Education Drivers

Coaching

Research provides convincing evidence that teachers wield great influence over student outcomes. Our knowledge base tells us that how teachers teach is instrumental to their success. To leverage this fact, pre-service and in-service programs must use pedagogical techniques offering the greatest likelihood that teachers will master and apply these critical competencies on the job. Research shows that coaching is the most efficacious way to accomplish this goal. By far, coaching outperforms didactic instruction, the most commonly used technique. Coaching is essential to mastering complex skill sets required of every teacher. It improves treatment integrity of practices taught and, unlike other methods, makes more likely that the practices will actually be used in the classroom. Coaches instruct trainees in standards, demonstrate skills, and observe the application of these skills in real-world classroom settings. Coaches provide feedback to trainees, and, based on observation, instruct the trainees in how to improve their performance. Given the disappointing track record of current in-service programs, coaching offer schools a viable alternative for improving services.

Teacher Coaching Overview

Teacher Coaching Overview PDF

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Coaching. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Coaching teachers is an established professional development practice in schools and has been a focus of research (Wood, Goodnight, Bethune, Preston, & Cleaver, 2016). Teacher coaching is a method of professional development that incorporates providing feedback and support, often through modeling of a focused practice and classroom observations followed by reflection conversations (Raney & Robbins, 1989; Wesley & Buysse, 2006). The goal is to change teacher behavior with the ultimate goal of improving student achievement.

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Why is Teacher Coaching Important?

What teachers do in the classroom matters; teacher behavior and classroom practices impact student achievement (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockhoff, 2011). Professional development has been one way that districts have tried to impact teacher practice with the idea that it can shape teacher behavior in ways that impact student knowledge (Yoon, Duncan, Scarloss, & Shapley, 2007). Put another way, professional development may influence student achievement by increasing teacher skill, which improves teachers’ ability to make decisions that positively impact student achievement (Yoon et al., 2007).

When it comes to professional development, quality is important. Federal laws (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Every Student Succeeds Act) have outlined a need for high-quality professional development that improves teacher knowledge and provides effective instruction in research based strategies (U. S. Department of Education, 2001). Specifically, the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) maintains support for evidence based practices in the classroom, funding for effective strategies, and efforts to promote the use of evidence based practices to improve student achievement (ESSA, 2015). Under federal law, high-quality professional development is:

  1. Sustained, intensive, and focused around content,
  2. Aligned with standards and assessments,
  3. Designed to improve teacher knowledge,
  4. Designed to improve teacher use of evidence-based practices, and
  5. Evaluated for its effect on teachers and students (NCLB, 2002).

Even with the focus on professional development that has been in place since the 2000s, there is a range of professional development experiences, including one-day workshops, classes, and coaching. The New Teacher Project (TNTP) found that most professional development does not have the intended impact of improving teacher practice (2015). Coaching, however, stands out as a way to influence teacher practice (Wood et al., 2016). This is important because coaching, in general, is a common and increasingly practiced in schools (L’Allier, Elish-Piper, & Bean, 2011). There are different methods of teacher coaching that have shown to be effective.  

Methods of Teacher Coaching

There are various models of teacher coaching, including supervisory, side-by-side, remote coaching, and multi-level. Each one provides a different level of interaction between the coach and teacher, but all provide the same focus on observation, feedback, and reflection around a focus practice or behavior.  

Peer Coaching

            Peer coaching occurs when teachers are provided with observation, feedback, and coaching by a fellow teacher. The instruction may also involve modeling a focus practice as in a study that engaged teachers in peer coaching around teacher conducted shared reading with think aloud. Compared to teachers in the control group who did not receive coaching, teachers who worked with a peer coach changed their practice around think-alouds, which resulted in an improvement in student comprehension (Fisher, Frey, & Lapp, 2011). An important aspect of the peer coaching approach was the trust relationships established and maintained by teachers during the coaching work.

Side-by-Side Coaching

            Side-by-side coaching occurs when a coach provides in the moment feedback that is directly connected to a focus practice (Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010). Side by side coaching is characterized by being led by another staff member, and provides an opportunity to learn together, reflection, cooperation, and a relationship that aligns the coach and teacher as equals (Akhavan, 2015).

Side by side coaching is often led by another teacher or staff member and may involve co-teaching the lesson to model implementation of the focus practice. After side by side coaching a meeting provides for feedback, strengths, and weaknesses. This type of coaching has been shown to be important to support teachers’ use of newly learned strategies (Kretlow et al., 2011), has demonstrated positive impacts on student learning (Fisher et al., 2011) and is positively received by teachers (Akhavan, 2015).

Remote Coaching

            Coaching can also occur remotely through the use of technology, such as web cams and online chat platforms. In remote or virtual coaching, a coach observes a teacher remotely through a video feed and provides either immediate feedback through a “bug-in-ear” device (e.g., Almendarez et al., 2012) or through a follow-up conversation (e.g., Vernon-Faegans, Keinz, Amendum, Ginsberg, Wood, & Bock, 2012). Specifically, video-conferencing has been effective when implemented alongside an evidence-based practice (Amendum, Vernon-Faegens, & Ginsberg, 2011; Ruble, McGrew, Toland, Dalrymple, & June, 2013; Vernan-Faegans et al., 2012).

For example, Targeted Reading Instruction, a reading intervention that uses one-on-one instructional reading skill lessons has teacher coaching as part of the intervention. Virtual or in-person coaching is used to provide feedback and problem solve around student concerns (Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012). Using this method, students who receive the intervention scored higher on reading skills than those that do not (Amendum et al., 2011; Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012).

