Staff Treatment Integrity

All Research

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment integrity: A wicked problem and some solutions

Presentation by Wing Institute with goals: Make the case that treatment integrity monitoring is a necessary part of service delivery; describe dimensions of treatment integrity; suggest methods for increasing treatment integrity; place treatment integrity within systems framework . 

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.

This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?

States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

The impact of evidence-based practice implementation and fidelity monitoring on staff turnover: evidence for a protective effect.

This study evaluated the impact of monitoring trreatment integrity when implementeing an evidence-based intervention on staff turnover.  There was less staff turnover when integrity was monitored.

Aarons, G. A., Sommerfeld, D. H., Hecht, D. B., Silovsky, J. F., & Chaffin, M. J. (2009). The impact of evidence-based practice implementation and fidelity monitoring on staff turnover: evidence for a protective effect. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(2), 270. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2742697

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

An Objective Review of the Effectiveness and Essential Characteristics of Performance Feedback in...

This review considers the essential feature of performance feedback.

Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An Objective Review of the Effectiveness and Essential Characteristics of Performance Feedback in. Journal of Organization Behavior Management, 21(1), 3-29. 

 

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal112(1), 107-131.

An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Choice of Treatment Components on Treatment Integrity.

When teachers were given a choice of intervention components they had higher levels of treatment integrity compared to when they had no choice.

Andersen, M., & Daly, E. J. (2013). An Experimental Examination of the Impact of Choice of Treatment Components on Treatment Integrity. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4), 231-263.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

A Descriptive Evaluation of Long-Term Treatment Integrity

If effective interventions are not implemented with integrity they like will not have desired effects. This paper examines how much integrity is necessary to obtain benefit from interventions.

Arkoosh, M. K., Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., McLaughlin, T. F., & Barretto, A. (2007). A Descriptive Evaluation of Long-Term Treatment Integrity. Behavior Modification, 31(6), 880-895.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers' Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback to increase the implementation of skills taught during in-service training.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research.

The paper reviews methods for assessing treatment integrity in publiished research reports.

Barnett, D., Hawkins, R., McCoy, D., Wahl, E., Shier, A., Denune, H., & Kimener, L. (2014). Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 89-107.

The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners.

This study evaulates the effects of performance feedback as part of proffessional development across three studies.

Barton, E. E., Pribble, L., & Chen, C.-I. (2013). The Use of E-Mail to Deliver Performance-Based Feedback to Early Childhood Practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(3), 270-297.

Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision

Rewards and praise are often recommended by education consultants.  In this paper the author reviews the sources of resistance to these recommendations and some approaches for overcoming the objections.

Bear, G. G. (2013). Teacher Resistance to Frequent Rewards and Praise: Lack of Skill or a Wise Decision. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4), 318-340.

From practice to evidence in child welfare: Model specification and fidelity measurement of Team Decisionmaking.

This paper describes an effective and efficient fidelity measurement method.

Bearman, S. K., Garland, A. F., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2014). From practice to evidence in child welfare: Model specification and fidelity measurement of Team Decisionmaking. Children & Youth Services Review, 39.

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation

One of the primary goals of implementation science is to insure that programs are implemented with integrity.  This paper presents an integrated model of implementation that emphasizes treatment integrity.

Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., Sandler, I. N., & Collier-Meek, M. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An Integrated Model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12, 23-33.

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Treatment Integrity in School-Wide Programs: A Review of the Literature (1993-2012).

School-wide prevention programs are only effectve when implemented with integrity.  This paper reviews the rate of reported treatment integriy in research evaluating school-wide progrms.

Bruhn, A., Hirsch, S., Lloyd, J., Bruhn, A. L., Hirsch, S. E., & Lloyd, J. W. (2015). Treatment Integrity in School-Wide Programs: A Review of the Literature (1993-2012). Journal of Primary Prevention, 36(5).

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers' Use of Incidental Teaching.

Incidental teaching is often a component of early childhood intervention programs.  This study evaluated the use of grahical feedback to increase the use of incidental teaching.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2008). Graphical Feedback to Increase Teachers’ Use of Incidental Teaching. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(3), 251-268. 

