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This book is an analysis of important conceptual and practical issues that face special education professionals.
Algozzine, J. E., Thurlow, M., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2000). Critical issues in special education.
This study used an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of active student response error correction and no-response error correction during sight word instruction.
Barbetta, P. M., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of sight words by students with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(1), 111– 119.
The advantages and challenges associated with these designs for use in special education eligibility decisions are discussed as models for child evaluation in schools.
Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz Jr, F. E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 66-79.
This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions to different situations. In addition, this study examined the effects of function-based interventions on students’ problem and replacement behaviors. After an initial training on functional behavior assessment and implementation of function-based interventions, the experimenter coached each teacher. Results indicated a functional relationship between coaching and an increase in teacher fidelity scores. Teachers generalized the strategies to other situations with the target students. Although some improvement in student behavior was noted upon teachers’ use of function-based interventions without coaching, this improvement was not consistent for all students and across the replacement behaviors. A functional relationship was found between accurate implementation of the function-based interventions and an increase in the students’ primary replacement behaviors.
Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.
This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 259-267.
In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.
Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences, 35, 9-14.
This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.
Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(1), 73-85.
This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda
Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children, 74(3), 351-371.
Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.
Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(2), 155-173.
The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.
Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 356-367.
This study examined individual growth curves were used to test whether the development of children with reading disabilities is best characterized by models of developmental lag or developmental deficit.
Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational psychology, 88(1), 3.
This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.
In this article, the author uses examples in the literature to explore conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components.
Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 172-186.
Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.
Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).
This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 149-164.
This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.
Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830
This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as “evidence-based” via single-subject research.
Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 165-179.
Early intervention is key to preventing academic failure and referral to special education. General educators are responsible for providing primary instruction for students at risk for failure; however, the training they receive related to specific instructional strategies for these students is often insufficient (e.g., 1-day workshops). Alternative forms of professional development that include a combination of in-service and follow-up support have shown more promise in promoting changes in teaching behaviors. This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units in math. Teachers were trained to use a combination of whole-class instruction strategies, including model-lead-test for introducing new concepts and correcting errors, choral responding, and response cards. Results indicated that all teachers improved their delivery of instruction after the in-service training, with a second level of growth achieved after coaching. Teachers also reported high levels of satisfaction using the strategies.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44,234-246.
The report is an overview of the key components of inclusive assessment and accountability and highlights how they fit together to form a cohesive whole.
Lehr, C., & Thurlow, M. (2003). Putting it all together: Including students with disabilities in assessment and accountability systems. Policy Directions No, 16.
The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.
Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. Based on evidence from single-case design studies, SRSD had potentially positive effects on writing achievement for students with a specific learning disability.
Mathematica Policy Research (2017). Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Students with a Specific Learning Disability. What Works Clearinghouse. Institute of Education Sciences.
This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented: (a) A system of progress monitoring was used to assess student progress and skill acquisition; (b) instruction was characterized by high intensity through the use of groups with a low student-teacher ratio; and (c) an explicit instructional approach was used for children who lacked phonemic awareness or an understanding of the alphabetic principle. Furthermore, teachers were supported in working collaboratively with one another and were provided with ongoing support from a literacy coach. Ninety percent of participants met or exceeded grade-level expectations by the end of the year, and 75% of treatment resisters were eligible for special education. Challenges related to implementation are discussed.
Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.
This study examines all 50 states' and the District of Columbia's requirements regarding the science of reading for elementary and special education teacher candidates.
Ross, E. (2018). NCTQ Databurst: Strengthening Reading Instruction Through Better Preparation of Elementary and Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wnpr/files/201808/NCTQ_Databurst-_Strengthening_Reading_Instruction_764564.pdf
Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2010; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2012) was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. Using an intent-to-treat approach, findings replicated earlier results with a very large effect size (d = 1.41) for the FF group and a large effect size (d = 1.12) for the WEB group relative to the PBO group. There were no differences in overall change across goal domains between the FF and WEB groups, suggesting the efficacy of videoconferencing technology.COMPASS is effective and results in improved educational outcomes for young children with autism. Videoconferencing technology, as a scalable tool, has promise for facilitating access to autism specialists and bridging the research-to-practice gap.
Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.
This paper evaluated a program for training 4 support staff to embed instruction within the existing activities of 5 children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool.
Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Parsons, M. B. (2001). Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 34(3), 313-327.
Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.
Developed specifically to overcome problems with traditional standardized instruments--and widely used in both general and special education settings throughout the US--curriculum-based measurement (CBM) comprises brief assessment probes of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics that serve both to quantify student performance and to bolster academic achievement.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. Guilford Press.
This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
A newly released multi-national meta-analysis examined the impact of including special education needs students (SEN) in classrooms with students without special needs.The meta-analysis concluded that attending inclusive classrooms is positively, though weakly, associated with the academic achievement of students without special needs.
Szumski, G., Smogorzewska, J., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 21, 33–54.
This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).
This article examines the impact of poor decision making in school psychology, with a focus on determining eligibility for special education. Effective decision making depends upon the selection and correct use of measures that yield reliable scores and valid conclusions, but traditional psychometric adequacy often comes up short. The author suggests specific ways in which school psychologists might overcome barriers to using effective assessment and intervention practices in schools in order to produce better results.
VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2018, March). Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works. In School Psychology Forum, Research in Practice(Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 44-52). National Association of School Psychologists.
Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups.
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area.
White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.
The website offers useful information on special education law and policy, topic area reports, grants and funding resources, links to outside resources, and a blog for use by policy makers, parents and educators.
In early February, the IDEA hosted website that provides special education resources disappeared prompting concern among some in the special education community and members of Congress that the new administration was permanently eliminating this support for special education. After a prolonged outage, the U.S. Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) website, has been revamped and is now back online. The website offers useful information on special education law and policy, topic area reports, grants and funding resources, links to outside resources, and a blog for use by policy makers, parents and educators.
PracticeWise works primarily in mental health to support individuals working with children and families to be more informed and more prepared, through established knowledge management strategies and resources. The services include professional training, online information resources, books and guides, organizational consultation, and service system design and management.