In another study, when teachers of students with autism were coached in the evidence-based practice, Collaborative Model of Prompting Competence and Success (COMPASS), teachers who received coaching either face-to-face or online demonstrated greater fidelity to the practice than the control group (Ruble et al., 2013). Furthermore, students demonstrated greater goal attainment in the three target domains (communication, social skills, and independence) with large effect sizes for both the in person group (ES = 1.41) and the web based coaching group (ES = 1.12), suggesting that results can be achieved through either in person or online coaching.

Differentiating Professional Development: Multilevel Coaching

Multilevel Coaching is coaching provided within a model of Multi-tiered System of Supports (e.g., Response To Intervention) that provides professional development with follow up supervisory coaching or side-by-side coaching for teachers to support full implementation (Simonsen et al., 2014; Wood et al., 2016). Within this model, teachers are provided with an initial professional development (e.g., a one-time workshop). Then, based on their ability to implement the focus practice, teachers are provided with coaching (Schnorr, 2013; Simonsen, Macsuga-Gage, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2014).

One study that examined teacher fidelity found that when teachers were provided with varying levels of professional development (in-service, supervisory coaching, and side-by-side coaching) based on the teacher’s initial treatment integrity of an instructional practice, not all teachers required coaching to produce positive changes in their practice (Schnorr, 2013). The focus of the professional development, including coaching, is to support teachers until they are all working at an acceptable level of fidelity, which may include providing some teachers with more coaching than others (Schnorr, 2013; Simonsen et al., 2014). In this model, teachers are provided with an initial training and their treatment integrity is recorded, if the teacher is not delivering the instruction at a high enough level of integrity, then they receive coaching until they reach the optimal level of integrity, which requires varying amounts of coaching depending on the teacher’s starting point and rate of learning.

Research on Coaching

Coaching has an established and growing research foundation including meta-analysis of research that brings multiple research studies together[RD1] [SC2] .

In one review, Kretlow and Bartholomew (2010) reviewed 13 studies conducted between 1989 and 2009 that involved teacher coaching. The review focused on 13 studies that specifically measured change in teacher practice using quantitative measures. The studies included 110 elementary-level teachers that received coaching (41 general and 69 special education teachers). All the studies incorporated a measure of teaching accuracy related to an evidence-based practice. All 13 studies found that the coaching increased the accuracy of teacher practice. Eight studies reported student outcomes, and of those, only three reported a positive change in student performance based on coaching provided. A lack of change in student performance may be because the studies were limited in length and it would take more time to see a change in student performance. Also, the student performance outcomes were limited (e.g., spelling tests, IEP goal completion) which may have contributed to the limited change in student performance.

In a recent meta-analysis, Kraft, Blazar, and Hogan (2018) examined 66 studies that involved teacher coaching across the grades (PreK-grade 12) and that had a causal design, such as a random controlled trial, or that included teachers who were and were not coached so that a comparison could be drawn. The studies also examined the effects of coaching on instruction and student achievement. The researchers combined the results from the studies for an effect size of 0.49 on instruction and 0.18 on student achievement[RD3] [SC4] (the[MOU5] [SC6] effect size is a way to show the difference between two groups, the smaller the effect size, the smaller the difference between groups that received, in this case, coaching and the group that did not). These effects were found for content-specific coaching, not for general coaching. And, coaching was equally effective across grade levels and for virtual compared to in-person coaching. (However, data provided for virtual coaching were less reliable.) In addition, they found that coaching must be provided in high doses to be effective.

Together, these reviews (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010) support the use of coaching overall with a focus on content and that were intensive, or provided in high doses.

The Impact of Coaching on Teacher Practice and Student Outcomes

Teacher coaching has been shown to have an impact on teacher practice. In one study, teacher coaching had an impact on instruction in reading comprehension with a moderate effect size (0.64), meaning that teachers who received coaching delivered reading instruction that was much more aligned with the focus practice than teachers who did not (Sailors & Price, 2010).

Coaching has also had an impact on the classroom environment. In a study that focused on coaching teachers in Head Start programs, teachers improved in their classroom environment (e.g., the quality of the writing area) but not in their interactions (e.g., interactions that support language; Neuman & Wright, 2010; Powell et al., 2010). This indicates that teachers may change lower level behaviors, or those that require a one-time shift, like organizing a lesson, faster than higher level behaviors, or those that require processes and higher order skills, like questioning.

Furthermore, providing sustained coaching over time has shown to improve teacher practice, particularly when teachers have a low level of implementation fidelity when they use a new practice. In a study that trained teachers in a universal classroom management intervention (Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management system) with ongoing coaching, teachers who started with lower levels of fidelity of implementation received more coaching and demonstrated an increase in fidelity over time. In comparison, teachers who started with higher levels of fidelity but received less coaching demonstrated a decrease in implementation fidelity over time. This supports the practice of maintaining coaching with all teachers to support high levels of fidelity (Reinke et al., 2013).

Teacher practice can be improved through coaching (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010), which is important because professional development on the whole does not always produce the intended changes (Guskey & Yoon, 2009). However, though coaching has a strong impact on teacher behaviors in the classroom, studies indicate smaller effects (0.18; Kraft et al., 2018) on the impact of teacher coaching on student achievement. The hypothesis that improving teacher fidelity of evidence based practices will influence student achievement outcomes is a focus of future research.

Implications for Practice

First, coaching must be implemented well to see the results found in research.