The impact of checklist-based training on teachers' use of the zone defense schedule.

One of the challenges for increasing treatment integrity is finding effective methods for doing so.  This study evaluated the use of checklist-based training to increase treatment integrity.

Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2011). The impact of checklist-based training on teachers’ use of the zone defense schedule. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 397-401. 

A Framework for Measuring Fidelity of Implementation: A Foundation for Shared Language and Accumulation of Knowledge.

This paper describes a set of measures for measuring the fidelity of implementation.

Century, J., Rudnick, M., & Freeman, C. (2010). A Framework for Measuring Fidelity of Implementation: A Foundation for Shared Language and Accumulation of Knowledge. American Journal of Evaluation, 31(2), 199-218.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Investigating School Psychologists' Perceptions of Treatment Integrity in School-Based Interventions for Children With Academic and Behavior Concerns

This review assessed the disconnect between what school psychologists say about treatment integrity and what they actually do.

Cochrane, W. S., & Laux, J. M. (2007). Investigating School Psychologists’ Perceptions of Treatment Integrity in School-Based Interventions for Children With Academic and Behavior Concerns. Preventing School Failure, 51(4), 29-34.

A survey investigating school psychologists' measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance

This study assessed school psychologists perspectives about the importance of treatment integrity and what they say they do in practice.

Cochrane, W. S., & Laux, J. M. (2008). A survey investigating school psychologists’ measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance. Psychology in the Schools, 45(6), 499-507.

Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans.

This study investigated the effects of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., & Dunn, E. K. (2005). Effects of Immediate Performance Feedback on Implementation of Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219. 

 

Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback in increasing treatment integrity.  It also evaluated the possible reactivitiy effects of being observed.

Codding, R. S., Livanis, A., Pace, G. M., & Vaca, L. (2008). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Treatment Integrity of Classwide Behavior Plans: An Investigation of Observer Reactivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 417-422. 

 

The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem solving intervention.

Collins, S., Higbee, T. S., & Salzberg, C. L. (2009). The effects of video modeling on staff implementation of a problem-solving intervention with adults with developmental disabilities. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 42(4), 849-854.

Exploring the Link Among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes Under Natural Educational Conditions.

This study evaluated the implementation of behavioral interventions in “real world” settings.  Treatment integrity was a mediator of the obtained efffects.

Cook, C. R., Mayer, G. R., Wright, D. B., Kraemer, B., Wallace, M. D., Dart, E., . . . Restori, A. (2012). Exploring the Link Among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes Under Natural Educational Conditions. Journal of Special Education, 46(1), 3-16.

Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control

Dane and Schneider propose treatment integrity as a multi-dimensional construct and describe five dimensions that constitute the construct.

Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What

This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of allowing teachers to “test drive” interventions and then select the intervention they most preferred.  The result was an increase in treatment integrity.

Dart, E. H., Cook, C. R., Collins, T. A., Gresham, F. M., & Chenier, J. S. (2012). Test Driving Interventions to Increase Treatment Integrity and Student Outcomes. School Psychology Review, 41(4), 467-481.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms.

This study comared the effects of goal setting about student performance and feedback about student performance with daily written feedback about student performance, feedback about accuracy of implementation, and cancelling meetings if integrity criterion was met. 

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers' treatment implementation integrity and students' inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(3), 447-461. 

 

Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior

This study evaluated the impact of allowing  teachers to miss coaching meetings if their treatment integrity scores met or exceeded criterion.

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & McIntyre, L. L. (2005). Increasing Treatment Integrity Through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 220-231.

Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions.

This study evaluated the effects of video modeling on how well teachers implemented interventions.  There was an increase in integrity but it remained variable.  More stable patterns of implementation were observed when teachers were given feedback about their peroformance.

Digennaro-Reed, F. D., Codding, R., Catania, C. N., & Maguire, H. (2010). Effects of video modeling on treatment integrity of behavioral interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(2), 291-295. 

 

Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework.

This paper provides a conceptual framework for maximizing the implementation of evidece-based interventions.

Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Poduska, J. M., Hoagwood, K., Buckley, J. A., Olin, S., . . . Ialongo, N. S. (2008). Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1(3), 6-28.

Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation

This study evaluated the effect feedback to student peer tutors had on the level of treatment integrity in implementing a peer tutoring program.

Dufrene, B. A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

An Exploration of Fidelity of Implementation in Drug Abuse Prevention Among Five Professional Groups.

Five different groups of professional involved in the development and implementation of drug abuse prevention programs were interviewed to gain their perspective on treatment integrity.  There were differences across groups in the definition of treatment integrity.

Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., & Falco, M. (2004). An Exploration of Fidelity of Implementation in Drug Abuse Prevention Among Five Professional Groups. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 47(3), 4-19.

An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods.

This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.

Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.

Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence.

Erchul makes the argument that efforts to increase treatiment integrity should be conceptualized as social influence strategies because the person implementing is different than the person who developed the plan.

Erchul, W. P. (2013). Treatment Integrity Enhancement via Performance Feedback Conceptualized as an Exercise in Social Influence. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 23(4).

Promoting teachers' implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class-wide behavior plans

Research suggests student of differing racial groups are unequally impacted by school disciplinary interventions. This study examines whether teachers who self-assessed their own use of culturally and contextually relevant practices would implement a class-wide behavior plan with high levels of implementation fidelity. Results indicated that teachers who engaged in self-assessment and training did implement the plan with high levels of implementation fidelity, particularly when given performance feedback. 

Fallon, L. M., Cathcart, S. C., DeFouw, E. R., O'Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. Promoting teachers’ implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class‐wide behavior plans. Psychology in the Schools.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway

This paper describes the scaling up and dissemination of a partent training program in Norway while maintaining fidelity of implementation.

Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2011). Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO™ implementation in Norway. Prevention Science, 12(3), 235-246. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153633

 

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This study evaluated the effects of response dependent feedback on the qualiity of implementation of a classroom intervention.  Teachers increased the integrity of implementation during the response dependent feedback condition.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J., Singletary, L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention

This article evaluated the effects of response dependent feedback on accurate implementation of an intervention.  Whenever teachers failed to meet 100% accuracy criterion they were given feedback about their performance.

Gilbertson, D., Witt, J., Singletary, L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.

Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation

Organizations house many individuals.  Many of them are responsible implementing the same practice.  If organizations are to meet their goal it is important for the organization have systems for assuring high levels of treatment integrity.

Gottfredson, D. C. (1993). Strategies for Improving Treatment Integrity in Organizational Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 4(3), 275. 

Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas.

The impact of evidence-based interventions is a function of how well those interventions are implemented.  As interventions are taken to scale the challenge of maintaining high levels of intergrity are increased.

Greenwood, C. R. (2009). Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 547-553.

Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions.

This paper discusses the current understanding of the construct treatment integrity.

Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.

Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990

This study reviewed the reporting rates of treatment integrity for school based interventions.

Gresham, F. M., & Gansle, K. A. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254. 

Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

This study reviewed all intervention studies published between 1980-1990 in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in which children were the subjects of the study. The authors found that treatment integrity was reported in only 16% of the studies.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment ?integrity in ?applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied ?Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 257-263.

Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented

The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.

Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.

Effects of varied levels of treatment integrity on appropriate toy manipulation in children with autism

This study reported the effects of different levels of treatment integrity on the behavior of children with autism.  There was a correlation between the level of treatment integrity and the levelo of appropriate behavior by children with autism.

Groskreutz, N. C. (2011). Effects of varied levels of treatment integrity on appropriate toy manipulation in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectcrum Disorders, in press.

Deviations from Prescribed Prompting Procedures: Implications for Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated the impact of less than perfect implementation of a prompting procedure.  Lower treatment integrity resulted in slower acquistion of new skills.

Grow, L. L., Carr, J. E., Gunby, K. V., Charania, S. M., Gonsalves, L., Ktaech, I. A., & Kisamore, A. N. (2009). Deviations from Prescribed Prompting Procedures: Implications for Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(2), 142-156.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation.

This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.

Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and Implementation Planning.

