Education Drivers

Structured Environments

How a teacher organizes the classroom environment will produce either positive or negative consequences for students. A wide range of structural conditions available to teachers can prevent problem behavior and avoid the need for delivering consequences. Antecedent interventions include producing visual displays, creating a classroom setting that is inviting but doesn’t increase off-task behavior, adapting the physical environment by using the walls and dividers to minimize distractions, controlling traffic flow to prevent or minimize events that are predictably disruptive, maintaining optimum temperatures, providing sufficient lighting, minimizing noise levels, limiting undesirable proximity to peers, and arranging desks and tables in certain patterns. Evidence strongly suggests that the type of academic task and the lesson’s objective will dictate the seating arrangement. Rows are found to be consistently superior in reducing disruptive behavior and maximizing on-task behavior during individual tasks. On the other hand, if the task is designed to increase interactivity among students, a group seating arrangement is better. Evidence consistently supports the conclusion that classrooms with more structure produce better academic outcomes.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions.

Interpersonal spacing patterns were studied in environments of different density and design. Results showed that an apparently spacious (74 m2) classroom may produce behavioral changes reminiscent of crowding in young children. When more space (864 m2) was available: (I) children increased interpersonal distances overall; (2) children aggregated more with classmates and teachers, fragmenting into subgroups which were separated from the class overall.

Burgess, J. W., & Fordyce, W. K. (1989). Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 261-276.

 

Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning

This paper examines the impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. Specifically, it examines the impact of seating locations on a) student learning motivation, b) student-student and teacher-student relationships, c) the nature of different tasks and activities performed, and d) student classroom participation.

Fernandes, A. C., Huang, J., & Rinaldo, V. (2011). Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 10(1), 66-77.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children

Children in high structure classes were more attentive in circle time and helped to clean up more after free play, but they did not show more independent task persistence. The latter finding suggested that high levels of adult direction produce conformity when adults are present but do not facilitate independent task-oriented behavior.

Huston-Stein, A., Friedrich-Cofer, L. & Susman, E. J. (1977). The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children. Child Development, 48, 908-916.

Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms

This paper identified 2 behavioral dimensions of classroom structure: amount of child activity and proportion of activity controlled by the teacher. Research showed that high-structured classrooms (low activity/high proportion controlled) had the most work involvement.

Morrison, T. L. (1979). Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(4), 471.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research

Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics.

Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research. Support for Learning, 23(2), 89-93.

Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design

The study observed the spatial distribution of activity in a second-third-grade open classroom before and after a change in the physical design. It tested the general hypothesis that minor changes in the physical setting could produce predictable, desirable changes in student behavior.

Weinstein, C. S. (1977). Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design. American Educational Research Journal, 14(3), 249-262.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is one of the least written about and least understood of our major global institutions. This new book builds a well-rounded understanding of this crucial, though often neglected, institution.

Woodward, R. (2009). The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Routledge.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Back to Top