Kretlow and Bartholomew (2010) identified critical aspects of coaching that produced changes in teacher practice:

  1. Teachers were involved in a highly engaging initial training that incorporated modeling and small group practice.
  2. Teachers received follow up observations that were repeated and frequent. The number of observations ranged from two to daily for multiple weeks. This is key because teachers are not regularly observed after initial training (Yoon et al., 2007).
  3. Teachers received specific feedback that incorporated individualized observation data and self-evaluation.

Kraft et al. (2018) identified qualities of effective coaching. It provides:

  1. Individualized support, or coaching was provided through one-on-one coaching sessions,
  2. Teachers received intensive support with regular interactions (every two weeks),
  3. Coaching was sustained over an extended period of time, such as a school year,
  4. Teachers were coached on practices that they implemented in their own classrooms, and
  5. Coaching focused on specific skills.

Considerations for Implementation  

Teacher coaching is a method of adult learning, so efforts should be focused on implementing teacher coaching programs that are focused on teachers as adult learners. To that end, coaches should be able to:

  1. Focus on data to support instruction,
  2. Demonstrate adult learning practices to mirror classroom practice,
  3. Construct and apply knowledge and skills in classroom contexts,
  4. Focus on teacher content knowledge and leadership,
  5. Connect and align with the larger system, and
  6. Engage in data-driven decision making (measure, document, reflect, and adjust; Annenburg Institute for School Reform, 2004).

To be effective, Grabacz, Lannie, Jeffrey-Pearsall, and Truckenmiller (2015) identified that coaches should:

  1. Set clear goals for the coaching that provide teachers with an understanding of the outcomes for the coaching work,
  2. Model skills and provide teachers with opportunities to practice skills outside of the classroom (behavioral rehearsal) and within the classroom context,
  3. Provide feedback on skills either in the moment through bug-in-ear technology or hand signals, or immediately afterwards,
  4. Provide effective feedback that is timely, concrete, and specific (Veenman & Denneson, 2001), and
  5. Provide reinforcement and encouragement as teachers develop skill.

In their study of teachers that implemented a questioning technique in the classroom, specifically Question-the-Author (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kugan, 1997), Matsumura, Garnier, and Spybrook (2012) identified aspects of their model that may contribute to positive results:

  1. The coach had a clear role in the classroom and that role was well understood,
  2. The coaches received extensive training, and
  3. The focus strategy had a strong evidence base.

From this, it would be important to choose a focus practice that is an evidence-based practice or one that has a strong research base, and provide strong coaching around that practice.

            Planning coaching as professional development necessitates identifying coaches. In a survey of teachers who had received coaching, Akhavan (2015) identified characteristics of effective coaches:

  1. They had strong people skills and developed good working relationships with the teachers they worked with,
  2. They focused on teacher development,
  3. They had time to be available to each teacher, and
  4. They were able to help teachers use data to plan instruction.

            Finally, as school leaders make decisions around how to allocate resources, it is important to keep in mind that not all teachers may require intensive coaching. Providing multi-level coaching based on a teacher’s level of implementation may help maximize resources while producing the same results in teacher implementation (Simonson eta al., 2014; Wood et al., 2016).

Need for Future Research in Teacher Development

The primary need in research on coaching is research that connects teacher coaching efforts to improvements in student performance (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010), which requires research that draws a causal connection between coaching and student performance (Borko, 2004; Yoon et al., 2007).

While changes in teacher practice are an established outcome from coaching, the level of treatment integrity on student performance is another area for further development. Specifically, studies, like those on multi-level coaching, that focused on improving teacher treatment integrity, often focused more on advancing teacher practice from low to high integrity may produce different results than when a high level of integrity is followed by a decrease in integrity. Future research that examines how teachers implement evidence-based practices over time and how the level of treatment integrity impacts student performance

Finally, there are questions around the type of coaching, the dosage, and the interactions that occur during coaching that influence student outcomes that can help inform coach practice (Wood et al., 2016).

Cost/Benefit of Teacher Coaching Compared to Professional Development

The cost of coaching will vary depending on the district and goals (e.g., the cost of an on-site staff coach will differ from a one-time project-based coach). One study (Knight, 2012) attempted to define the cost of coaching. The study found an average cost-per-teacher for coaching across three schools to range from $3,620 to $5,220, a cost that is six to 12 times more expensive than traditional professional development. However, considering that teachers do not generally use practices that are taught through one-time in-service sessions (Farkas, Johnson, & Duffett, 2003) it may be worth the extra cost to influence teacher practice.

Conclusion

Teacher coaching is one way to improve teacher practice, specifically related to evidence-based practices. When incorporated thoughtfully into a professional development strategy, coaching can provide the intensive support that teachers need to deepen their knowledge of a practice and improve their ability to implement it in the classroom. 

Citations

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M.

(2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Faegans, L. V., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a

technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal, 112, 107-131.

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional

development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author:

An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based

interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain.

Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15.

Chetty, R., Freidman, J. N., & Rockhoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers:

Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. (Working Paper 17699). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 et seq. (2015).

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves

comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator,

46(3), 231-243

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffery-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies

for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure, 59(4), 263-273.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta

Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709

Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002).Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.).

Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education

Finance, 38(1), 52-80.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and

achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence.Review of Educational Research, 88,547-588.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of

evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33, 279-299.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase

teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education, 33, 348-361.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase

kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44,234-246.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy

coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on

the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From

research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early

childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early

literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching.

Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Reinke, W. M., Stormont, M., Herman, K. C., Newcomer, L. (2014). Using coaching to support

teacher implementation of classroom-based interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23,150-167.

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized

controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy

instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based

strategies during beginning reading instruction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,

University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development.

Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Simonson, B., Macsuga-Gage, A. S., Briere, D. E., Freeman, J., Myers, D., Scott, T. M., &

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

  1. S. Department of Education. (2001). Teacher Preparation and Professional Development:
  2. 2000. (National Center for Education Statistics Report No. 2001-088). Washington, DC: Author.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Vernan-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Amendum, S., Ginsberg, M., Wood, T., & Bock, A. (2012).

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse

& P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of

professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the

evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement(Issues and Answers Report, REL 2007-No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/REL_2007033.pdf

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

 

Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Informal Teacher Evaluation

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Informal Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What

This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of staff development methods that include, didactic presentation, modeling, practice with feedback, and coaching.

States, J. (2011). What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices? Retrieved from what-teacher-training-methods.

Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
What areas do principals express as needing additional support?
This analysis examines principal's need for additional support and training based upon the North Carolina Working Conditions Survey.
States, J. (2014). What areas do principals express as needing additional support? Retrieved from what-areas-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role
This paper describes the development, content and delivery of a professional development course for Principals regarding their role in multi-tiered systems of school-wide positive behavior supports.
Eber, L. (2015). Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-lucille-eber.
Now What? The Current State of Principal Preparation, Evaluation, and Support
This paper examines the current state of principal development in the context of best practices, including: evidence-based curriculum, well-trained instructors, effective coaching, and ongoing feedback and support.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Now What? The Current State of Principal Preparation, Evaluation, and Support [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Is the three-term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction?

Two experiments are reported which test the effect of increased three-term contingency trials on students' correct and incorrect math responses. The results warrant further research to test whether or not rates of presentation of three-term contingency trials are predictors of effective instruction.

Albers, A. E., & Greer, R. D. (1991). Is the three-term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction?. Journal of Behavioral Education1(3), 337-354.

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Faegans, L. V., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal, 112, 107-131.

 

ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment

Value-Added Models (VAMs) has been embraced by many states and school districts as part of educational accountability systems. Value-Added Assessment (VAA) Models attempt to estimate effects of individual teachers or schools on student achievement while accounting for differences in student background. This paper provides a summary of the American Statistical Associations analysis of the efficacy of value-added modeling in education.

American Statistical Association. (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

Teacher evaluations: What is the issue and why does it matter? Policy snapshot

A report by TNTP finds 99 percent of teachers are rated good or great, confirming related findings that evaluation systems are not meaningfully differentiating teachers or providing useful feedback. TNTP recommends states use student growth as one measure of teacher effectiveness.

Aragon, S. (2018). Teacher Evaluations: What Is the Issue and Why Does It Matter? Policy Snapshot. Education Commission of the States.

Evaluating the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England.

This paper evaluates the impact of a performance-related pay scheme for teachers in England. 

Atkinson, A., Burgess, S., Croxson, B., Gregg, P., Propper, C., Slater, H., & Wilson, D. (2009). Evaluating the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England. Labour Economics16(3), 251-261.

Problems with the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers

There is also little or no evidence for the claim that teachers will be more motivated to improve student learning if teachers are evaluated or monetarily rewarded for student test score gains. 

Baker, E. L., Barton, P. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., Ladd, H. F., Linn, R. L., ... & Shepard, L. A. (2010). Problems with the Use of Student Test Scores to Evaluate Teachers. EPI Briefing Paper# 278. Economic Policy Institute.

The Gates Foundation bet big on teacher evaluation. The report it commissioned explains how those efforts fell short.

Bad teachers were the problem; good teachers were the solution. It was a simplified binary, but the idea and the research it drew on had spurred policy changes across the country, including a spate of laws establishing new evaluation systems designed to reward top teachers and help weed out low performers. Behind that effort was the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which backed research and advocacy that ultimately shaped these changes.

Barnum, M. (2018, June 21). The Gates Foundation bet big on teacher evaluation. The report it commissioned explains how those efforts fell short. Chalkbeat.Retrieved from https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/06/21/the-gates-foundation-bet-big-on-teacher-evaluation-the-report-it-commissioned-explains-how-those-efforts-fell-short/

 

Finding your feedback strategies for designing and delivering performance feedback systems.

This article focuses on one method of follow-up: performance feedback

Barton, E. E., Kinder, K., Casey, A. M., & Artman, K. M. (2011). Finding your feedback fit: Strategies for designing and delivering performance feedback systems. Young Exceptional Children, 14(1), 29–46. doi: 10.1177/1096250610395459

Proceed With Caution: Using Web-Based Resources for Instructing Students With and at Risk for EBD.

This article examines issues relating to the use of websites popular with educators. This article offers guidelines for maximizing the usefulness of such sites and for avoiding many of the pitfall educators may face.

Beahm, L. A., Cook, B. G., & Cook, L. (2019). Proceed With Caution: Using Web-Based Resources for Instructing Students With and at Risk for EBD. Beyond Behavior28(1), 13-20.

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the measures of effective teaching project

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2010). Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the measures of effective teaching project.Retrieved from https://docs.gatesfoundation.org/documents/preliminary-findings-research-paper.pdf

Conceptions of beginning teacher quality: Models for conducting research

In this paper, we consider traditions of research on teaching and how conceptions of good teaching evolved as traditions changed.

Blanton, L. P., Sindelar, P. T., Correa, V., Harman, M., McDonnell, J., & Kuhel, K. (2003). Conceptions of beginning teacher quality: Models for conducting research(COPSSE Doc. No. RS-6). Gainesville, FL: Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education (COPSSE), University of Florida. Retrieved from http://copsse.education.ufl.edu//docs/RS-6/1/RS-6.pdf

Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores.

