47(2), 434–465.

Gottfried, M. A. (2014). Chronic absenteeism and its effects on students’ academic and socio-emotional outcomes. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR)19(2), 53–75.

Gottfried, M. A. (2015). Chronic absenteeism in the classroom context: Effects on achievement. Urban Education,54(1), 3–34.

Gottfried, M. A. & Hutt, E.L. (Eds.). (2019). Absent from school: Understanding and addressing student absenteeism.Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Harris, Kamala. (2016). In School + On Track 2016.Sacramento, CA: Office of the Attorney General, State of California Department of Justice.

Henderson, T., Hill, C., & Norton, K. (2014). The connection between missing school and health: A review of chronic absenteeism and student health in Oregon.Portland, OR: Upstream Public Health.

Hernandez, D. (2011). Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation.Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Hess, F. M., & McShane, M. Q. (2018), Bush-Obama school reform: Lessons learned.Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Johnson, G. M. (2005). Student alienation, academic achievement, and WebCT use. Journal of Educational Technology & Society8(2), 179–189.

Kearney, C. A. (2016). Managing school absenteeism at multiple tiers: An evidence-based and practical guide for professionals. New York City, NY: Oxford University Press.

Kearney, C. A., & Graczyk, P. (2014). A response to intervention model to promote school attendance and decrease school absenteeism. Child & Youth Care Forum,43(1), 1–25.

Lawrence, E. M., Rogers, R. G., & Zajacova, A. (2016). Educational attainment and mortality in the United States: Effects of degrees, years of schooling, and certification. Population Research and Policy Review35(4), 501–525.

 London, R, A., Sanchez, M., & Castrechini, S. (2016). The dynamics of chronic absence and student achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(112), 1–27.

Losen, D. J., & Whitaker, A. (2018). 11 million days lost: Race, discipline, and safety at U.S. public schools. A joint report by the Center for Civil Rights Remedies of UCLA’s Civil Rights Project and the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California.  

Mac Iver, M. A., & Messel, M. (2012). Predicting high school outcomes in the Baltimore city public schools.The Senior Urban Education Research Fellowship Series. Volume VII. Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.

NAEP Data Explorer, 2015 and 2017 mathematics and reading assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/

NAEP Data Explorer, 2015 and 2017 reading and mathematics scale scores of 4th, 8th, and 12th graders and percentage absent from school, by selected characteristics and number of days absent in the last month. Table 227.50. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/datastory/chronicabsenteeism.html#one

National Forum on Education Statistics. (2009). Every school day counts: The forum guide to collecting and using attendance data (NFES 2009–804). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Nowicki,J. M. (2018). K–12 Education: Discipline disparities for Black students,boys, and students with disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

Olsen, L. S. (2014). Why September matters: Improving student attendance.Policy brief. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Education Research Consortium.

Office for Civil Rights. (2016). 2013–2014 civil rights data collection: A first look.

Railsback J. (2004). Increasing student attendance: Strategies from research and practice.Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Portland, OR.

Ready, D. D. (2010). Socioeconomic disadvantage, school attendance, and early cognitive development: The differential effects of school exposure. Sociology of Education 83(4): 271–286.

Robertson, A. A., & Walker, C. S. (2018). Predictors of justice system involvement: Maltreatment and education. Child Abuse & Neglect76, 408–415.

Robinson, C. D., Lee, M. G., Dearing, E., & Rogers, T. (2018). Reducing student absenteeism in the early grades by targeting parental beliefs. American Educational Research Journal55(6), 1163–1192.

Rogers, T., & Feller, A. (2018). Reducing student absences at scale by targeting parents’ misbeliefsNature Human Behaviour2(5), 335.

Romero, M., & Lee, Y. (2007). A national portrait of chronic absenteeism in the early grades.New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty, the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University.

Rumberger, R. W. (2015). Student mobility: Causes, consequences, and solutions. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center, University of Colorado.

Snell L., Smith, G. A., Koteskey, T., Joffe, M., & Bui, T. (2018). A 2018 evaluation of LAUSD’s fiscal outlook: Revisiting the findings of the 2015 Independent Financial Review Panel.Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Unified School District.

Telfair, J., & Shelton, T. L. (2012). Educational attainment as a social determinant of health. North Carolina Medical Journal, 73(5), 358–365.