The paper describes the Implemenation Planning protocol as an approach for increasing treament integrity.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Byron, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2015). Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and Implementation Planning. Journal of School Psychology, 53(3). 

Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school.

This study evaluated the relative benefits of verbal feedback and verbal plus grahic feedback as a means for increasing treatment integrity.  The verbal plus graphic feedback was more effective than verbal feedback alone.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school. Behav Modif, 31(4), 454-465. doi:10.1177/0145445506297583

 

Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity Through Performance Feedback Provided By School Personnel

Describes the effects of internal school staff providing feedback to teachers as a means of increasing treatment integrity.  It was necessary to have someone provide feedback to internal staff about how well they implemented the plan to provide feedback to teachers.  Makes the case that treatment integrity is requires multi-tier systems of support if interventions are to be implemented effectively.

Hagermoser, S., Lisa M., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2013). Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity Through Performance Feedback Provided By School Personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 50(2), 134-150.

Will the Principles of Effectiveness' improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study.

Reviews the implications of the U. S. Department of Education’s policy, The Principal of Effectiveness that encourages schools to adopt research based practices.  A survey of 104 schools suggest that only 19% are impementing intervenitons with adequate fidelity.

Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will thePrinciples of Effectiveness’ improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461-470.

Treatment Integrity for Academic Interventions in Real-World Settings.

This article links treatment integrity to problem-solving teams decision making.  Strategies for increasing treatment integrity are suggested.

Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S., & Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment Integrity for Academic Interventions in Real-World Settings. School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.

Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems

This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. 

Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.

The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development

This piece describes the widely held perception among education leaders that we already  know how to help teachers improve, and that we could achieve our goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if we just applied what we know more widely. 

Jacob, A., & McGovern, K. (2015). The mirage: Confronting the hard truth about our quest for teacher development. Brooklyn, NY: TNTP. https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP-Mirage_2015.pdf.

 

The effects of observational feedback on treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation

This study examined the effects of performance feedback on treatment integrity.

Jones, K. M., Wickstrom, K. F., & Friman, P. C. (1997). The effects of observational feedback on treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4).

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the paths currculum

This study identified factors that contributed to the effective scaling up of prevention programs.  Two factors contributed to positive outcomes: principal support for the initiative and high treatment integrity in the classroom.

Kam, C., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the paths currculum. Prevention Science, 4(1), 55-63. 

An Initial Comparison Of Collaborative And Expert-Driven Consultation On Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluted the relative effectveness of expert driven consultation and collaborative consultation on level of treatment integrity.

Kelleher, C., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Power, T. J. (2008). An Initial Comparison Of Collaborative And Expert-Driven Consultation On Treatment Integrity. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 18(4), 294-324.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

Treatment Integrity: An Essential--But Often Forgotten--Component of School-Based Interventions

This paper reviews the importance of treatment integrity, how to measure it, and factors that affect it.

Lane, K. L., Bocian, K. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Treatment Integrity: An Essential--But Often Forgotten--Component of School-Based Interventions. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 36-43.

Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices.

This is a review of treatment integrity reporting practices across journals.

Ledford, J. R., & Wolery, M. (2013). Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(2), 173-193.

Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated effects on behavior when levels of treatment intergrity were varied.  Both errors of omission and commission were evaluated.

Leon, Y., Wilder, D., Majdalany, L., Myers, K., & Saini, V. (2014). Errors of Omission and Commission during Alternative Reinforcement of Compliance: The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 19-33.

Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects.

This study evaluated the effects of an intensive training progam for paraeducators responsible for implementing a group contingency intervention for classroom behavior.

Maggin, D. M., Fallon, L. M., Hagermoser, S., Lisa M., & Ruberto, L. M. (2012). Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects. Behavioral Disorders, 38(1), 18-37.

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

The relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability of reading interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

This study evaluated the relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability for reading intervenitons across two consultation models.

Mautone, J. A., DuPaul, G. J., Jitendra, A. K., Tresco, K. E., Junod, R. V., & Volpe, R. J. (2009). The relationship between treatment integrity and acceptability of reading interventions for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 46(10), 919-931.

The effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of intervention fidelity.

This study evaluated the effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of treatment integrity.

McConnachie, G., & Carr, E. G. (1997). The effects of child behavior problems on the maintenance of intervention fidelity. Behavior Modification, 21.

Identifying and Predicting Distinct Patterns of Implementation in a School-Wide Behavior Support Framework

This study examined distinct patterns of fidelity of implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports across 5331 schools over a 5 year period.

McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Nese, R. N. T., & Ghemraoui, A. (2016). Identifying and Predicting Distinct Patterns of Implementation in a School-Wide Behavior Support Framework. Prevention Science, 1-10.

Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991-2005

This study review the reporting rate of treatment integrity studies of school-based interventions with children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672. 

 

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.

Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627. 

Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation.

The article discusses the steps in the development, measurement, and validation of fidelity criteria.

Mowbray, C. T., Holter, M. C., Teague, G. B., & Bybee, D. (2003). Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation. American Journal of Evaluation, 24(3), 315-340.

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization

No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)

Implementation of Treatments in Research and Practice: Commentary on the Special Issue.

This article reviews what is known about treatment integrity and what questons remain unanswered.

Noell, G. (2014). Implementation of Treatments in Research and Practice: Commentary on the Special Issue. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 192-200.

Assuring the Form Has Substance

This paper makes the argument that for RtI to be a successful framework for improving student performance it is necessary to make sure that the interventions selected for students are implemented with sufficient integrity to insure benefit.

Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2006). Assuring the Form Has Substance. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 32(1), 32-39.

 

Moving from good ideas in educational systems change to sustainable program implementation: Coming to terms with some of the realities.

This paper addesses the challenges of system reform in education.  The author makes the case that the pragmatic challenge of insuring that changes are implemented with intergriy are a fundamental consideration in any effort to bring about change.

Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2009). Moving from good ideas in educational systems change to sustainable program implementation: Coming to terms with some of the realities. Psychology in the Schools, 46(1), 79-89.

When does consultation lead to intervention implementation

This paper makes the case that for consultation to be effective it must lead to intervention.  If the intervention is to be effective it must be implemented with integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (1999). When does consultation lead to intervention implementation. Journal of Special Education, 33(1), 29. 

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Consultation, Follow-up, and Implementation of Behavior Management Interventions in General Education

This study contributes to the data-base on the use of performance feedback to increase treatment integrity.

Noell, G. H., Duhon, G. J., Gatti, S. L., & Connell, J. E. (2002). Consultation, Follow-up, and Implementation of Behavior Management Interventions in General Education. School Psychology Review, 31(2), 217.

Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback

This study evaluated the impact of training on treatment integrity.  After finding that positive effects lasted 2-4 days, performance feedback was used to increase treatment integrity.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1).

Increasing Teacher Intervention Implementation in General Education Settings through Consultation and Performance Feedback

This study looks at treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.

Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies.

This study evaluated three approaches to behavioral consultation and their impact on treatment integrity.  Performance feedback was associated with superior treatment implementation and child behavioral outcomes.

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., . . . Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 87-106.

School predictors of the intensity of implementation of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national study

This paper reviews the results of a survey of 544 schools on matters related to implementation to identify factors that contributed to successful implementation with integrity.

Payne, A. A., Gottfredson, D. C., & Gottfredson, G. D. School predictors of the intensity of implementation of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national study. Prevention Science, 7(2), 225-237. 

Integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis

The authors reviewed all of the intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1968-1980 to determine the percent of studies that reported measures of treatment integrity. The overall average across those years was 16%.

Peterson, L., Homer, A. L., & Wonderlich, S. A. (1982). Integrity of independent ?variables in behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 477-492.

Every Student Succeeds Act

The Every Student Succeeds Act: Explained.

Plans, A. (2015). The every student succeeds act: Explained. Education Week.

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Reconceptualizing Intervention Integrity: A Partnership-Based Framework for Linking Research with Practice.

This paper describes a partnership model for improving treatment integrity in school settings.