Over the objection of the teachers' union, the Board of Education here on Thursday unanimously approved the nation's largest merit pay program, which calls for rewarding teachers based on how well their students perform on standardizes tests. 

Blumenthal, R. (2006). Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores. New York Times13.

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Direct Instruction Reading

This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English. 

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

The Performance Effect of Feedback Frequency and Detail: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Customer Satisfaction

This paper presents the results from a field experiment that examines the effects of nonfinancial performance feedback on the behavior of professionals working for an insurance repair company.

Casas‐Arce, P. A. B. L. O., Lourenço, S. M., & MARTÍNEZ‐JEREZ, F. A. (2017). The performance effect of feedback frequency and detail: Evidence from a field experiment in customer satisfaction. Journal of Accounting Research55(5), 1051-1088.

How much are districts spending to implement teacher evaluation systems: Case studies of Hillsborough County Public Schools, Memphis City Schools, and Pittsburgh Public Schools.

This report presents case studies of the efforts by three school districts, Hillsborough County Public Schools (HCPS), Memphis City Schools (MCS), and Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS), to launch, implement, and operate new teacher evaluation systems as part of a larger reform effort called the Partnership Sites to Empower Effective Teaching. 

Chambers, J., Brodziak de los Reyes, I., & O'Neil, C. (2013). How Much are Districts Spending to Implement Teacher Evaluation Systems?.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Informal Teacher Evaluation

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Informal Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.

Applied Behavior Analysis

This book is a comprehensive description of the principles and procedures for systematic change of socially significant behavior. It includes basic principles, applications, and behavioral research methods.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis.

Evaluations that help teachers learn.

This article addresses the topics of staff assessment, teacher supervision, and professional development.

Danielson, C. (2011). Evaluations that help teachers learn. Educational leadership68(4), 35-39.

The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition

The Framework for Teaching identifies those aspects of a teacher's responsibilities that have
been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting
improved student learning.

Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition. Retrieved from http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/teachers-leaders/practicerubrics/Docs/danielson-teacher-rubric-2013-instructionally-focused.pdf

Policies that support professional development in an era of reform.

In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.

Evaluating teacher evaluation: Popular modes of evaluating teachers are fraught with inaccuracies and inconsistencies

Popular modes of evaluating teachers are fraught with inaccuracies and inconsistencies, but the field has identified better approaches. Value-added models enable researchers to use statistical methods to measure changes in student scores over time while considering student characteristics and other factors often found to influence achievement.

Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation: Popular modes of evaluating teachers are fraught with inaccuracies and inconsistencies, but the field has identified better approaches. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 8–15.Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/03/01/kappan_hammond.html

Implementation Quality: Lessons Learned in the Context of the Head Start REDI Trial

This study uses data collected in the intervention classrooms of Head Start REDI (Research- based, Developmentally Informed), a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a comprehensive preschool curriculum targeting children’s social-emotional competence, language, and emergent literacy skills delivered by teachers who received weekly coaching support.

Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Jones, D., Gill, S., & DeRousie, R. M. S. (2010). Implementation quality: Lessons learned in the context of the Head Start REDI trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly25(3), 284-298.

The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time

The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through offers a practical, time-saving alternative that impacts student achievement by cultivating self-reliant teachers who are continuously improving their practice.

Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K. (2004). The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators

This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.

Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Developing principals as instructional leaders

This paper describes a continuous learning model of principal and superintendent support. The model places a premium on engagement at all levels of the system on shaping a focused culture of instruction within their schools.

Fink, E., & Resnick, L. B. (2001). Developing principals as instructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(8), 598-610.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement

To help states and districts make informed decisions about the PD they implement to improve reading instruction, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned the Early Reading PD Interventions Study to examine the impact of two research-based PD interventions for reading instruction: (1) a content-focused teacher institute series that began in the summer and continued through much of the school year (treatment A) and (2) the same institute series plus in-school coaching (treatment B).

Garet, M. S., Cronen, S., Eaton, M., Kurki, A., Ludwig, M., Jones, W., ... Zhu, P. (2008). The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement. NCEE 2008-4030. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Make Room for the Principal Supervisors

This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired personnel to coach and evaluate its principals.

Gill, J., (2013). Make Room for the Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.

A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems

This guide is a tool designed to assist states and districts in constructing high-quality teacher evaluation systems in an effort to improve teaching and learning.

Goe, L., Holdheide, L., & Miller, T. (2011). A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Is this just a bad class? Assessing the stability of measured teacher performance

This paper report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given that new workforce policies implicitly assume that effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers.

Goldhaber, D. D., & Hansen, M. (2008). Is it Just a Bad Class?: Assessing the Stability of Measured Teacher Performance. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job

This paper provide some recommendations to increase the pool of potential teachers, make it tougher to award tenure to those who perform least well, and reward effective teachers who are willing to work in schools serving large numbers of low-income, disadvantaged children. 

Gordon, R., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2006). Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job. The Hamilton Project Policy Brief No. 2006-01. Brookings Institution.

Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?

This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning. 

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education20(3), 265-275.

Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired

Is dismissing poorly performing teachers truly feasible in America today? After all the political capital (and real capital) spent on reforming teacher evaluation, can districts actually terminate ineffective teachers who have tenure or have achieved veteran status?

Griffith, D., & McDougald, V. (2016). Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://edex. s3-us-west-2. amazonaws. com/publication/pdfs2812, 29.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Teacher characteristics and gains in student achievement: Estimation using micro-data.

The major objective of this data analysis was to estimate the relationship between variables which can be controlled by public policy and educational output. 