Tourangeau, K., Nord, C., Lê, T., Sorongon, A. G., & Najarian, M. (2009). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K): Combined User's Manual for the ECLS-K Eighth-Grade and K-8 Full Sample Data Files and Electronic Codebooks. NCES 2009-004. National Center for Education Statistics.

U.S. Department of Education. (2008). A uniform, comparable graduation rate: How the final regulations for Title I hold schools, districts, and states accountable for improving graduation rates. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/reg/proposal/uniform-grad-rate.html

U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2013–2014 Civil Rights Data Collection. A First Look; Key Data Highlights on Equity and Opportunity Gaps in Our Nation’s Public Schools.Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/2013-14-first-look.pdf

U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2015–2016 Civil Rights Data Collection. Chronic absenteeism in the nation’s schools: A hidden educational crisis. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/datastory/chronicabsenteeism.html#one

Utah Education Policy Center [UEPC]. (2012). Research brief: Chronic absenteeism.Retrieved from https://www.schools.utah.gov/file/31291767-087c-4edb-8042-87f272507c1d

Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning

Grades are ubiquitous in public schools as a measure of student achievement; however, the author in this paper raises questions about the validy of grades as a measure of student achievement.

Allen, J. D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational …. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3200/TCHS.78.5.218-223

Sent home and put off track. Closing the school discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion

This study examined students who were first time 9th graders in the 2000-01 school year and follows them through to high school and post-secondary outcomes. The 9th grade suspension data finds that black students, students who are economically disadvantaged, and special education students are disproportionately suspended, both in the frequency of suspensions and the duration of days lost. Disciplinary incidents were found to be interrelated with other of indicators of student disengagement from school, such as course failures and absenteeism

Balfanz, R., Byrnes, V., & Fox, J. H. (2015). Sent home and Put off track. Closing the school discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion, 17-30.

Revisiting the Effect of Teaching of Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Findings

The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of teaching of learning strategies on academic achievement of students. The meta-analysis model was adopted to examine the effectiveness of teaching of learning strategies on academic achievement. According to moderator analyses, it was found that there was no significant difference between effect sizes of the studies in terms of sample size, publication type, course type, implementation duration, instructional level, school setting, and socioeconomic status

Bas, G., & Beyhan, Ö. (2019). Revisiting the Effect of Teaching of Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Findings. International Journal of Research in Education and Science5(1), 70-87.

School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap.

This NCES study explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This study, the first of it's kind, used the 2011 NAEP grade 8 mathematics assessment data. Among the results highlighted in the report, the study indicates that the achievement gap between Black and White students remains whether schools fall in the highest density category or the lowest density category.

Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap (NCES 2015-018). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

Review of Lessongs From State Performance of NAEP: Why Some high-Poverty Students Score Better Than Others

This research aim to find a strong connection between standards-based reform and student outcomes by studied the most recent NAEP data. Their findings believe that states should remain dedicated to standards-based reform. The Common Core is the most recent major policy initiative to advance the broader standards-based reform approach and states should continue their commitment to the Common Core’s full implementation and aligned assessments.

Boser, U., & Brown, C. (2016). Lessons from State Performance on NAEP: Why Some High-Poverty Students Score Better than Others. Center for American Progress.

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Five Key Trends in U.S. Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools

This paper advances the discussion of the achievements differences between the higher and lower social-class groups were increasing, particularly between children in the highest income group and everyone else issue by analyzing trends in the influence of race/ethnicity, social class, and gender on students’ academic performance in the United States. This paper also explores the ways in which English language ability relates to Hispanics’ and Asian Americans’ academic performance over time (Nores and Barnett 2014). 

Carnoy, M., & García, E. (2017). Five Key Trends in US Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools. Economic Policy Institute.

Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

BURIED TREASURE: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8.

This practice guide provides five recommendations for improving students’ mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8. The manual is geared toward teachers, math coaches, other educators, and curriculum developers who want to improve the mathematical problem solving of students.

Clearinghouse, W. W. Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Science (IES) NCEE 2012-4055.

Education Equality in America Comparing the Achievement Gap Across School and Cities

Education Cities and GreatSchools have together launched the Education Equality Index in an attempt to answer "how does the U.S. fare in our effort to provide equal opportunity to all children?" question. The Education Equality Index is the first national comparative measure of the achievement gap between children growing up in low-income communities and their more advantaged peers.

