Education Drivers

Teacher Formative Assessment

Effective ongoing assessment, referred to in the education literature as formative assessment or progress monitoring, is indispensable in promoting teacher and student success. Feedback through formative assessment is ranked at or near the top of practices known to significantly raise student achievement. For decades, formative assessment has been found to be effective in clinical settings and, more important, in typical classroom settings. Formative assessment produces substantial results at a cost significantly below that of other popular school reform initiatives such as smaller class size, charter schools, accountability, and school vouchers. It also serves as a practical diagnostic tool available to all teachers. A core component of formal and informal assessment procedures, formative assessment allows teachers to quickly determine if individual students are progressing at acceptable rates and provides insight into where and how to modify and adapt lessons, with the goal of making sure that students do not fall behind.

Publications

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Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

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Are teacher preparation programs teaching formative assessment?
This probe lookes at research on teacher preparation program's efforts to provide teachers with instruction in formative assessment.
States, J. (2010). Are teacher preparation programs teaching formative assessment? Retrieved from are-teacher-preparation-programs.

 

Presentations

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field
This paper distills the research on effective teaching practices to basic assumptions and core practices. It presents a impact-cost paradigm for rating and prioritizing such practices.
Heward, W. (2013). Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-william-heward.
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Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know

This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.

Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The
Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/
pubs2011/2011033.pdf
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Class Size Reduction Amendment. Retrieved from
http://www.fdoe.org/classsize/
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W. O., Campbell, A., Crosby, E. A., Foster, C. A., Jr.,
...Wallace, R. (1983). A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter
to the American people. A report to the nation and the secretary of education. Retrieved
from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED226006
Gorman, S. (2010). An Introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from http://nces.
ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/parents/2010468.pdf
Grady, S., & Bielick, S. (2010). Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007 (NCES 2010-
004). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010004.pdf
Hall, D., & Gutierrez, A. S. (1998). Getting Honest about High School Graduation. [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/fles/publications/fles/
Session14GettingHonestAboutHSGraduation.ppt
Howell, W., Peterson, P. E., & West, M. (2007).What Americans think about their schools: The
2007 Education Next—PEPG Survey. Education Next, 7(4), 12-26. Retrieved from http://
educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
Luckie, M. S. (2009). California’s class-size-reduction program: Total spending since 1996.
[Interactive Graph]. Retrieved from http://californiawatch.org/k-12/californias-class-sizereduction-program-total-spending-1996
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Grade
12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. (NCES 2011–455).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2009/2011455.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011a). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://
nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=30
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011b). The Nation’s Report Card:
Mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department
of Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011c). The Nation’s Report Card:
Reading 2011. (NCES 2012–457). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). Data Explorer for Long-Term Trend.
[Data fle]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/lttdata/
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012a). Mathematics: Grade 12 National
Results. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer%20information
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012b). Reading: Grade 12 National Results.
Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer information
Nichols, A., & Özek, U. (2010). Public School Choice and Student Achievement in the
District of Columbia. (Working Paper 53). Retrieved from National Center for Analysis of
Longitudinl Data in Education Research - Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/
url.cfm?ID=1001499
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2006). PISA 2006
Technical Report. Paris: Author.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010a). PISA 2009
Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264083943-en
xxx |
Proceedings of the 5th Annual Summit Introduction
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010b). PISA 2009
Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume
IV). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010c). PISA 2009
Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics
and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics, 2009. (NCES 2010-013).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010013.pdf
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S.A. (2011). Digest of Education Statistics 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Stillwell, R. (2010). Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data:
School Year 2007–08. (NCES 2010-341). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute
of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010341
Zinth, K. (2010). Class-Size Policies. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States
website: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/85/21/8521.pdf

Assessment and classroom learning

This paper is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education, 5(1), 7-74.

Effective Teaching: What Is It and How Is It Measured?

Research supports significant difference in the performance of teachers in the top quartile versus the bottom. Teachers working with the most challenging students are often not afforded the status that teachers working with gifted  or advance placement. Students in the bottom quartile are often given the teachers who are frequently given less effective teachers along with new teachers whom research finds are less effective than experienced peers. Research finds current evaluation systems are unable to effectively assess the ability of teachers. This results in teacher not receiving feedback to enable them to improve. These measures infrequently inform teacher assignments, professional development, or career advancement. Teachers are left on their own to self-determine their own strengths and weaknesses. This paper examines how to measure teacher performance and the practices necessary for increasing teacher trust in systems designed to effectively measure performance.

