Education Drivers

Special Education

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Multitiered System of Support

This overview describe Multitiered system of support (MTSS) as a conceptual framework for organizing service delivery to students. 

Quality Indicators for Group Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research in Special Education

This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education.

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional children71(2), 149-164.

The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as “evidence-based” via single-subject research.

Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2008). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Advances in Evidence-Based Education, 1(1), 67-87.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Multitiered System of Support

This overview describe Multitiered system of support (MTSS) as a conceptual framework for organizing service delivery to students. 

Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform

The present article discusses a theory of tolerance and seeks to identify the critical problems associated with the position taken in the NAS report and subsequent reform initiatives. Specifically, it is argued that brute force attempts to absorb, current special education functions into regular classrooms will necessarily fail. 

Gerber, M. M. (1988). Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform. Exceptional Children54(4), 309-314.

Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley

The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.

Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.

Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders

This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents

Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Best Practices in Operating Pre-Referral Intervention Teams

The purpose of this chapter is to articulate those best practices that have been identified to increase the effectiveness of pre-referral teams.

Kovaleski, J. F. (2002). Best practices in operating pre-referral intervention teams. Best practices in school psychology IV1, 645-655.

Standards-based IEPs: Implementation in selected states.

This document is an analysis of the most recent developments in some states that are implementing standards-based IEPs.

Ahearn, E. (2006, May). Standards-Based IEPs: Implementation in Selected States. inForum. In Project Forum. Project Forum. Available from: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. 1800 Diagonal Road Suite 320, Alexandria, VA 22314.

Critical issues in special education

This book is an analysis of important conceptual and practical issues that face special education professionals.

Algozzine, J. E., Thurlow, M., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2000). Critical issues in special education.

Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children.

Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).

Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.

Applying Positive Behavior Support and Functional Behavioral Assessments in Schools

The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA.

applying positive behavior support

Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services.

A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability.

Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services. School Psychology Review32(4).

The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM

The authors describe three forms of functional assessment used in applied behavior analysis and explain three potential reasons why OBM has not yet adopted the use of such techniques.

Austin, J., Carr, J. E., & Agnew, J. L. (1999). The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management19(2), 59-87.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Response to Intervention: Empirically Based Special Service Decisions From Single-Case Designs of Increasing and Decreasing Intensity

The advantages and challenges associated with these designs for use in special education eligibility decisions are discussed as models for child evaluation in schools.

Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz Jr, F. E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education38(2), 66-79.

Technical Adequacy for Response to Intervention Practices

Key points of analysis and recommendations for RTI technical adequacy standards are addressed, and a case study is used to illustrate technical checks. The authors conclude with a discussion of how RTI technical adequacy may be simplified.

Barnett, D. W., Elliott, N., Graden, J., Ihlo, T., Macmann, G., Nantais, M., & Prasse, D. (2006). Technical adequacy for response to intervention practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention32(1), 20-31.

Answering the Bell: High School Start Times and Student Academic Outcomes.

This research finds starting school later is associated with reduced suspensions and higher course grades. These studies suggest disadvantaged students may especially benefit from delayed starting times.

Bastian, K. C., & Fuller, S. C. (2018). Answering the Bell: High School Start Times and Student Academic Outcomes. AERA Open4(4), 2332858418812424.

Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 made important amendments to the federal special education law regarding the identification of students with learning disabilities. The book grounds RtI in law and policy predating IDEA 2004 in addition to walking the reader through the array of implementation issues.

Batsche, George, Judy Elliott, Janet L. Graden, Jeffrey Grimes, Joseph F. Kovaleski, David Prasse, D. J. Reschly, Judy Schrag, and W. David Tilly III. "Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation." Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education(2005).

First Step to Success: An Early Intervention for Elementary Children at Risk for Antisocial Behavior

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. 

Beard, K. Y., & Sugai, G. (2004). First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior. Behavioral Disorders29(4), 396-409.

Understanding Dropouts: Statistics, Strategies, and High-Stakes Testing.

This book examines research on the problem of student dropouts and standardized and high stakes testing. Information comes from papers presented at a 2000 workshop in which experts offered their diverse perspectives and technical expertise.

Beatty, A., Neisser, U., Trent, W. T., & Heubert, J. P. (2001). Understanding Dropouts: Statistics, Strategies, and High-Stakes Testing. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.

Teaching from a research knowledge base: A development and renewal process

Bellon, J. J., Bellon, E. C., & Blank, M. A. (1992). Teaching from a research knowledge base: A development and renewal process. Merrill.

Formative assessment: A critical review.

Six issues presented in this presentation are (1) The definitional issue (2) The effectiveness issue (3) The domain issue (4) The measurement issue (5) The professional development issue (6) The system issue

Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice18(1), 5-25.

Redefining learning disabilities: Moving beyond aptitude–achievement discrepancies to failure to respond to validated treatment protocols.

explore going beyond defining learning disability as a discrepancy between achievement and ability, to a broader view of learning disability based on dynamic assessment—failure to respond over time to validated intervention protocols—and consideration of multiple developmental domains, not just a single index influencing expected level of achievement 

Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (1994). Redefining learning disabilities: Moving beyond aptitude–achievement discrepancies to failure to respond to validated treatment protocols.

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

A review of teacher induction in special education: Research, practice, and technology solutions.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about teacher induction in special education and to outline recommendations for the design of induction programs and further research.

Billingsley, B. S., Griffin, C. C., Smith, S. J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. NCIIP Document Number RS-1. National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development.

Mega-analysis of meta-analyses: What works in special education and related services.

Explains how meta-analysis can be used to estimate the effectiveness of various teaching strategies in special education and related services. 

Blum lM, F. S. K. K., & Lloyd, J. W. (1997). Megaanalysis of meta-analysis: what works in special education. Teaching Exceptional Children29(6), 4-9.

Special Education Teachers’ Views of Research-Based Practices

Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n = 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n = 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers’ perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.

Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education39(3), 168-180.

Special education teachers' views of research-based practices

Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n= 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n= 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers' perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.

Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education39(3), 168-180.

Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis

This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models.

Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2003). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73(2), 125-230.

Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of enhanced anchor-instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving problem-solving performance. 

Bottge, B. A., Heinrichs, M., Mehta, Z. D., & Hung, Y. H. (2002). Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes. The Journal of Special Education35(4), 186-200.

Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder

Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic44(5), 259-267.

Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities

In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.

Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences35, 9-14.

Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice

The OSEP conference brought together people with different perspectives on LD (parents, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers) and resulted in this book, which examines the research on nine key issues concerning the identification of children with learning disabilities.

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Routledge.

Responsiveness to intervention: 1997-2007

This article provides a brief description of the conclusions of the LD Initiative and the impact these conclusions have had, and overview of the new regulations regarding response to intervention and the identification of children with SLD, and information about current technical-assistance activities.

Bradley, Renee & Danielson, Louis & Doolittle, Jennifer. (2007). Responsiveness to Intervention: 1997 - 2007. Abstracts from Teaching Exceptional Children (TEC). 39. 10.1177/004005990703900502. 

Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems

The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics130(5), e1136-e1145.