Education Equality in America Comparing the Achievement Gap Across School and Cities. (2016, March). Education Equality Index. Retrieved from http://www.educationequalityindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Education-Equality-in-America-v1-4.pdf

Mathematica's Evaluation of The Equity Project Charter School: High Salaries for Teachers, Positive Impacts on Student Achievement

This research found that by the end of the 2012–2013 school year, TEP’s impacts on student achievement were consistently positive across subjects and cohorts, with especially large effects in math. 

Ferguson, J., McCullough, M., Gil, B. (2014). Mathematica's Evaluation of The Equity Project Charter School: High Salaries for Teachers, Positive Impacts on Student Achievement. Retreived from https://www.mathematica-mpr.com/our-publications-and-findings/publications/if-mathematicas-evaluation-of-the-equity-project-charter-school-high-salaries-for-teachers-positive

A Comparison Study of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Mathematics Assessments

In the United States, nationally representative data on student achievement come primarily from two sources: the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)—also known as “The Nation’s Report Card”—and U.S. participation in international assessments, including the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In Summary, this study  this study found many similarities between the two assessments. However, it also found important differences in the relative emphasis across content areas or categories, in the
role of context, in the level of complexity, in the degree of mathematizing, in the overall amount
of text, and in the use of representations in assessments

Gattis, K., Kim, Y. Y., Stephens, M., Hall, L.D., Liu, F., Holmes, J. A Comparison Study of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Mathematics Assessments. (2016). American Institute for Research. Retrieved from https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Comparison-NAEP-PISA-Mathematics-May-2016.pdf

Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes

High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.

Grade Inflation in High Schools (2005–2016)

This study examines that assumption, asking the question:  how well do student grades correlate with test scores, school demographics, student performance on college entrance exams, and the historical difficulty for getting A’s (is it easier or harder to get A’s).  The study found that students who scored higher on end-of-course (EOC) examinations also had higher grades.  However having high grades did not correlate with doing well on the examination.  

Gershenson, S. (2018). Grade Inflation in High Schools (2005–2016).

Are Students with Disabilities Accessing the Curriculum? A Meta-analysis of the Reading Achievement Gap between Students with and without Disabilities.

This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.

Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830

Highlights From TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context

TIMSS is designed to align broadly with mathematics and science curricula in the participating countries. This report focuses on the performance of U.S. students relative to that of their peers in other countries in 2007, and on changes in mathematics and science achievement since 1995. This report also describes additional details about the achievement of U.S. student subpopulations. All differences described in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level. No statistical adjustments to account for multiple comparisons were used.

Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., & Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of US Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2009-001. National Center for Education Statistics.

When Evidence-based Literacy Programs Fail.

This study examines the implementation of Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) for struggling readers that had been proven to work in early grades. The findings highlight the importance of considering context and implementation, in addition to evidence of effectiveness, when choosing an intervention program. Not only do schools need to adopt programs supported by evidence, but equally educators need to implement them consistently and effectively if students are to truly benefit from an intervention.

Gonzalez, N. (2018). When evidence-based literacy programs fail. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(4), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718815675

2018 Brown Center Report on American Education: Trends in NAEP math, reading, and civics scores

This report is the first chapter of the 2018 Brown Center Report on American Education. This section explore trends in math, reading, and civics performance from the late 1990s through the most recent year in which results are available (2017 in math and reading, 2014 in civics). It show trends in nationwide performance and in test score gaps by race (white-black), ethnicity (white-Hispanic), and family income (based on eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch [FRL]). In doing so, this report examine test score trajectories from the beginning to the end of the No Child Left Behind era (NCLB). The 2017 results, in particular, reflect a boundary in the timeline of education policy, demarcating the end of NCLB and the beginning of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Hansen, M., Levesque, E., Valant, J., & Quintero, D. (2018). The 2018 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well are American Students Learning. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

The effectiveness of the SAT in predicting success early and late in college: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis examines issues of reliability and validity of SAT tests and student grades on student performance in college.

Hezlett, S., Kuncel, N., Vey, A., Ones, D., Campbell, J. & Camara, W. (2001). “The effectiveness of the SAT in predictive success early and late in college: A comprehensive meta-analysis.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education, Seattle, WA.

Higher percentage of Black and Hispanic eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015.