Hanushek, E. A. (1971). Teacher characteristics and gains in student achievement: Estimation using micro data. American Economic Review61(2), 280-288.

Teacher Deselection.

This discussion provides a quantitative statement of one approach to achieving the governors’ (and the nation’s) goals – teacher deselection.

Hanushek, E. A. (2009). Teacher deselection. Creating a new teaching profession168, 172-173.

Impact of performance feedback delivered via electronic mail on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise.

This paper examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior. 

Hemmeter, M. L., Snyder, P., Kinder, K., & Artman, K. (2011). Impact of performance feedback delivered via electronic mail on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise. Early Childhood Research Quarterly26(1), 96-109.

Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems

This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. 

Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.

Focusing the new design: The NAEP 1988 technical report

The 1988 NAEP surveyed American students' knowledge of reading, writing, civics, U.S. history, and geography.

Johnson, E. G., & Zwick, R. (1990). Focusing the new design: The NAEP 1988 technical report. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Studies, 17,95–109.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Training Teachers to Use Environmental Arrangement and Milieu Teaching with Nonvocal Preschool Children

This study investigated the effects of training preschool teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching in interactions with children using augmented communication systems. Three teachers were taught seven environmental strategies and four milieu teaching procedures through written materials, lecture, modeling, role-playing, and feedback.

Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps18(3), 188-199.

Training Teachers to Use Environmental Arrangement and Milieu Teaching with Nonvocal Preschool Children

This study investigated the effects of training preschool teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching in interactions with children using augmented communication systems. Three teachers were taught seven environmental strategies and four milieu teaching procedures through written materials, lecture, modeling, role-playing, and feedback.

Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps18(3), 188-199.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Gathering Feedback for Teaching: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains.

This report presents an in-depth discussion of the analytical methods and findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project’s analysis of classroom observations.1 A nontechnical companion report describes implications for policymakers and practitioners.

Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering Feedback for Teaching: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data

This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures of teachers' ability to improve student achievement as a step toward addressing these challenges. The results point to the promise of teacher evaluation systems that would use information from both classroom observations and student test scores to identify effective teachers.

Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. Journal of human Resources, 46(3), 587-613.

 

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

Instructional coaching

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. 

Knight, J. (2006). Instructional Coaching. School Administrator63(4), 36.

Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction

This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.  

Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

The impact of feedback frequency on learning and task performance: Challenging the “more is better” assumption.

This paper challenge the “more is better” assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual’s cognitive resource capacity, thus reducing task effort and producing an inverted-U relationship with learning and performance over time. 

Lam, C. F., DeRue, D. S., Karam, E. P., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2011). The impact of feedback frequency on learning and task performance: Challenging the “more is better” assumption. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes116(2), 217-228.

Examining the validity of ratings from a classroom observation instrument for use in a district’s teacher evaluation system

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of teacher evaluation scores that are derived from an observation tool, adapted from Danielson's Framework for Teaching, designed to assess 22 teaching components from four teaching domains.

Lash, A., Tran, L., & Huang, M. (2016). Examining the Validity of Ratings from a Classroom Observation Instrument for Use in a District's Teacher Evaluation System. REL 2016-135. Regional Educational Laboratory West.

Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process

Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning

This study analyzed three urban districts' efforts to improve the instructional quality and performance of their schools. The study also assessed the efforts made in four: (1) promoting the instructional leadership of principals; (2) supporting the professional learning of teachers, in particular through school-based coaching models; (3) specifying curriculum; (4) and promoting data-based decision making for planning and instructional improvement.

Marsh, J. A., Kerr, K. A., Ikemoto, G. S., Darilek, H., Suttorp, M., Zimmer, R. W., & Barney, H. (2005). The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning. RAND Corporation.

The two purposes of teacher evaluation

ver one year, the author asked more than 3,000 educators their opinions about these two basic purposes by presenting them with a scale that has five values. 

Marzano, R. J. (2012). Teacher Evaluation: What’s fair? What’s effective? The two purposes of teacher evaluation. Educational Leadership, 70(3), 14–19. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov12/vol70/num03/The-Two-Purposes-of-Teacher-Evaluation.aspx

Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching

The authors show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops. 

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Ascd.

School leadership that works: From research to results

Building on the analysis that was first reported in School Leadership That Works, the authors of Balanced Leadership identify the 21 responsibilities associated with effective leadership and show how they relate to three overarching responsibilities: 

Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2001). School leadership that works: From research to results. ASCD.

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts

This study examines implementation of alternative student growth measures in a sample of eight school districts that were early adopters of the measures. It builds on an earlier Region­ al Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic report that described the two types of alterna­tive student growth measures—alternative assessment–based value-added models and student learning objectives—in the early-adopting districts.

McCullough, M., English, B., Angus, M. H., & Gill, B. (2015). Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts (No. 8a9dfcb1bc6143608448114ea9b69d06). Mathematica Policy Research.

What is the purpose of teacher evaluation today? A conversation between Bellwether and Fordham.

In December 2016, Bellwether Education Partners and The Thomas B. Fordham Institute independently released two reports centered on teacher evaluation and its consequences. Both reports offer a glimpse into ongoing challenges and opportunities with teacher evaluation reform, but they have very different analyses. 

McDougald, V., Griffith, D., Pennington, K., & Mead, S. (2016). What is the purpose of teacher evaluation today? A conversation between Bellwether and Fordham. Retrieved from https://edexcellence.net/articles/what-is-the-purpose-of-teacher-evaluation-today-a-conversation-between-bellwether-and

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Providing Teachers with Performance Feedback on Praise to Reduce Student Problem Behavior

This study examined the effect of a visual performance feedback intervention (i.e., a simple, computer-generated line graph) on teachers' rate of praise for students' academic and behavioral performance and subsequent changes in students' rates of problem behavior.