Qualitative Studies in Special Education

An overview of the many types of studies that fall into the qualitative design genre is provided. Strategies that qualitative researchers use to establish the authors’ studies as credible and trustworthy are listed and defined

Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional children71(2), 195-207.

Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice

This book provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools. 

Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2011). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Guilford Press.

Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability39(1), 73-85.

The Idaho Results-Based Model: Implementing Response to Intervention Statewide

This chapter provides insights to the questions posed regarding implementation and ongoing practice of RTI, both at the state and local levels.

Callender, W. A. (2007). The Idaho results-based model: Implementing response to intervention statewide. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 331-342). Springer, Boston, MA.

Direct Instruction Reading

This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English. 

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science

This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.

Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions4(1), 4-16.

The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults

This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not.

Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis24(3), 523-535.

Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.

This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda

Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children74(3), 351-371.

Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

What Are We Spending on Special Education Services in the United States, 1999-2000? Report. Special Education Expenditure Project (SEEP).

This document is one of a series of reports based on the Special Education Expenditure Project, a study of the nation's spending on special education and related services based on analysis of data for the 1999-2000 school year.

Chambers, J. G., Parrish, T. B., & Harr, J. J. (2002). What Are We Spending on Special Education Services in the United States, 1999-2000? Report. Special Education Expenditure Project (SEEP).

Core Features of Multi-tiered Systems of reading and Behavioral Support

Showcasing evidence-based models for schoolwide prevention of reading and behavior problems, this book is highly informative, practical, and grounded in research.

Chard, D. J., Harn, B. A., Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2008). Core features of multi-tiered systems of reading and behavioral support. In C. R. Greenwood, T. R. Kratochwill, & M. Clemens (Eds.), Schoolwide prevention models: Lessons learned in elementary schools (pp. 31–58). New York, NY: Guildford Press.

Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice:

At this manual level of analysis, practitioners may choose from a variety of specific treatment programs that have demonstrated their efficacy in research trials.

Chorpita, B. F., Becker, K. D., & Daleiden, E. L.. (2007). Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice: Misconceptions and clinical examples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry46(5), 647–652.

Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms

Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.

Learning to be learning disabled.

Argues that learning disabled (LD) children in reading, writing, and spelling are inadequately distinguishable from low-achieving children, based on behavioral evidence, achievement batteries, or tests of organic functioning.

Clay, M. M. (1987). Learning to be learning disabled. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies.

Evidence-based practices in learning and behavioral disabilities: The search for effective instruction

In this 26th volume of Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities we address one of the most important educational reforms of recent years evidence-based practices (EBPs).

Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., & Landrum, T. J. (Eds.). (2013). Evidence-based practices in learning and behavioral disabilities: The search for effective instruction (Vol. 26). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

Identification and Placement of Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance. Part II: National and State Trends in the Implementation of LRE

An analysis of national and state placement patterns of students with serious emotional disturbance (SED) between 1988 and 1991 is reported. Relationships among state rates of placement across placement options and several economic and demographic variables also are examined.

Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. (1996). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part II: National and state trends in the implementation of LRE. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders4(1), 40-52.

Gender and Sociodemographic Factors and the Disproportionate Identification of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Emotional Disturbance

The purpose of this study was to investigate gender and ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) and relationships between identification and sociodemographic factors.

Coutinho, M. J., Oswald, D. P., Best, A. M., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Gender and sociodemographic factors and the disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders27(2), 109-125.

Construct validity in psychological tests.

The present interpretation of construct validity is not “official” and deals with some areas where the Committee would probably not be unanimous. The present writers are solely responsible for this attempt to explain the concept and elaborate its implications.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological bulletin52(4), 281–302.

Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary

Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.

Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(2), 155-173.

Policies that support professional development in an era of reform.

In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.

Some theory of sampling.

Analysis of the problems, theory, and design of sampling techniques for social scientists, industrial managers, and others who find statistics increasingly important in their work. Only college algebra assumed. Illustrated with dozens of actual large-scale surveys in government and industry. "The 'bible' of sampling statisticians."

Deming, W. E. (1966). Some theory of sampling. North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Corporation.

Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.

The monograph presents 15 papers on the provision of special education services within the regular classroom.

Deno, E. N. (1973). Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.

Curriculum-based measurement and special education services: A fundamental and direct relationship.

special education as a problem solving the nature of mild handicaps person-centered versus situation-centered problems. 

Deno, S. L. (1989). Curriculum-based measurement and special education services: A fundamental and direct relationship.

Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not

The purpose of this article is to describe what RTI is and what is not. This article also considers the evidence base for RTI and discusses the implications for practitioners. 

Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2009). Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not. JEBPS Vol 9-N2, 60.

Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation

The author's objective is to assess treatment effectiveness for problem behaviours of individuals who have mental retardation.

Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. AJMR-American Journal on Mental Retardation101(4), 387-399.

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

Twenty-third annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

This volume of the Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act includes a number of modules reporting on the results of the National Assessment, as stipulated in Section 674(b)(4)(B) of the IDEA Amendments of 1997. 

Division of Educational Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2001). Twenty-third annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education.

The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.

Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education28(3), 356-367.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education.

This book discusses findings and recommendations of the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education of the National Research Council. 

Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.

Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions

Demonstrates the use of functional assessment procedures to identify the appropriate use of the Picture Exchange Communication system as part of a behavior support plan to resolve serious problems exhibited by a 3 yr old boy with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. 

Dooley, P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Torem, C. (2001). Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions3(1), 57-61.

functional behavior assessments: legal requirements and challenges

This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams. 

Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review30(2), 239-251.

Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism

The authors concluded that early intensive behavioral intervention was associated with large to moderate improvements in IQ (intelligence quotient) and adaptive behavior in children with autism compared to no intervention or eclectic treatment.

Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2009). Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology38(3), 439-450.

The Good Behavior Game: A Best Practice Candidate as a Universal Behavioral Vaccine

Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution

Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review5(4), 273-297.

The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: Ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research.

This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.

Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society7(2), 246-259.

Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms

Fifth-grade students with and without mild disabilities participated in an eight-week project-based, technology-supported investigation about the 19th century westward expansion in the United States. A narrative framework was used to organize and support students' understanding of the experiences of three emigrant groups.

Ferretti, R. P., MacArthur, C. D., & Okolo, C. M. (2001). Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly24(1), 59-71.

Readiness for Change

The purpose of this Brief is to define the variables a state or large district leadership team may wish to consider as they determine if they are “ready” to invest in the scaling-up of innovation in education.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009). Readiness for Change. Scaling-Up Brief. Number 3. FPG Child Development Institute.

Core Implementation Components

The failure of better science to readily produce better services has led to increasing interest in the science and practice of implementation. The results of recent reviews of implementation literature and best practices are summarized in this article.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2009). Core implementation components. Research on social work practice19(5), 531-540.

Evidence-Based Assessment of Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents

The reliability and validity of 4 approaches to the assessment of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. The authors identify serious psychometric problems that affect the reliability of models based on aptitude-achievement discrepancies and low achievement.

Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Morris, R. D., & Lyon, G. R. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology34(3), 506-522.

Classification of Learning Disabilities: An Evidence-Based Evaluation. Executive Summary.