In 2017, the percentages of eighth-grade students who performed at or above the Proficient level were higher for several student groups in comparison to 2015. For example, the percentages of Black and Hispanic eighth-grade students who performed at or above the Proficient level on the reading assessment were higher in 2017 compared to 2015. The percentages of students who performed at or above Proficient were also higher for male and female students, students attending public schools, as well as for eighth-graders attending schools in suburban locations. Compared to 2015, there were no significant changes in the percentages of students performing at or above the Basic level for any reported student group.

Higher percentage of Black and Hispanic eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015. (2017). Nations Report Card.  Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2017/nation/achievement/?grade=8

Higher percentage of eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015.

This Article provide the chart of the percentages of eighth-grade students performing at each of the reading achievement levels in 2017. 

Higher percentage of eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015. (2017). Nations Report Card. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2017/nation/achievement/?grade=8

International surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS

In the last 20 years, international surveys assessing learning in reading, mathematics and science have been headline news because they put countries in rank order according to performance. The three most well known surveys are TIMSS, PISA and PIRLS. The survey offer information about international performances for the use of others in order to drive up education standards everywhere. They also emphasise that their aim is to facilitate dissemination of ideas on which features of education systems lead to the best performances.

International surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS. (2017). Cambridge Assessment international Education. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271193-international-surveys-pisa-timss-pirls.pdf

ACT Scores Drop as More Take Test

This article show evidence of ACT scores drop on 2016. ACT officials attribute the drop to the increasing percentage of high school seniors who have taken the test. Generally, when a larger share of students take a test - in some cases encouraged by state requirements more than the students necessarily being college ready - scores go down.

Jaschnik, S. (2016, August). ACT Scores Drop as More Take Test. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/08/24/average-act-scores-drop-more-people-take-test

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International Tests, Tracking and Ability Grouping, and Advanced Math in 8th Grade.

This is the twelfth edition of the Brown Center Report. Part I examines the latest data from state, national, or international assessments. This year the focus is on the latest results from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) released in December, 2012. Part II explores a perennial theme in education studies—the topics that never seem to go away in terms of research and debate. This year it’s on the controversial topics of tracking and ability grouping. Part III is on a prominent policy or program. This year’s analysis is on the national push for eighth graders to take algebra and other high school math courses. 

Loveless, T. (2013). How well are American students learning? With sections on the latest international tests, tracking and ability grouping, and advanced math in 8th grade. The 2013 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2013-brown-center-report-web-3.pdf

No, The Sky is Not Falling: Interpreting the Latest SAT Scores

The College board was recently released SAT scores for the high school graduating class of 2015. Both math and reading scores declined from 2014, continuing a steady downward trend that has been in place for the past decade. Pundits of contrasting political stripes seized on the scores to bolster their political agendas. Petrilli argued that falling SAT scores show that high schools needs more reform. For Burris, the declining scores were evidence of the failure of policies her organization opposes. This articles pointing out that SAT was never meant to measure national achievement and provide detail explanation. 

Loveless, T. (2015). No, the sky is not falling: Interpreting the latest SAT scores. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2015/10/01/no-the-sky-is-not-falling-interpreting-the-latest-sat-scores/

Classroom social climate and student absences and grades

this paper investigated the relationship between student and teacher perceptions of the social environments of 19 high school classes and student absenteeism rates and the average final grades given by the teacher. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263.

Analysis of the predictive validity of the SAT and high school grades from 1976 to 1983

This study examines validity data for SAT scores and student grades enrolling classes of 1976 to 1985.

Morgan, R. (1989). “Analysis of the predictive validity of the SAT and high school grades from 1976 to 1983.” College Board Report No. 89-7. New York: College Board.

SAT Scores Take a Dip

This article describe about the drop down of SAT score in 2016. 

Mulhere, K. (2016, September). SAT Scores Take a Dip. Money. Retrieved from http://money.com/money/4508286/average-sat-scores-class-2016/

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016

This report examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that, over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college in increasing numbers. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicity persist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.

Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., McFarland, J., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, A., & Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2016). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007. National Center for Education Statistics.

No significant change in the percentage of fourth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015.

This article provide a chart of lists the percentages of fourth-grade students performing at each of the reading achievement levels in 2017.

No significant change in the percentage of fourth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015. (2017). The Nation Report Card. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2017/nation/achievement/?grade=4

Percentages of fourth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading did not change significantly across student groups compared to 2015.