Mesa, J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Reinke, W. (2005). Providing Teachers with Performance Feedback on Praise to Reduce Student Problem Behavior. Beyond Behavior15(1), 3-7.

Validity research on teacher evaluation systems based on the framework for teaching.

This paper summarizes validity evidence pertaining to several different implementations of the Framework. It is based primarily on reviewing the published and unpublished studies that have looked at the relationship between teacher evaluation ratings made using systems based on the Framework and value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.

Milanowski, A. T. (2011). Validity Research on Teacher Evaluation Systems Based on the Framework for Teaching. Online Submission.

The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.

Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627. 

A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform.

This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform. Retrieved from https://www.edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/A_Nation_At_Risk_1983.pdf

 

 
Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Promoting Language and Literacy Development for Early Childhood Educators: A Mixed-Methods Study of Coursework and Coaching

The goal of the study was to examine the effects of coaching or professional development coursework on teacher knowledge and teacher practice.

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 111,63–86.

Instructional Coaching Program and Practice Standards

The New Teacher Center has released guidelines and standards for the implementation of coaching as a powerful means of improving school, teacher, and ultimately student performance. The Instructional Coaching Program Standardsdefine the essential elements of a coaching program designed to accelerate teacher effectiveness. 

New Teacher Center (2018). Instructional Coaching Program and Practice Standards. New Teacher Center. https://newteachercenter.org

 

How large are teacher effects?

This research use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement.

Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3),237–257.

Teacher evaluation: A comprehensive guide to new directions and practices

This handbook advocates a new approach to teacher evaluation as a cooperative effort undertaken by a group of professionals.

Peterson, K. D. (2000). Teacher evaluation: A comprehensive guide to new directions and practices. Corwin Press.

Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us

In this provocative and persuasive new book, the author asserts that the secret to high performance and satisfaction-at work, at school, and at home—is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.

Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Penguin.

Instructional alignment as a measure of teacher quality.

This article is the first to explore the extent to which teachers’ instructional alignment is associated with their contributions to student learning and their effectiveness on new composite evaluation measures using data from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Measures of Effective Teaching study.

Polikoff, M. S, & Porter, A. C. (2014). Instructional alignment as a measure of teacher quality. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 64(3), 212–225Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/Newsroom/Recent-AERA-Research/Instructional-Alignment-as-a-Measure-of-Teaching-Quality 

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data

In order to provide accurate estimates of how much teachers affect the achievement of their students, this study used panel data covering over a decade of elementary student test scores and teacher assignment in two contiguous New Jersey school districts.

Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American economic review94(2), 247-252.

Teacher Efficacy and the Effects of Coaching on Student Achievement 1

This research considers relationships between student achievement (knowledge and cognitive skill), teacher efficacy (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), and interactions with assigned coaches (self-report measures) in a sample of 18 grade 7 and 8 history teachers in 36 classes implementing a specific innovation with the help of 6 coaches.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.

Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement.

The author develop falsification tests for three widely used VAM specifications, based on the idea that future teachers cannot influence students' past achievement. 

Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics125(1), 175-214.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation.

This study examined the relative magnitude of teacher effects on student achievement while simultaneously considering the in¯uences of intraclassroom heterogeneity, student achievement level, and class size on academic growth.

Sanders, W. L., Wright, S. P., & Horn, S. P. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation and Education, 11(1)57–67.

Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation.

This study examined the relative magnitude of teacher effects on student achievement while simultaneously considering the in¯uences of intraclassroom heterogeneity, student achievement level, and class size on academic growth.

Sanders, W. L., Wright, S. P., & Horn, S. P. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation and Education, 11(1)57–67.

Teacher evaluation: A conceptual framework and examples of country practices.

This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyze teacher evaluation. It elaborates on the main components of a comprehensive teacher evaluation model and explains the main aspects to be taken into account for designing a teacher evaluation model.

Santiago, P., & Benavides, F. (2009). Teacher evaluation: A conceptual framework and examples of country practices.Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/school/44568106.pdf

Teacher evaluation: An issue overview.

Teacher evaluations matter a lot—both to teachers and to those holding them accountable. But how can schools measure the performance of all teachers fairly? And what should they do with the results?

Sawchuk, S. (2015). Teacher evaluation: An issue overview. Education Week35(3), 1-6.

Teacher Evaluation

Teacher evaluation can be a very sensitive topic for teachers and program administrators alike. Evaluations need to be fair and relevant to both teachers and programs.

Sayavedra, M. (2014). Teacher evaluation. ORTESOL Journal, 31, 1–9.

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

Teacher evaluation: Guide to professional practice.

This book is organized around four dominant interrelated core issues: professional standards, a guide to applying the Joint Committee's Standards, ten alternative models for the evaluation of teacher performance, and an analysis of these selected models. 

Shinkfield, A. J., & Stufflebeam, D. L. (2012). Teacher evaluation: Guide to effective practice (Vol. 41). Springer Science & Business Media.

Teachers coaching teachers

This article describe teachers coaching teaching including the purpose, process, who should coach, and the effects of the coaching. 

Showers, B. (1985). Teachers coaching teachers. Educational leadership42(7), 43-48.

Lean on Me: Peer Mentoring for Novice Principals

This study focuses on the experiences of ten novice principals involved in a principal mentoring program in a large urban school district to examine the connections of theory and practice from training received in their administrative preparation program. It sought to understand the impact of receiving support and mentoring in retaining principals. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the importance of networking with other principals, (2) individualized support with mentors, and (3) continuous development and professional growth. The research presented will contribute to the agenda of retaining quality administrators in the field.