This paper reviews research on the classification of students with learning disability (LD). It first examines the evolution of LD definitions and the evidence for three components of LD classification: discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion.

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Barnes, M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Olson, R. K., ... & Shaywitz, B. A. (2001). Classification of Learning Disabilities: An Evidence-Based Evaluation. Executive Summary.

Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions.

Examined the validity of distinguishing children with reading disabilities according to discrepancy and low-achievement definitions by obtaining 4 assessments of expected reading achievement and 2 assessments of actual reading achievement for 199 children (aged 7.5–9.5 yrs).

Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., ... & Shaywitz, B. A. (1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology86(1), 6.

Relation of phonological and orthographic processing to early reading: Comparing two approaches to regression-based, reading-level-match designs.

The authors replicated K. E. Stanovich and L. Siegel (regression-based logic to the reading-level-match design approach, but contrasted it with statistical matches using W scores, which are Rasch-scaled decoding scores based on a common metric regardless of age or grade. 

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Lynn, A. (1996). Relation of phonological and orthographic processing to early reading: Comparing two approaches to regression-based, reading-level-match designs. Journal of Educational Psychology88(4), 639.

Early detection and prevention of emotional or behavioral disorders: Developmental aspects of systems of care

Use of early detection and ongoing assessment of response as a basis for more focused intervention is described. Primary and secondary prevention issues also are discussed in relation to this approach.

Forness, S. R., Kavale, K. A., MacMillan, D. L., Asarnow, J. R., & Duncan, B. B. (1996). Early detection and prevention of emotional or behavioral disorders: Developmental aspects of systems of care. Behavioral Disorders21(3), 226-240.

Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis

This study examined individual growth curves were used to test whether the development of children with reading disabilities is best characterized by models of developmental lag or developmental deficit.

Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational psychology, 88(1), 3.

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

This paper summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem-solving.

Friman, P. C., & Poling, A. (1995). Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(4), 583-590.

Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents

CASL's general goal is to identify instructional practices that accelerate the learning of K-3 children with disabilities. A specific goal is to identify and understand the nature of nonresponsiveness to generally effective instruction. 

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children38(1), 57-61.

Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?

In this article, we explain important features of RTI, why it has been promoted as a substitute for IQ-achievement discrepancy, and what remains to be understood before it may be seen as a valid means of LD identification.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?. Reading research quarterly41(1), 93-99.

A conservative approach to special education reform: Mainstreaming through transenvironmental programming and curriculum-based measurement

The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a process for readying students to transition successfully from special education resource rooms to regular classrooms for math instruction. 

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Fernstrom, P. (1993). A conservative approach to special education reform: Mainstreaming through transenvironmental programming and curriculum-based measurement. American Educational Research Journal30(1), 149-177.

Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences between Low Achievers with and without the Label.

This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.

Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct.

The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then  review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 157-171.

Responsiveness-to-Intervention: Definitions, Evidence, and Implications for the Learning Disabilities Construct

The authors describe both types of RTI, review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with LD.

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 157-171.

Assessing Intervention Responsiveness: Conceptual and Technical Issues

 In this article, the author uses examples in the literature to explore conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components. 

Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 172-186.

Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities.

Discusses treatment validity as a unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. The authors present a rationale for this alternative framework, use one well-developed classroom assessment method to illustrate the technical requirements of this alternative eligibility process, and discuss the feasibility issues this approach presents.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13(4), 204-219.

A framework for building capacity for responsiveness to intervention

This commentary offers such a framework and then they consider how the articles constituting this special issue address the various questions posed in the framework. 

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2006). A framework for building capacity for responsiveness to intervention. School Psychology Review35(4), 621.

A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention

To implement RTI for prevention and identification, schools must make decisions about six components that constitute the process. The authors recommendation is that schools employ three tiers, with only one tier separating general and special education.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. Teaching exceptional children39(5), 14-20.

Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems

This article reviews an inductive assessment model for building instructional programs that satisfy the requirement that satisfy the requirement that special education be planned to address an individual student's need. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children61(2), 138.

The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math.

Examined the role of skills analysis (SA) in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for the purpose of developing more effective instructional (mathematics) programs. 30 special education teachers implemented 1 of 3 treatments for 15 wks with a total of 91 mildly and moderately handicapped pupils. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math. School Psychology Review.

The Fundamental Role of Intervention Implementation in Assessing Response to Intervention

This chapter describes some of the critical conceptual issues related to intervention implementation, and provides a selected review of the research regarding the assessment and assurance of intervention implementation.

Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (2007). The fundamental role of intervention implementation in assessing response to intervention. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 244-251). Springer, Boston, MA.

An application of curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement

A model of special education is presented in this article based on the use of a direct and repeated measurement and evaluation system for developing effective educational programs. 

Germann, G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application of curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children52(3), 244-265.

Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).

 

Designing high quality research in special education

This article discusses critical issues related to conducting high-quality intervention research using experimental and quasi-experimental group designs.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J. W. (2000). Designing high-quality research in special education: Group experimental design. The Journal of Special Education34(1), 2-18.

Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content to Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities

This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954–1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Peterson, A., & Dimino, J. (2006). Eyes on the prize: Teaching history to students with learning disabilities in inclusive settings. Exceptional Children72, 264-280.

Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices

This article reviews key findings from school-reform studies of the 1980s and explains their relevance to special education. It also highlights significant findings from more recent studies that help elucidate and flesh out the earlier findings. 

Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of learning disabilities33(5), 445-456.

Quality Indicators for Group Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research in Special Education

This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education.

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional children71(2), 149-164.

Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues.

These papers provide up-to-date, informative summaries of current knowledge and a base from which further venture into the critical area of instructional intervention in special education can occur.

Gersten, R., Schiller, E. P., & Vaughn, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Routledge.

The association between teaching students with disabilities and teacher turnover.

The authors fit multilevel logistic regression models to a large state administrative dataset in order to examine (1) if the percentage of SWDs a teacher instructs was associated with turnover, (2) if this association varied by student disability, and (3) how these associations were moderated by special education certification.

Gilmour, A. F., & Wehby, J. H. (2019). The Association Between Teaching Students with Disabilities and Teacher Turnover.

Are Students with Disabilities Accessing the Curriculum? A Meta-analysis of the Reading Achievement Gap between Students with and without Disabilities.

This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.

Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830

The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis

The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement 

Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September3, 2009.

Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines.

This article documents the mismatch between the supply and demand of STEM and special education teachers in Washington State, where almost 4,000 more STEM and special education teachers have left the profession than have been produced by in-state teacher training institutions over the past 25 years. 

Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Theobald, R., & Brown, N. (2015). Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines. Phi Delta Kappan97(4), 56-62.

Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that a self-contained Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) with a reduced adult to student ratio would have on the frequency of SED students’ on-task behavior and overall lesson engagement throughout the school day. 

Gooding, E. (2017). Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

Effects of Funding Incentives on Special Education Enrollment. Civic Report.

The report examines the effect of state funding systems and high stakes testing on special
education enrollment. 

Greene, J. P., & Forster, G. (2002). Effects of Funding Incentives on Special Education Enrollment. Civic Report.

Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Executive Summary

This executive summary discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.

Gresham, F. (August, 2001). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Executive summary. Paper presented at the 2001 Learning Disabilities Summit: Building a Foundation for the Future, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED458755.pdf

Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention.

Resistance to intervention is a function of a number of factors including the severity, chronicity, generalization, and tolerance of the behavior, as well as the strength, acceptability, and effectiveness of interventions. These factors are discussed, and implications for referral, assessment, intervention, and classification are presented. 

Gresham, F. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review.

Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification

This paper discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.

Gresham, F. M. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice467519.

Response to Intervention: An Alternative Means of Identifying Students as Emotionally Disturbed

Response to intervention is defined and described along with methods and procedures for quantifying whether or not a student shows an adequate or inadequate response to an evidence-based intervention implemented with integrity. 

Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative means of identifying students as emotionally disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 328-344.

Evolution of the response-to-intervention concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments

The purpose of this chapter is to present the evolution of the response to intervention (RTI) concept and discuss how that concept can be and is being used to provide more effective services to children and youth with both academic and social/behavioral difficulties

Gresham, F. M. (2007). Evolution of the response-to-intervention concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 10-24). Springer, Boston, MA.

Interventions for Young Children With and at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

This column suggests an intervention continuum to be used that extends beyond the current model, providing a matrix that aligns social-emotional or behavioral skills with specific interventions shown to be effective for students who fall under other disability labels.

Gresham, F. M., Lane, K. L., & O'Shaughnessy, T. E. (2002). Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston, MA: Allya and Bacon.

Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented

The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.

Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.

New Teacher Induction in Special Education

This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.

Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.

Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies

In this paper research is identified that supports the use of specific classroom management strategies in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Information is presented that indicates that these strategies may not be implemented or may not be effectively implemented by the teachers of students with EBD.

Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1996). Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies. Behavioral Disorders22(1), 15-20.

Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide.

This principal's guide to implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) for elementary and middle school reading emphasizes the critical role administrators play in ensuring RTI success in their schools. The author makes recommendations for putting the RTI process in motion and helps school leaders:

Hall, S. L. (Ed.). (2007). Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior

This paper examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis–based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure. 

Hanley, G. P., Piazza, C. C., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(2), 229-237.

Perspectives on the future of IDEA

This article addresses whether or not the assumptions upon which IDEA is based remain valid as we approach the 21st century. We critique these assumptions within the context of four requirements of IDEA

Hardman, Michael & Mcdonnell, John & Welch, Marshall. (1997). Perspectives on the future of IDEA. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 22. 10.1177/154079699702200201. 

Practitioner’s Guide to Curriculum-Based Evaluation in Reading

This book gives researchers and professionals the means to break this frustrating cycle, crafted by authors who have not only been there and done that, but can explain in-depth how to replicate the method

Harlacher J., Sakelaris T., Kattelman N. (2014) Practitioner’s guide to curriculum-based evaluation in reading. New York, NY: Springer.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders and Classroom-Based Interventions: Evidence-Based Status, Effectiveness, and Moderators of Effects in Single-Case Design Research

to inform selection of evidence-based interventions to be implemented in classroom settings, the current systematic review with meta-analysis of single-case design studies was conducted to evaluate intervention effectiveness, evidence-based status, and moderators of effects for four intervention types when implemented with students with ADHD in classroom settings.

Harrison, J. R., Soares, D. A., Rudzinski, S., & Johnson, R. (2019). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders and Classroom-Based Interventions: Evidence-Based Status, Effectiveness, and Moderators of Effects in Single-Case Design Research. Review of Educational Research, 0034654319857038.

Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education.

This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.

Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education36(4), 186-205.

Observational Assessment for Planning and Evaluating Educational Transitions: An Initial Analysis of Template Matching

Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.

Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.

Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper.

This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels. 

Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Placing Children in Special Education: A Strategy for Equity

The document contains the final report of a project to determine the factors that account for disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs, especially programs for mentally retarded students; and to identify placement criteria for practices that do not affect minority students disproportionately

Holtzman, W. H., Messick, S., & National Research Council. (1982). Placing children in special education: A strategy for equity. National Academies.

Early identification of learning problems: A meta-analysis

Conducted a meta-analysis of 58 studies (1960–1984) on the early prediction of learning problems that reported correlations between measures administered in kindergarten or 1st-grade and reading achievement later in elementary school.

Horn, W. F., & Packard, T. (1985). Early identification of learning problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology77(5), 597.

The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as “evidence-based” via single-subject research.

Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2008). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Advances in Evidence-Based Education, 1(1), 67-87.

Deaths: Final Data for 1999

This report presents final 1999 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality are also described.

Hoyert, D. L., Kochanek, K. D., & Murphy, S. L. (1999). Deaths: final data for 1997. Natl Vital Stat Rep47(19), 1-104.

Screening for at-risk readers in a response to intervention framework

This article examines universal screening, one component in a response to intervention approach for serving struggling learners.

Jenkins, J. R., Hudson, R. F., & Johnson, E. S. (2007). Screening for At-Risk Readers in a Response to. School Psychology Review36(4), 582-600.

A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but no longer-term (ie, >4 months) investigations have compared these 2 treatments or their combination. 

Jensen, P. S. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of general psychiatry56(12), 1073-1086.

The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities.

An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.

Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology20(3), 13-23.

Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students.

Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of multi-tiered systems of support. Springer.

The Effectiveness of Data-Based Instruction by Student Teachers in Classrooms for Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.

This study sought to determine whether or not student teachers who were trained and required to use a data-based problem-solving approach in their practicum classrooms would obtain higher levels of pupil achievement in reading and mathematics than student teachers who did not receive the training.

Jones, E. D., & Krouse, J. P. (1986). The Effectiveness of Data-Based Instruction by Student Teachers in Classrooms for Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.

Waving to Ray Charles: Missing the meaning of disabilities

Current calls to close the achievement gap between students with disabilities and those without not only ignore reality but, argues M<r. Kauffman, also poses a real threat to special education students and their teachers. 

Kauffman, J. M. (2005). Waving to Ray Charles: Missing the meaning of disabilities. Phi Delta Kappan86(7), 520-524.

Effectiveness of special education.

Although paralleling the regular education system, the promotion of an assortment of different procedures and techniques has caused special education to face continually a fundamental question: is it effective? the purpose of this chapter is to explore that question

Kavale, K. (1990). Effectiveness of special education.

Discrepancy models in the identification of learning disability

This paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disability

Kavale, K. A. (2002). Discrepancy models in the identification of learning disability. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 369-426.

Effective Intervention for Students with Specific Learning Disability: The Nature of Special Education.

The nature of effective instruction for students with specific learning disability is explored.

Kavale, K. A. (2005). Effective Intervention for Students with Specific Learning Disability: The Nature of Special Education. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal13(4), 127-138.

Identifying Specific Learning Disability: Is Responsiveness to Intervention the Answer?

Responsiveness to intervention (RTI) is being proposed as an alternative model for making decisions about the presence or absence of specific learning disability. The author argue that there are many questions about RTI that remain unanswered, and radical changes in proposed regulations are not warranted at this time.