Power, T. J., Blom-Hoffman, J., & Clarke, A. T. (2005). Reconceptualizing Intervention Integrity: A Partnership-Based Framework for Linking Research with Practice. Psychology in the Schools, 42(5), 495-507.

The Role of Teachers' Psychological Experiences and Perceptions of Curriculum Supports on the Implementation of a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum.

This study evaluated how teacher burnout, perceptions of efficacy, and perceptions of curriculum supports impacted treatment integrity.

Ransford, C. R., Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Small, M., & Jacobson, L. (2009). The Role of Teachers’ Psychological Experiences and Perceptions of Curriculum Supports on the Implementation of a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 510-532.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Toddler Aggressive Behavior

This study evaluated the impact of three different levels of treatment integrity on the effects of a time-out intervention.

Rhymer, K. N., Evans-Hampton, T. N., McCurdy, M., & Watson, T. S. (2002). Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Toddler Aggressive Behavior. Special Services in the Schools, 18(1/2), 75.

Using Interventions That Exist in the Natural Environment to Increase Treatment Integrity and Social Influence in Consultation

It is proposed in this paper that interventions are most likely to be implemented when they draw from existing practices in a classroom.

Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Chafouleas, S. M. (2003). Using Interventions That Exist in the Natural Environment to Increase Treatment Integrity and Social Influence in Consultation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 14(2), 139-156.

Consultee and Client Remedial and Preventive Outcomes Following Consultation: Some Mixed Empirical Results and Directions for Future Researchers.

This study evaluated the differences between how well teachers reported they implemented an intervention and what observational data suggest.  In general teachers overestimated the quality of implementation.

Robbins, J. R., & Gutkin, T. B. (1994). Consultee and Client Remedial and Preventive Outcomes Following Consultation: Some Mixed Empirical Results and Directions for Future Researchers. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 5(2), 149. Retrieved from http://content.epnet.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=7438769&EbscoContent=dGJyMNLe80Sep7A4y9fwOLCmr02ep7dSrq64S7aWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMOzprk%2BvqrdPuePfgeyx%2BEu3q64A&D=eue

 

A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success

First Step to Success is an empirically supported intervention for young elementary school students that can be implemented by public school teachers with training. This study evaluated the effects of coaching feedback on teachers who not effectively implemented First Step following training.

Rodriguez, B. J., Loman, S. L., & Horner, R. H. (2009). A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(2), 11-21.

A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success.

This study evaluated the impact of performance feedback as a means of increasing treatment integrity for teachers implementing First Steps to Success.

Rodriguez, B. J., Loman, S. L., & Horner, R. H. (2009). A preliminary analysis of the effects of coaching feedback on teacher implementation fidelity of First Step to Success. Behavior analysis in practice, 2(2), 11-21. 

 

Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation

This study evaluated predictors for high quality school based intervention of a drug abuse prevention program.

Rohrback, L. A., Graham, J. W., & Hansen, W. B. (1993). Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22, 237-260.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Presupposition Compatibility Facilitates Treatment Fidelity in Therapists Learning Structural Family Therapy.

This study evaluated the correlation between the compatibility of an intervention with a therapist’s presuppositions about effective treatment and treatment integrity.  The data suggest that the more compatible an intervention is with a therapist’s beliefs the more likely they were to implement with integrity.

Ryan, W. J., Conti, R. P., & Simon, G. M. (2013). Presupposition Compatibility Facilitates Treatment Fidelity in Therapists Learning Structural Family Therapy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(5).

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study

This paper describes a multi-tier system of supports for teachers as they implement an intervention.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Collier-Meek, M. A.-. (2015). Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study. Psychology in the Schools, 52(8). 815-828

 

Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers.

This paper reviews a survey of researchers about the barriers to implementing treatment integrity procedures in research.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & DiGennaro, R., Florence D. (2012). Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 37(4), 195-202. 

Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol.

This study evaluated the Treatment Integiry Planning Protocol as a means for increasing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol. School Psychology Quarterly, 24(1), 24-35. 

An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol and Two Schedules of Treatment Integrity Self-Report: Impact on Implementation and Report Accuracy.

This paper describes treatment integrity assessment and intervention for practicing school psychologists.

Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2011). An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol and Two Schedules of Treatment Integrity Self-Report: Impact on Implementation and Report Accuracy. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(4), 284-308. 

Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment.

This paper reviews options for treatment integrity measurement emphasizing how direct behavior rating technology might be incorporated within a multi-tiered model of intervention delivery.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., Christ, T. J., & Gritter, K. L. (2009). Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34(4), 251-258. 

Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies.

This study evaluated four methods for teachers self reporting how well they implemented an intervention.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Kilgus, S. P. (2013). Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(3), 261-276. 

Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and implementation planning

This study evaluates the efficacy of the Implementation Planning Protocol as a means for increasing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Byron, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2015). Increasing teacher treatment integrity of behavior support plans through consultation and implementation planning. Journal of School Psychology, 53(3), 209-229.

Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans

This paper evaluated the impact of Implementation Planning on teacher level of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879-895.

Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009

The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.

Increasing teacher treatment integrity through performance feedback provided by school personnel

If educational programs are to be effective they must be implemented with sufficient integrity to assure benefits. To have a significant impact on schools, solutions must be scalable. This study evaluated the effects of using existing school personnel to provide performance feedback to teachers regarding the quality of implementation.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2013). Increasing teacher treatment integrity through performance feedback provided by school personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 50(2), 134-150.

Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008

The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.

Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based intervention implementation.

This paper proposes considering treatment integrity as adult behavior change and methods for improving treatment integrity may  be enhanced by drawing from the literature on adult behavior change.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Kratochwill, T. R., & Long, A. C. J. (2013). Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based intervention implementation. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(1), 47. Retrieved from http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/kmlab/files/2013/09/Sanetti-2013.pdf

Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School

This study evaluated the relative benefits of verbal feedback and verbal plus grahic feedback as a means for increasing treatment integrity.  The verbal plus graphic feedback was more effective than verbal feedback alone.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of Verbal and Graphic Performance Feedback on Behavior Support Plan Implementation in a Public Elementary School. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 454-465.

Increasing the Rigor of Procedural Fidelity Assessment: An Empirical Comparison of Direct Observation and Permanent Product Review Methods.

This paper reviews methods for assessing treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L., & Collier-Meek, M. (2014). Increasing the Rigor of Procedural Fidelity Assessment: An Empirical Comparison of Direct Observation and Permanent Product Review Methods. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 60-88.

Providing Immediate Feedback to Co-Teachers Through Bug-in-Ear Technology: An Effective Method of Peer Coaching in Inclusion Classrooms.

This study utilized a “bug in the ear” device to provide immediate feedback on implementation of specific teaching practices.

Scheeler, M. C., Congdon, M., & Stansbery, S. (2010). Providing Immediate Feedback to Co-Teachers Through Bug-in-Ear Technology: An Effective Method of Peer Coaching in Inclusion Classrooms. Teacher Education & Special Education, 33(1).

Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior.

This paper describes the use of wireless technology to give feedback to students in a teacher prep program about their integrity of implementation.

Scheeler, M. C., McAfee, J. K., & Ruhl, K. L. (2006). Effects of Corrective Feedback Delivered via Wireless Technology on Preservice Teacher Performance and Student Behavior. Teacher Education & Special Education, 29(1).

Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review.

This paper reviews the empirical research on the effectiveness of performance feedback as a means of influencing teacher implementation of interventions.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review. Teacher Education & Special Education, 27(4).

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity.

This paper reviews perspectives on treatment integrity from psychotherapy, substance abuse treatment, prevention science, and school psychology.

Schulte, A. C., Easton, J. E., & Parker, J. (2009). Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 460-475.

The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers' Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature.

This study is a meta-analysis of studies using performance feedback to improve treatment integrity.  The overall result was that performance feedback had moderate effects on integrity.

Solomon, B., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The Effect of Performance Feedback on Teachers’ Treatment Integrity: A Meta-Analysis of the Single-Case Literature. School Psychology Review, 41(2), 160-175.

An Analog Investigation of the Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Treatment Integrity

This study examined the relationship between treatment acceptability and treatment integrity.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Watson, T. S. (2002). An Analog Investigation of the Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Treatment Integrity. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(1), 39-50.