In 2017, the percentages of fourth-grade students who performed at or above Basic and at or above Proficient in reading were not significantly different for most student groups compared to 2015. In comparison to 2015, the percentages of students who performed at or above the Basic level were lower for students eligible and not eligible for the National School Lunch Program, and for students attending schools in the south region.

Percentages of fourth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading did not change significantly across student groups compared to 2015. (2017). Nations Report Card. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2017/nation/achievement/?grade=4

Do Charter Middle Schools Improve Students’ College Outcomes?

This study examines the impact of Charter schools on college enrollment. The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE) used college enrollment and completion data for students who (more than a decade ago) entered lotteries to be admitted to 31 charter middle schools across the United States.The results show that admission to a charter middle school did not affect college outcomes. Additionally, the study finds no consistent relationship between the impact a charter middle school achievement and the school’s impact on college outcomes.

Place, K., & Gleason, P. Do Charter Middle Schools Improve Students’ College Outcomes? (Study Highlights) (No. 61bd53574633412b9136328cb4e143ef). Mathematica Policy Research.

Local education Inequities Across U.S. Revealed in New Stanford Data Set

With an unprecedented data set, Stanford researchers review more than 200 million test scores to spotlight communities with the nation’s worst academic achievement gaps. The research also revealed that nearly all U.S. school districts with substantial minority populations have large achievement gaps between their white and black and white and Hispanic students.

Rabinovitz, J. (2016). Local education inequities across US revealed in new Stanford data set. Retrieved from Stanford News website http://news. stanford. edu/2016/04/29/local-education-inequities-across-us-revealed-newstanford-data-set.

Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility

In this paper, we analyze racial differences in the math section of the general SAT test, using publicly available College Board population data for all of the nearly 1.7 million college-bound seniors in 2015 who took the SAT. The evidence for a stubborn race gap on this test does meanwhile provide a snapshot into the extraordinary magnitude of racial inequality in contemporary American society. Standardized tests are often seen as mechanisms for meritocracy, ensuring fairness in terms of access. But test scores reflect accumulated advantages and disadvantages in each day of life up the one on which the test is taken. Race gaps on the SAT hold up a mirror to racial inequities in society as a whole. Equalizing educational opportunities and human capital acquisition earlier is the only way to ensure fairer outcomes.

Reeves, R. V., Halikias, D. (2017). Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/race-gaps-in-sat-scores-highlight-inequality-and-hinder-upward-mobility/

Race Gap in SAT Math Score are as big as Ever

This article show the evidence for a race gap on the SAT math score and some big issues at stake including: the value of the SAT itself; the case for broader policies to take into account socioeconomic background in college admissions; the obsession with four-year college degrees; and the danger of college as a “bottleneck” in the American opportunity structure. 

Reeves, Richard. (2017, February). Race Gap in SAT Math Score are as big as Ever. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/02/01/race-gaps-in-sat-math-scores-are-as-big-as-ever/

The path to dropping out: Evidence for intervention

In this research-based book, Roderick examines two critical factors impacting graduation or dropping out. They are school transition to middle school and from there to high school and, secondly, grade retention.

Roderick, M. R. (1993). The path to dropping out: Evidence for intervention. Auburn House.

The impact of self-and peer-grading on student learning

In this study the authors evaluate the value of self and peer grading.

Sadler, P. M., & Good, E. (2006). The impact of self-and peer-grading on student learning. Educational assessment. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15326977ea1101_1

 

SAT® Percentile Ranks for 2012 College-Bound Seniors: Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Percentile Ranks by Gender and Ethnic Groups

This table allows you to compare a student’s SAT® scores with the performance of other 2012 college-bound seniors who took the test some time in high school. Please keep in mind that relationships between test scores and other factors are complex and interdependent. Other factors do not directly affect test performance; rather, they are associated with educational experiences both on tests and in schoolwork.

SAT® Percentile Ranks for 2012 College-Bound Seniors: Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Percentile Ranks by Gender and Ethnic Groups. (2012). The College Board. Retrieved from http://secure-media.collegeboard.org/digitalServices/pdf/research/SAT-Percentile-Ranks-by-Gender-Ethnicity-2012.pdf

The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective

In this paper, student-level indicators of opportunity to learn (OTL) included in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment are used to explore the joint relationship of OTL and socioeconomic status (SES) to student mathematics literacy. This paper suggest that in most countries, the organization and policies defining content exposure may exacerbate educational inequalities.

Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher44(7), 371-386.

Digest of Education Statistics 2017

This annual publication is thedefinitive compendium of data on virtually every aspects of education from pre-kindergarten through graduate school. Its chapters include: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Libraries and Use of Technology. 

Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

 

Studies Probe How Schools Widen Achievement Gaps

This article pointing some findings about achievement gap within school.

Sparks, S. D. (2015). Studies Probe How Schools Widen Achievement Gaps. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/10/07/schools-help-widen-academic-gaps-studies-find.html

Comparing TIMSS with NAEP and PISA in Mathematics and Science

The purpose of this document is to provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the 2007 results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) by comparing its design, features, framework, and items with those of the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress and another international assessment in which the United States participates, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The report found, because there are differences in the features, frameworks and items of the national and international assessments, direct comparisons among the assessments are not useful. Rather the results from different studies should be thought of as different lenses through which to view and better understand U.S. student performance.

Stephens, M., and Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing TIMSS with NAEP and PISA in Mathematics and Science. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from 

Comparing PIRLS and PISA with NAEP in Reading, Mathematics, and Science

This document provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the results from two key international assessments that are being released in November and December 2007 and in comparing these results with recent findings from the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress in similar subjects. In sum, there appears to be an advantage in capitalizing on the complementary information presented in national and international assessments. NAEP measures in detail the reading, mathematics and science knowledge of U.S. students as a whole, and can also provide trend information for individual states, different geographic regions, and demographic population groups. International assessments like PIRLS and PISA add value by providing a method for comparing our performance in the United States to the performance of students in other nations. However, their differences need to be recognized when interpreting results. 

Stephens, M., Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing PIRLS and PISA with NAEP in Reading, Mathematics, and Science (Working Paper). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/PISA/pdf/comppaper12082004.pdf

How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?

This article show different approach that researcher took to answer questions on social gradient in education between the countries. Comparing some of these results highlights weak service delivery in many developing countries. Even where resources may be similar, social gradients are steep in some, indicating much worse educational outcomes for the poor. And public resources are often extremely poorly converted into learning. The differential ability of schools and school systems to convert resources into learning outcomes remains a major impediment to improving educational outcomes, and indeed life chances, for the poor.

Van Der Berg, S. (2015). How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/09/how-does-the-rich-poor-learning-gap-vary-across-countries/

Reading Achievement of U.S.Fourth Grade Students in an International Context.

This report summarizes performance on PIRLS and ePIRLS 2016 from a U.S. perspective. PIRLS results are based on nationally representative samples of fourth-graders. The international data reported for PIRLS 2016 in this report cover 58 countries or other education systems, including the United States.

Warner-Griffin, C., Liu, H., Tadler, C., Herget, D., & Dalton, B. (2017). Reading Achievement of US Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context: First Look at the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016 and ePIRLS 2016. NCES 2018-017. National Center for Education Statistics.

Two Models of Learning and Achievement: An Explanation for the Achievement Gap?

A 2015 paper by Stuart Yeh offers evidence on how to improve the performance of all students and close the achievement gap between students of different socioeconomic statuses and races. Yeh hypothesizes that the conventional school system is structured in a way that reduces student motivation to succeed. Students become disengaged after experiencing repeated failure, resulting in depressed achievement and grades. This cycle continues to feed on itself as low achievement and poor grades further decrease motivation, engagement, and achievement. Yeh’s research suggests that two critical factors may account for the phenomenon of substandard student achievement: lack of a system for individualizing task difficulty and insufficient rapid performance feedback. These factors appear to be significantly more powerful than sociocultural circumstances (socioeconomic status or race), lack of accountability, lack of choice and competition, and low teacher quality. 

Yeh, S. S. (2015). Two models of learning and achievement: An explanation for the achievement gap? Teachers College Record117(12), 1–48.

Comparing Alternatives in the Prediction of College Success

This study investigates the prediction of college success as defined by a student’s college GPA. We predict college GPA mid-way through and at the end of their college careers using high school GPA (HSGPA), college entrance exam scores (SAT/ACT) and an open-ended, performance-based assessment of critical thinking and writing skills (CLA). 3,137 college sophomores and 1,330 college seniors participated in this study.

Zahner, D., Ramsaran, L. M., & Steedle, J. T. (2012). Comparing alternatives in the prediction of college success. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada.

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