Kavale, K. A. (2005). Identifying specific learning disability: Is responsiveness to intervention the answer?. Journal of Learning Disabilities38(6), 553-562.

Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Management Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Behavioral, Psychiatric, and Social Outcomes

The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.

Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence95, S5-S28.

Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications

In this article, we describe analyses of assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

Kern, L., Delaney, B., Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Childs, K. (2001). Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders9(4), 239-247.

Extended reductions in stereotypic behavior of students with autism through a self-management treatment package

This research assessed whether students with severe autistic disabilities could learn to use a self-management treatment package to reduce their stereotypic behavior within a multiple baselines across subjects design with withdrawals.

Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (1990). Extended reductions in stereotypic behavior of students with autism through a self‐management treatment package. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(1), 119-127.

High Versus Low Implementation of Instructional Support Teams: A Case for Maintaining Program Fidelity

In 1990, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania implemented a statewide instructional support team (IST) process to provide prereferral assessment and intervention for at-risk students in 500 school districts. The current study examined the academic performance of students affected by this process as contrasted with other at-risk students who did not have access to it.

Kovaleski, J. F., Gickling, E. E., Morrow, H., & Swank, P. R. (1999). High versus low implementation of instructional support teams: A case for maintaining program fidelity. Remedial and Special Education20(3), 170-183.

Response to Intervention: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Implementation

This chapter provides an overview of some of the conceptual and foundation features of RTI.

Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., & Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention: Conceptual and methodological issues in implementation. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 25-52). Springer, Boston, MA.

Cognitive‐Behavioral Treatment of School Phobia

The objective of this research is to conduct a controlled group outcome investigation of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment for school phobia.

Last, C. G., Hansen, C., & Franco, N. (1998). Cognitive‐behavioral treatment of school phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry37(4), 404-411.

Putting it All Together: Including Students with Disabilities in Assessment and Accountability Systems

The report is an overview of the key components of inclusive assessment and accountability and highlights how they fit together to form a cohesive whole.

Lehr, C., & Thurlow, M. (2003). Putting it all together: Including students with disabilities in assessment and accountability systems. Policy Directions No, 16.

Reductive procedures

This chapter will review the issues and effects of externally managed behavioral procedures applied to the reduction of undesirable behavior of regular or mildly handicapped children in school settings. 

Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In Handbook of behavior therapy in education (pp. 439-468). Springer, Boston, MA.

Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940-1960

Sixteenth census of United States: 1940; Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940-1960

Linder, F. E., & Grove, R. D. (1943). Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1900-1940. US Government Printing Office.

Precision Teaching: By Teachers for Children

in this article, the author describes the policies of precision teaching. 

 

Lindsley, O. R. (1990). Precision teaching: By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 10-15.

The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups

The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.

Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children.

This article reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children. 

Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology55(1), 3.

Practice and Research in Special Education

This article considers possible reasons that research knowledge is not used more extensively in special education practice and suggests issues to be addressed in solving this problem. 

Malouf, D. B., & Schiller, E. P. (1995). Practice and research in special education. Exceptional Children61(5), 414-424.

The effectiveness of special education: A time series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings

This study presents such an approach where the impact of regular and special education on 11 mildly handicapped children is studied by analyzing their slope of improvement on weekly curriculum-based measures (CBM) reading scores.

Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education21(4), 13-26.

Leadership: The key concepts.

Leadership: The Key Concepts is an indispensable and authoritative guide to the most crucial ideas, concepts and debates surrounding the study and exercise of leadership

Marturano, A., & Gosling, J. (2007). Leadership: The key concepts. Routledge.

Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Students with a Specific Learning Disability

Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. Based on evidence from single-case design studies, SRSD had potentially positive effects on writing achievement for students with a specific learning disability.

Mathematica Policy Research (2017). Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Students with a Specific Learning Disability. What Works Clearinghouse. Institute of Education Sciences.

Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

We examined the effect of a teaching method on skill fluency and on-task endurance of a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

McDowell, C., & Keenan, M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(3), 345-348.

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Children Treating Complex and Refractory Cases

This book highlights the fact that the sharp distinctions often drawn in the literature between efficacy and effectiveness can be misleading. “Efficacy” refers to whether a particular CBT has been found to “work” by means of experimental procedures. This book represents an important effort in narrowing the gap between research and practice.

McKay, D., & Storch, E. A. (Eds.). (2009). Cognitive behavior therapy for children: Treating complex and refractory cases. Springer Publishing Company.

The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers

This article provides an analysis of factors influencing the supply of and demand for special education teachers

McLeskey, J., Tyler, N. C., & Saunders Flippin, S. (2004). The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. The Journal of Special Education38(1), 5-21.

RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention.

This comprehensive yet accessible reference covers the three tiers of RTI, schoolwide screening, progress monitoring, challenges to implementation, and changes in school structures and individual staff roles.

Mellard, D. F., & Johnson, E. S. (Eds.). (2007). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. Corwin Press.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Effects of Curricular and Materials Modifications on Academic Performance and Task Engagement of Three Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Effects of two curricular and materials modifications on the on-task behavior and correct academic responding of three elementary-aged students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) were evaluated in two separate studies. 

Miller, K. A., Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Hummel, J., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Effects of curricular and materials modifications on academic performance and task engagement of three students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders28(2), 130-149.

Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading

In this article, the authors review the research on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading published since the time of Marston’s 1989 review

Miura Wayman, M., Wallace, T., Wiley, H. I., Tichá, R., & Espin, C. A. (2007). Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading. The Journal of Special Education41(2), 85-120.

A systematic review of single-case research on video analysis as professional development for special educators.

This meta-analysis reports on the overall effectiveness of video analysis when used with special educators, as well as on moderator analyses related to participant and instructional characteristics.

Morin, K. L., Ganz, J. B., Vannest, K. J., Haas, A. N., Nagro, S. A., Peltier, C. J., … & Ura, S. K. (2019). A systematic review of single-case research on video analysis as professional development for special educators. The Journal of Special Education53(1), 3-14.

The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review

The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have used instructional variables as nonaversive interventionsfor problem behaviors.

Munk, D. D., & Repp, A. C. (1994). The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review. Exceptional children60(5), 390-401.

Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: Summary and commentary.

A comprehensive report mandated by the US Congress on the state of the science of prevention recommends a stricter definition of the term prevention; summarizes specific preventive intervention research programs across the life span; and specifies funding, personnel, and coordination priorities to build a national prevention research infrastructure

Munoz, R. F., Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1996). Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: summary and commentary. American Psychologist51(11), 1116.

Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup

The Workgroup reviewed the NIMH research portfolio that extends from academic research settings to large, State-wide service systems, to the moving target of “front-line” clinical care. The review made vividly clear the need for mutually enriching interaction between research and both practice and service systems. 

National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup.

Responsiveness to Intervention and Learning Disabilities

The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD). 

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention and Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.readingrockets.org/article/responsiveness-intervention-and-learning-disabilities

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Evidence-Based Practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education: Single-Subject Design Research

The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of scientific evidence from single-subject research underlying the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices.