The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation

This study compared indirect training and direct training methods as a means of impacting levels of treatment integrity.  Direct training methods produced better outcomes.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1). 

Evaluating the Treatment Fidelity of Parents Who Conduct In-Home Functional Communication Training with Coaching via Telehealth.

This study evaluated the level of treatment integrity when parents were conductiong function communication training while being coached via telehealth.

Suess, A., Romani, P., Wacker, D., Dyson, S., Kuhle, J., Lee, J., . . . Waldron, D. (2014). Evaluating the Treatment Fidelity of Parents Who Conduct In-Home Functional Communication Training with Coaching via Telehealth. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 34-59.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Child Compliance during Treatment with a Three-Step Prompting Procedure

This study evaluated the effects of three different levels of treatment integrity on compliance to a three-step prompting procedure.  Levels of complaince varied with levels of integrity.

Wilder, D. A., Atwell, J., & Wine, B. (2006). The Effects of Varying Levels of Treatment Integrity on Child Compliance during Treatment with a Three-Step Prompting Procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(3), 369-373. 

 

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of? the independent variable

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity.

This study evaluated the effects of graphed feedback alone compared to the effects of graphed feedback plus verbal feedback.  The combined graphed and verbal resulted in slightly better performance.

Zoder-Martell, K., Dufrene, B., Sterling, H., Tingstrom, D., Blaze, J., Duncan, N., & Harpole, L.-. (2013). Effects of Verbal and Graphed Feedback on Treatment Integrity. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(4).

From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizing scientifically based instruction became law in 2001. In this paper, the authors review the progress that has been made in implementing NCLB and conclude that the greatest threat to its effectiveness is the quality of the implementation of the scientifically based instructional practices.
Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2012). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300712460278.
Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions
The article discusses treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M. (2009). Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 533-540.
Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-?1990.
The authors reviewed seven journals known for publishing behavioral intervention research in school settings were reviewed to establish the percent of articles that reported treatment integrity measures between 1980-1990. Only 14% reported measures of treatment integrity.
Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Cohen, S., & Rosenblum, S. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980-1990. School Psychology Review, 254-272.
Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series
This article provides an overview of the current state of conceptual models of treatment integrity and suggest future directions for research, practice, and policy related to treatment integrity.
Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Toward Developing a Science of Treatment Integrity: Introduction to the Special Series. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 445-459.
Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools
Treatment fidelity is critical for the effective implementation of evidence-based practices. It is assumed that evidence-based practices implemented with high fidelity will result in improved outcomes, whereas low fidelity will lead to poorer outcomes. This article discusses treatment fidelity as well as the implications for measuring and analyzing it in relation to student outcomes.
Harn, B., Parisi, D., & Stoolmiller, M. (2013). Balancing Fidelity With Flexibility and Fit: What Do We Really Know About Fidelity of Implementation in Schools?. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 181-193.
Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005.
The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1991-2005 that occurred in school settings to determine the percent of studies that reported treatment integrity measures. In this review, 30% of the studies reported treatment integrity.
McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in the ?journal of applied behavior analysis 1991-2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659-672.
The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention
This study investigates the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a reinforcer-based classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review.
The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.
Accurate implementation of an intervention is a pre-requisite to determining its effectiveness. The study examined the effects of weekly performance feedback on the accuracy of implementation of an academic intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 27, 613-627.
Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback
This study evaluated the effects of consultation and performance feedback in a public school setting.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). ?Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77-88.
Treatment Implementation Following Behavioral Consultation in Schools: A Comparison of Three Follow-up Strategies
This study examines teachers' implementation of treatment plans following consultation.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., ... & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review.
Treatment integrity: a review of intervention studies conducted with children with autism
The authors reviewed nine journals that published intervention studies on children and adolescents with autism between the years 1993-2003 to determine the percent of studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. In this review, about 15% of the studies reported a measure of treatment integrity.
Wheeler, J. J., Baggett, B. A., Fox, J., & Blevins, L. (2006). Treatment integrity: a review of intervention studies conducted with children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(1), 45-54.
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