Cantrell, S., & Scantlebury, J. (2011). Effective Teaching: What Is It and How Is It Measured?. Effective Teaching as a Civil Right, 28.

Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems

This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. They argue that if these teacher observation instruments are to achieve the goal of supporting teachers in improving instructional practice, they must be subject-specific, involve content experts in the process of observation, and provide information that is both accurate and useful for teachers. They discuss the instruments themselves, raters and system design, and timing of and feedback from the observations.

Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.

A Longitudinal Examination of the Diagnostic Accuracy and Predictive Validity of R-CBM and High-Stakes Testing

The purpose of this study is to compare different statistical and methodological approaches to standard setting and determining cut scores using R- CBM and performance on high-stakes tests

Hintze, J. M., & Silberglitt, B. (2005). A longitudinal examination of the diagnostic accuracy and predictive validity of R-CBM and high-stakes testing. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 372.

Formative Assessment: A Meta?Analysis And A Call For Research

This meta-analysis examines the impact of formative assessment.

Kingston, N., & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: A meta?analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(4), 28-37.

Measurably superior instruction means close, continual contact with the relevant outcome data: Revolutionary!
The chapter looks at the critical importance of how to effectively measure performance to achieve the greatest impact.
Bushell, D., & Baer, D. M. (1994). Measurably superior instruction means close, continual contact with the relevant outcome data: Revolutionary. Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction, 3-10.
Synthesis of research on reviews and tests.
This study looks at the use of properly spaced reviews and tests as a practice that can dramatically improve classroom learning and retention.
Dempster, F. N. (1991). Synthesis of Research on Reviews and Tests. Educational leadership, 48(7), 71-76.
Using Data-Based Inquiry and Decision Making To Improve Instruction.
This study examines six schools using data-based inquiry and decision-making process to improve instruction.
Feldman, J., & Tung, R. (2001). Using Data-Based Inquiry and Decision Making To Improve Instruction. ERS Spectrum, 19(3), 10-19.
Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities
Alternate assessment and instruction is a key issue for individuals with disabilities. This report presents an analysis, by assessment system component, to identify where and when flexibility can be built into assessments.
Gong, B., & Marion, S. (2006). Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Synthesis Report 60. National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota.
Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making
The purpose of this practice guide is to help teachers and administrators use student achievement data to make instructional decisions.
Hamilton, L., Halverson, R., Jackson, S. S., Mandinach, E., Supovitz, J. A., & Wayman, J. C. (2009). Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2009-4067. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive School-wide Management
This study describes Effective Behavioral Support, a systems approach to enhancing the capacity of schools to adopt and sustain use of effective processes for all students.
Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive Schoolwide Management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.
A Theoretical Framework for Data-Driven Decision Making
The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for more effective data-driven decision making in classrooms, schools, and districts.
Mandinach, E. B., Honey, M., & Light, D. (2006, April). A theoretical framework for data-driven decision making. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Measuring reading comprehension and mathematics instruction in urban middle schools: A pilot study of the Instructional Quality Assessment
The purpose of this research is to investigate the reliability and potential validity of the ratings of Instructional Quality Assessment..
Matsumura, L. C., Slater, S. C., Junker, B., Peterson, M., Boston, M., Steele, M., & Resnick, L. (2006). Measuring Reading Comprehension and Mathematics Instruction in Urban Middle Schools: A Pilot Study of the Instructional Quality Assessment. CSE Technical Report 681. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).
Data-based Decision Making in Education.
This book scrutinizes research from seven countries to answer the following questions: Why is data use important in schools? How does policy influence data use? Which factors enable effective data use? What are the effects of data use?
Schildkamp, K., Lai, M. K., & Earl, L. (2013). Data-based Decision Making in Education.
Involving teachers in data-driven decision making: Using computer data systems to support teacher inquiry and reflection.
This paper outlines effective practices such as accountability reporting and user-friendly data access in the use of student data.
Wayman, J. C. (2005). Involving teachers in data-driven decision making: Using computer data systems to support teacher inquiry and reflection. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(3), 295-308.
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SYNOPSIS
A Meta-Analytic Review of Guided Notes
The purpose of this review is to summarize research on the effectiveness of guided notes.
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