Odom, S. L., & Strain, P. S. (2002). Evidence-based practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Single-subject design research. Journal of Early Intervention25(2), 151-160.

Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices

This article sets the context for the development of research quality indicators and guidelines
for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies.

Odom, S. L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Horner, R. H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional children71(2), 137-148.

Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part I: Correlates of state child-count data

Research on students with serious emotional disturbances (SED) suggests that these children are significantly underidentified. National special education data bear out this conclusion to a large extent.

Oswald, D. P., & Coutinho, M. J. (1995). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part I: Correlates of state child-count data. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders3(4), 224-229.

Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of historical trends in the funding of special education programs, to discuss current issues, and to consider alternative directions for the future

Parrish, T. B. (1996). Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.

Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities

This research evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback
for maintaining direct‐service staff members' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities.

Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1995). Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(3), 317-322.

Foundations of special education: basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education

This enlightening book contains papers (presented as chapters) commissioned from nationally recognized scholars, which examine topics related to ethics, culture, science, and philosophy that have a direct bearing on the future of special education.

Paul, J. L. (1997). Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education. Pacific Grove: Brooks.

Factors Related to Intervention Integrity and Child Outcome in Social Skills Interventions

The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the relationship between the integrity with which social skills interventions were implemented in early childhood special education classrooms and 3 factors: teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, consultative support for implementation, and individual child outcomes.

Peterson, C. A., & McCONNELL, S. R. (1996). Factors related to intervention integrity and child outcome in social skills interventions. Journal of early intervention20(2), 146-164.

Providing noncategorical, functional, classroom-based supports for students with disabilities: Legal parameters

This article identify five areas that subsume the major activities of problem solving or non categorical service delivery. They are (1) assessment for interventions (2) support for interventions  (3) parent involvement (4) problem solving collaboration (5) resources for students as a part of general education.

Prasse, D. P., & Schrag, J. A. (1999). Providing noncategorical, functional, classroom-based supports for students with disabilities: Legal parameters. AUTHOR Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed. TITLE Functional and Noncategorical Identification and, 201.

Special education reform: School psychology revolution.

Presents an analysis and critique of current school psychological services that emphasize unresolved dilemmas in the current system, which are interpreted as establishing the basis for special education reform.

Reschly, D. J. (1988). Special education reform: School psychology revolution. School Psychology Review.

Critical Measurement Issues in Learning Disabilities.

Four primary issues are covered: the role of different measurement models in disparities of LD children serviced across states, types of students served as LD but not actually LD, components of severe discrepancies between aptitude and achievement, and state of the art in evaluating LD students.

Reynolds, C. R., & Willson, V. L. (1984). Critical measurement issues in learning disabilities. The Journal of Special Education18(4), 451-476.

The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first-grade students

The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first-grade students

Riedel, B. W. (2007). The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first‐grade students. Reading research quarterly42(4), 546-567.

The Principal's Role in Creating Inclusive Schools for Diverse Students: A Review of Normative, Empirical, and Critical Literature on the Practice of Educational Administration

Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities. 

Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research70(1), 55-81.

Dilemmas in a general theory of planning

In this paper, it is argued that Critical Planning Theory is inadequate as a planning theory. 

Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy sciences4(2), 155-169.

Comparison of the Effects of Spanish and English Constant Time Delay Instruction on Sight Word Reading by Hispanic Learners with Mental Retardation

This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of a 4-second time delay instructional package and language of instruction with regard to the percentage correct of English sight words and incidental information by 4 Puerto Rican middle school students with mental retardation.

Rohena, E. I., Jitendra, A. K., & Browder, D. M. (2002). Comparison of the effects of Spanish and English constant time delay instruction on sight word reading by Hispanic learners with mental retardation. The Journal of Special Education36(3), 171-186.

NCTQ Databurst: Strengthening Reading Instruction Through Better Preparation of Elementary and Special Education Teachers

This study examines all 50 states' and the District of Columbia's requirements regarding the science of reading for elementary and special education teacher candidates.

Ross, E. (2018). NCTQ Databurst: Strengthening Reading Instruction Through Better Preparation of Elementary and Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wnpr/files/201808/NCTQ_Databurst-_Strengthening_Reading_Instruction_764564.pdf

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction

In an experimental assessment of a choral responding procedure for increasing children's response to teacher commands, decreased levels of off-task behavior, as well as increased levels of correct responding, resulted from the procedures for three handicapped preschool children during large group instruction.

Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. R. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood12(1), 23-30.

Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities

This study examined the effects of a self-evaluation treatment package on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. 

Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., Lefebvre, D., & Rapp, N. (1990). Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. Exceptional Children56(6), 540-549.

Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings

The authors conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis. 

Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., ... & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis25(4), 809-821.

Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool.

This paper evaluated a program for training 4 support staff to embed instruction within the existing activities of 5 children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. 

Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Parsons, M. B. (2001). Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. Journal of applied behavior analysis34(3), 313-327.

Teacher Perceptions of Mainstreaming/Inclusion, 1958–1995: A Research Synthesis

Twenty-eight investigations were identified in which general education teachers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classes. Research synthesis procedures were employed to summarize responses and examine the consistency of responses across time, geographical location, and item type.

Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958–1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional children63(1), 59-74.

Curriculum-based Measurement: Assessing Special Children

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.

Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.

Advanced Applications of Curriculum-based Measurement

Developed specifically to overcome problems with traditional standardized instruments--and widely used in both general and special education settings throughout the US--curriculum-based measurement (CBM) comprises brief assessment probes of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics that serve both to quantify student performance and to bolster academic achievement.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. Guilford Press.

Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits

The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs

Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.

Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities

The authors evaluated an intervention package for increasing requesting opportunities in special education classrooms. This study demonstrated an effective strategy for helping teachers incorporate opportunities for functional communication into the natural environment.

Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., Roberts, D., & Couzens, D. (1994). Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders24(5), 631-645.

Treatment Outcomes for Students with Learning Disabilities: How Important Are Internal and External Validity?

This study analyzed the magnitude of experimental intervention outcomes as a function of violations in internal and external validity for studies that included students with learning disabilities. 

Simmerman, S., & Swanson, H. L. (2001). Treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: How important are internal and external validity?. Journal of Learning Disabilities34(3), 221-236.

Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems

Alternating treatments designs were used to compare on-task levels in 4 students diagnosed as emotionally disturbed while working on control and experimental independent seat-work mathematics assignments. Control and experimental assignments were similar except experimental assignments contained additional briefer mathematics problems interspersed following every third problem. 

Skinner, C. H., Hurst, K. L., Teeple, D. F., & Meadows, S. O. (2002). Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems. Psychology in the Schools39(6), 647-659.

Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, 7th Edition

Comprehensively succinct and advanced in its scope, this widely adopted text addresses the full-range of curriculum and instructional topics involved in educating individuals with moderate, severe, and multiple disabilities.

Snell, M. E., & Brown, F. E. (2011). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Higher Ed.

Are Children with Anxiety Disorders Privately Referred to a University Clinic Like Those Referred from the Public Mental Health System?

Compared two groups of children with anxiety disorders served at a single mental health clinic whose referral source differed: private referrals (i.e., parent/legal guardian initiated) and public referrals (e.g., via state contracts—Departments of Health and Education, juvenile justice system).