Simieou, F., Decman, J., Grigsby, B., & Schumacher, G. (2010). Lean on me: Peer mentoring for novice principals. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 5(1), 1-9.

Teacher pay for performance: Experimental evidence from the project on incentives in teaching

This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice.

Springer, M. G., Ballou, D., Hamilton, L., Le, V. N., Lockwood, J. R., McCaffrey, D. F., ... & Stecher, B. M. (2011). Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT). Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

The countenance of educational evaluation

In his 1964 paper, "Course Improvement through Evaluation, " Lee Cronbach urged another step: a most generous inclusion of behavioral - science variables in order to examine the possible causes and effects of quality teaching He proposed that the main objective for evaluation is to uncover durable relationships -those appropriate for guiding future educational programs.

 

Stake, R. E. (1967). The countenance of educational evaluation. Teachers College Record68, 523–540.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.543.5561&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection

Peer observation aims to support the sharing of practice, and builds self-awareness about the impact of one's teaching practice in order to affect change.

State Government of Victoria, Australia. (2019). Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection.Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/classrooms/Pages/approachesppnpeerobstip.aspx

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

Improving teaching effectiveness: Final report: The intensive partnerships for effective teaching through 2015–2016

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching initiative. The initiative's goal is dramatic gains in student achievement, graduation rates, and college-going, especially for LIM students. 

Stecher, B. M., Garet, M. S., Hamilton, L. S., Steiner, E. D., Robyn, A., Poirier, J., ... & de los Reyes, I. B. (2016). Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Implementation: The Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching Through 2013–2014. Rand Corporation.

Does teacher evaluation improve school performance? Experimental evidence from Chicago’s Excellence in Teaching project

Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principal–teacher dialogue.

Steinberg, M. P., & Sartain, L. (2015). Does teacher evaluation improve school performance? Experimental evidence from Chicago’s Excellence in Teaching project. Education Finance and Policy, 10(4), 535–572.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The effect of evaluation on teacher performance.

This paper offers evidence that evaluation can shift the teacher effectiveness distribution through a different mechanism: by improving teacher skill, effort, or both in ways that persist long-run.

Taylor, E. S., & Tyler, J. H. (2012). The effect of evaluation on teacher performance. American Economic Review102(7), 3628-51.

Can teacher evaluation improve teaching? Evidence of systematic growth in the effectiveness of mid-career teachers.

In the research reported here, the authors study one approach to teacher evaluation: practice-based assessment that relies on multiple, highly structured classroom observations conducted by experienced peer teachers and administrators. 

Taylor, E. S., & Tyler, J. H. (2012a). Can teacher evaluation improve teaching? Evidence of systematic growth in the effectiveness of mid-career teachers. Education Next, 12(4), 79–84. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/can-teacher-evaluation-improve-teaching/

Teacher Evaluation 2.0.

This report proposes six design standards that any rigorous and fair teacher evaluation system should meet. It offers a blueprint for better evaluations that can help every teacher succeed in the classroom—and give every student the best chance at success. 

The New Teacher Project. (2010). Teacher Evaluation 2.0.New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/assets/documents/Teacher-Evaluation-Oct10F.pdf

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Rush to judgment: Teacher evaluation in public education

The authors examine the causes and consequences of the status of teacher evaluation and its implications for the current national debate about performance pay for teachers. The report also examines a number of national, state, and local evaluation systems that offer potential alternatives to current practice.

Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports. Education Sector.

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness.

This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers. 

Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices

A preliminary survey of 32 school districts identified as having highly developed teacher evaluation systems was followed by the selection of 4 case study districts.

Wise, A. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Tyson-Bernstein, H, & McLaughlin, M. W. (1984). Teacher evaluation: A study of effective practices. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246559.pdf

 

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations

This second edition includes an expanded set of classroom observation tools, moving from 23 to 40 and more linkages to the job-embedded nature of the informal classroom observations.

Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations.New York, NY: Routledge.

Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform
This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired people to coach and evaluate its principals.
DeVita, M., Colvin, R., Darling-Hammond, L., Haycock, K. (2007). Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform. The Wallace Foundation.
The Making of the Principal-Five Lessons in Leadership Training
This Wallace Perspective plumbs foundation research and work in school leadership to identify five lessons for better training, including: more selective admission to training programs, a focus on instructional leadership and mentoring for new principals.
Mitgang, L. (2012). The Making of the Principal: Five Lessons in Leadership Training. Perspective. Wallace Foundation.
Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices
Research shows that most assessments of school leaders are ineffective in gauging how leaders are - or are not - promoting learning. This Wallace Perspective describes a possible new direction, highlights new assessment instruments and discusses unknowns in using assessments to improve leadership and benefit students.
Portin, B. S. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of school leaders: New directions and new processes. The Wallace Foundation
Getting Principal Mentoring Right: Lessons from the Field
Mentoring for new principals, once rare, is now required by half the nation’s states. That’s a major advance, but many programs are not yet tailored to developing principals who can drive better instruction, according to this Wallace analysis. The report looks at two school districts that stress mentoring - Jefferson County (Kentucky) and New York City -and proposes guidelines for effective mentoring.
Spiro, J., Mattis, M. C., & Mitgang, L. D. (2007). Getting principal mentoring right: Lessons from the field. Wallace Foundation.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
This organization develops and delivers innovative programs, products, and services to educators in support student learners with a focus on professional development support.
Back to Top