Southam-Gerow, M. A., Chorpita, B. F., Miller, L. M., & Gleacher, A. A. (2008). Are children with anxiety disorders privately referred to a university clinic like those referred from the public mental health system?. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research35(3), 168-180.

What Science Offers Teachers of Reading

This article examine what science offers general and special educators who teach reading then review some well‐established scientific findings about reading and their practical implications, not only for children with reading disabilities, but for other children as well.

Spear‐Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(1), 51-57.

Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability.

This study evaluated an alternative method of identifying early reading difficulty. L. S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs (1998) proposed that academic problems could be indexed by a dual discrepancy on level and slope of performance, relative to classmates, on curriculum-based measurement tasks. 

Speece, D. L., & Case, L. P. (2001). Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology93(4), 735.

How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?

The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program

Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.

Effects of instructional modifications with and without curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics achievement of students with mild disabilities.

This investigation contributed to previous research by separating the effects of simply making instructional changes, not based on student performance data, from the effects of making instructional changes in accordance with CBM data.

Stecker, P. M. (1995). Effects of instructional modifications with and without curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics achievement of students with mild disabilities.

Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices

The purpose of this chapter is to present a combined research- and practice-based framework for integrating a comprehensive MTSS model with EBP, and thus, optimize the results stemming from school improvement efforts.

Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 121-141). Springer, Boston, MA.

Validity of IQ-Discrepancy Classifications of Reading Disabilities:A Meta-Analysis

A meta-analysis involving 46 studies addressing the validity of this classification of poor readers revealed substantial overlap between the IQ-discrepant and IQ-consistent poor readers

Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., LeDoux, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2002). Validity of IQ-discrepancy classifications of reading disabilities: A meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal39(2), 469-518.

Role of Leadership and culture in PBIS Implementation

This presentation slide describes the important role of leadership in effective, efficient, and relevant PBIS implementation

 

Sugai, G. (2013). Role of Leadership and culture in PBIS Implementation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/PBIS_Implementation_leadership_braiding_apr_11_2013_HAND.pdf

Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review.

The purpose of this article is to review the literature and examine the effect of increased opportunities to respond to academic requests (OTR) on academic and behavioral outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).

Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education22(2), 113-121.

Effect on varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD.

This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.

Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders8(1), 2-8.

Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a Grow Your Own program

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a grow your own (GYO) program equitably increased special education teacher capacity in one Southern state's rural and non-rural school districts.

Sutton, J. P., Bausmith, S. C., O'connor, D. M., Pae, H. A., & Payne, J. R. (2014). Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a grow your own program. Rural Special Education Quarterly33(4), 14-23.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.

Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities47(2), 178-195.

Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes

This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities

Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research68(3), 277-321.

Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis.

The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.

Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(2), 109-119.

Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis.

A newly released multi-national meta-analysis examined the impact of including special education needs students (SEN) in classrooms with students without special needs.The meta-analysis concluded that attending inclusive classrooms is positively, though weakly, associated with the academic achievement of students without special needs.

Szumski, G., Smogorzewska, J., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 21, 33–54.

Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior

We examined whether, as predicted by research on child effects, we could generate hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing the amount of attention teachers provided to students.

Taylor, J. C., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1994). Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis27(2), 251-265.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA Regulations of 2006: Implications for Educators, Administrators, and Teacher Trainers

This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).

Behavior Modification of the Mentally Retarded

In this important book, one of the most exciting and promising developments in clinical psychology-behavior modification is applied to the treatment of the mentally retarded, particularly those whose behavior poses difficult problems for institutions.

Thompson, T., & Grabowski, J. (1977). Behavior modification of the mentally retarded.

Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.

This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities. 

Tilly III, W. D. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.

Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.

This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.

Tilly, W. D. III. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 21-36). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.

Disability determination in problem-solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components

This chapter presents four sets of interrelated discussions. The rationale for and critical components underlying a problem-solving system; The concept of educational disability is clarified; Current and potential alternate processes of conferring educational disability status are considered; The implications of implementing a functional and noncategorical system are examined in relation to federal legal requirements.

Tilly, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming, 221-251.

Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.

This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning. 

Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..

Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.

This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction

Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education16(4), 355-367.

Preventing Early Reading Failure

This article layout two sets of findings: (1) what we know about the kind of instruction that weak readers need in kindergarten through second grade to prevent them from ever entering the downward spiral, and (2) what we know about the effectiveness of interventions that make use of this knowledge.

Torgesen, J. K. (2004). Preventing early reading failure. American Educator28(3), 6-9.

Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches

Sixty children with severe reading disabilities were randomly assigned to two instructional
programs that incorporated principles of effective instruction but differed in depth and extent
of instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding skills

Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of learning disabilities34(1), 33-58.

A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components.

This article provides a case study (focus on an eighth-grader with autism) within a case study (focus on an urban middle school) in terms of the implementation of positive behavior support (PBS).

Turnbull, A., Bohanon, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., ... & Warren, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children68(3), 377–402.

States granted waivers from No Child Left Behind allowed to reapply for renewal for 2014 and 2015 school years

As students and educators go back to school across the country, and as Congress continues to debate how to fix the law commonly known as No Child Left Behind, the U.S. Department of Education announced today that states whose waivers from certain provisions of federal education law will expire at the end of the 2013-2014 school year will soon be able to request renewals of their reform plans, for up to two more years.

U.S. Department of Education (2017). States granted waivers from No Child Left Behind allowed to reapply for renewal for 2014 and 2015 school years. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/states-granted-waivers-no-child-left-behind-allowed-reapply-renewal-2014-and-2015-school-years

Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Final Report.

The Commission identified the six goals as the foundation for transforming mental health care in America. This report discusses each goal in-depth, showcasing model programs to illustrate the goal in practice and providing specific recommendations needed to transform the mental health system in America.

United States. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: transforming mental health care in America: final report. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.

Twenty-Sixth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

The text and graphics contained in the 26th Annual Report to Congress were developed primarily from data from the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Data Analysis System (DANS). DANS is a repository for all the data mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to be collected from states annually. 

US Department of Education. (1998). Twentieth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities

In order to ensure the Department's “Equity in IDEA” or “significant disproportionality” regulations effectively address significant disproportionality, the Department proposes to postpone the compliance date by two years, from July 1, 2018, to July 1, 2020

US Department of Education. (2006). Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; Final rule (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301). Federal Register71, 46540.

Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A National Action Agenda.

The purpose of the conference was to engage a group of citizens in a thoughtful, meaningful dialogue about issues of prevention, identification, recognition, and referral of children with mental health needs to appropriate, evidence-based treatments or services. 

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A national action agenda.

Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works.

This article examines the impact of poor decision making in school psychology, with a focus on determining eligibility for special education. Effective decision making depends upon the selection and correct use of measures that yield reliable scores and valid conclusions, but traditional psychometric adequacy often comes up short. The author suggests specific ways in which school psychologists might overcome barriers to using effective assessment and intervention practices in schools in order to produce better results.

 

VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2018, March). Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works. In School Psychology Forum, Research in Practice(Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 44-52). National Association of School Psychologists.

A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a response to intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementation of a systematic
response to intervention (RTI) model on the identification and evaluation of children for
special education. 

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gilbertson, D. (2007). A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a response to intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. Journal of School Psychology45(2), 225-256.

Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education

This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education. 

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Naquin, G. (2003). Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education. School Psychology Review32(2), 204-227.

Redefining Learning Disabilities as Inadequate Response to Instruction: The Promise and Potential Problems

In this introduction to the special issue, a response-to-instruction approach to learning disabilities (LD) identification is discussed

Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promise and potential problems. Learning disabilities research & practice18(3), 137-146.

Response to Instruction as a Means of Identifying Students with Reading/Learning Disabilities

To examine a response to treatment model as a means for identifying students with reading/learning disabilities, 45 second-grade students at risk for reading problems were provided daily supplemental reading instruction and assessed after 10 weeks to determine if they met a prior criteria for exit.

Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional children69(4), 391-409.

The Case for Early Intervention in Diagnosing Specific Reading Disability

The authors argue against the use of psychometric assessment as the primary or sole vehicle for diagnosing specific reading disability and delivered some suggestions.

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Tanzman, M. S. (1998). The case for early intervention in diagnosing specific reading disability. Journal of School Psychology36(4), 367-397.

Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability.

Reading impaired first graders were given daily tutoring as a "first cut" diagnostic to aid in distinguishing between reading difficulties caused by basic cognitive deficits and those caused by experiential deficits. Reading achievement in most of these children was found to be within or above the average range after one semester of remediation. 

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology88(4), 601.

First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns

This article provides a description of the First Step to Success early intervention program for preventing development of antisocial behavior patterns among young, at-risk children. 

Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools35(3), 259-269.

Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD)

This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.

Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions

This article overview the conceptual foundations and underlying principles of FBA and the methods and procedures associated with conducting FBAs in school settings. 

Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review30(2), 156-172.

The Relationship Between Self-Determination and Quality of Life for Adults with Mental Retardation

In the present study data were collected on the quality of life and self-determination of 50 individuals with mental retardation, and data were analyzed, using discriminant function analysis and correlational analyses, to determine the contribution of self-determination to quality of life and examine the relationship between these constructs.

Wehmeyer, M. L., & Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation.

A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education

Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students 
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be 
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to 
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups. 
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of 
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area. 

White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.

 

The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies

This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems. 

Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders19(1), 79.

Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility

Developed by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), this report presents current weaknesses in the education of students with learning problems (those having difficulties learning for any of a variety of reasons) and suggested strategies for correcting those weaknesses.

Will, M. C. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional children, 52(5), 411-415.

Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6.

This research monograph offers early childhood educators a foundational resource of information needed to develop inclusion practices.

Wolery, M., & Wilbert, J. S. (1994). Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Order No. 145, $8 each; 5-49 copies, 10% discount; 50-99 copies, 20% discount; over 100 copies, 25% discount; orders under $20 must be prepaid)..

Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.

This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.

Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly28(2), 39-47.

A Logical and Empirical Analysis of Current Practices in Classifying Students as Handicapped

Two studies were conducted to examine the extent to which the category "learning disabilities" (LD) meets the major criterion for classification systems, specifically that the category demonstrates at least one universal and one specificfcharacteristic.

Ysseldyke, J., Algozzine, B., & Epps, S. (1983). A logical and empirical analysis of current practice in classifying students as handicapped. Exceptional Children50(2), 160-166.

Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low- Per forming Students: What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic
This study examined the effectiveness on achievement of very-low-performing students receiving inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention and with the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Wehby, J., Schumacher, R. F., Gersten, R., & Jordan, N. C. (2015). Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low-Performing Students What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic Challenge?. Exceptional Children, 81(2), 134-157.
Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities
Alternate assessment and instruction is a key issue for individuals with disabilities. This report presents an analysis, by assessment system component, to identify where and when flexibility can be built into assessments.
Gong, B., & Marion, S. (2006). Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Synthesis Report 60. National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota.
The National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER) in IES
This powerpoint presentation provides an overview of the National Center for Education Research (NCSER)
Kame’enui, E. and Gonzalez, P. (2006)
Uneven Transparency: NCLB Tests Take Precedence in Public Assessment Reporting for Students with Disabilities
This report analyzes the public reporting of state assessment results for students with disabilities
Klein, J. A., Wiley, H. I., & Thurlow, M. L. (2006). Uneven transparency: NCLB tests take precedence in public assessment reporting for students with disabilities (Technical Report 43). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. Retrieved [today's date], from the World Wide Web: http://education.umn.edu/NCEO/OnlinePubs/Technical43.html
A national profile of the classroom experiences and academic performance of students with LD: A special topic report from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal
This report provides a national analysis of children identified as having an LD as a primary disability receiving special education services. The report looks at school and classroom experiences, student characteristics, and academic outcomes.
Schiller, E., Sanford, C., & Blackorby, J. (2008). A national profile of the classroom experiences and academic performance of students with LD: A special topic report from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Accessed on June, 20, 2010.
A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes
This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 277-321.
2005 State Special Education Outcomes Steps Forward in a Decade of Change
This report provides a snapshot of new initiatives, trends, accomplishments, and emerging issues of education reform as states document the academic achievement of students with disabilities during standards-based reform.
Thompson, S., Johnstone, C., Thurlow, M., & Altman, J. (2005). 2005 State Special Education Outcomes: Steps Forward in a Decade of Change. National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
American Institutes for Research (AIR)
AIR is one of the world's largest behavioral and social science research and evaluation organizations. Its research focus includes most aspects of K-12 education.
Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices.

This text is intended to provide educators with increased understanding of the nature, origins, and causes of antisocial behavior and to offer information on the best available practices, interventions, and model programs for preventing and remediating antisocial behavior disorders occurring in school.

California Services for Technical Assistance and Training (CalSTAT)
CalSTAT is a project of the California Department of Education. that supports and develops partnerships with schools and families by providing training, technical assistance and resources to both special education and general education.
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
CEC is dedicated to improving the educational success of individuals with disabilities by advocating for governmental policies, settinfg professional standards, providing professional development, and helping professionals obtain resources.
Education Policy Center
This site is the education division of the American Institute of Research.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Web Site

The website offers useful information on special education law and policy, topic area reports, grants and funding resources, links to outside resources, and a blog for use by policy makers, parents and educators.

New Individuals with Disabilities Act Website

In early February, the IDEA hosted website that provides special education resources disappeared prompting concern among some in the special education community and members of Congress that the new administration was permanently eliminating this support for special education. After a prolonged outage, the U.S. Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) website, has been revamped and is now back online. The website offers useful information on special education law and policy, topic area reports, grants and funding resources, links to outside resources, and a blog for use by policy makers, parents and educators.

Practicewise

PracticeWise works primarily in mental health to support individuals working with children and families to be more informed and more prepared, through established knowledge management strategies and resources. The services include professional training, online information resources, books and guides, organizational consultation, and service system design and management.

Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)
SEDL is a nonprofit education research, development, and dissemination organization that provides consultation, research and evaluation cross a wide range of education issues.
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