Education Drivers

Structured Environments

How a teacher organizes the classroom environment will produce either positive or negative consequences for students. A wide range of structural conditions available to teachers can prevent problem behavior and avoid the need for delivering consequences. Antecedent interventions include producing visual displays, creating a classroom setting that is inviting but doesn’t increase off-task behavior, adapting the physical environment by using the walls and dividers to minimize distractions, controlling traffic flow to prevent or minimize events that are predictably disruptive, maintaining optimum temperatures, providing sufficient lighting, minimizing noise levels, limiting undesirable proximity to peers, and arranging desks and tables in certain patterns. Evidence strongly suggests that the type of academic task and the lesson’s objective will dictate the seating arrangement. Rows are found to be consistently superior in reducing disruptive behavior and maximizing on-task behavior during individual tasks. On the other hand, if the task is designed to increase interactivity among students, a group seating arrangement is better. Evidence consistently supports the conclusion that classrooms with more structure produce better academic outcomes.

Structured Environment Overview

 

Structured Environment PDF

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments.

Introduction

An effective classroom behavior management program involves both proactive strategies to prevent challenging behavior, and reactive strategies to respond to challenging behavior when it occurs. One type of proactive strategy is attending to the physical environment of the classroom, including how desk arrangement, visual displays, and classroom noise can affect student behavior. Modifying characteristics of the physical environment is a primary intervention in a multitiered system of support (MTSS). This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.

Desk Arrangement

When students are seated at individual desks, the arrangement of desks in the classroom space can have a variety of effects on student behavior. Common desk arrangements include rows, where all students face the front of the room, and groups, where desks are clustered in groups of four or five so students face one another. Researchers have used a number of terms to refer to the latter arrangement (e.g., tables, groups, clusters)—this overview uses the term “groups” throughout for consistency.

Axelrod, Hall, and Tams (1979) conducted two experiments examining the effects of changing desk arrangements from groups to rows. The first experiment included second-grade students and measured on-task behavior. Greater on-task behavior was observed when students were seated in rows (averaging 83% on-task) than when they were seated in groups (averaging 63% on-task). The second experiment included junior high students and measured talk-outs. Talk-outs occurred more frequently when students were seated in groups (averaging 54 talk-outs) than when seated in rows (averaging 30 talk-outs) during a 55-minute lesson.

Desk arrangements can have different effects for different students. Wheldall, Morris, Vaughan, and Ng (1981) evaluated the effects of sitting in rows compared to sitting in groups on on-task behavior with 10- and 11-year-old students. For the entire class, the average percentage of time on-task was greater when students were seated in rows (86%) than when seated in groups (70%). The authors also analyzed the results further by separating the data into students with initially high, medium, and low on-task behavior. The change in seating arrangement produced the greatest change for students who initially showed low on-task behavior (average of 57% on-task seated in groups, average of 85% on-task seated in rows) and a negligible change for students who initially showed high on-task behavior (average of 85% on-task seated in groups, average of 91% on-task seated in rows). The change for students who initially showed medium on-task behavior was on par with the average change for the whole class (average of 69% on-task seated in groups, average of 86% on-task seated in rows).

Hastings and Schwieso (1995) found similar effects in their analysis. Across two classrooms of 9- to 11-year-old boys, the average time on-task was greater when students were seated in rows (77%) than when seated in groups (62%). In addition, the researchers analyzed the results of seating arrangement on students who typically demonstrated high, moderate, and low on-task behavior. Across both classrooms, when students were seated in groups, the differences in on-task behavior across students were much more pronounced than when students were seated in rows. That is, seating arrangement had a minimal effect on students who were typically on-task most of the time, but sitting in rows allowed students who were typically not on-task when seated in groups (average of 42% on-task) to achieve a similar level of on-task behavior as their peers when seated in rows (average of 75% on-task).

Wheldall and Lam (1987) evaluated the effects of sitting in rows versus groups on on-task behavior, disruptive behavior, and teacher behavior with three classes of 12- to 15-year-old students. In the initial weeks of the study, desks were arranged in groups and students selected their own seats. In the rows phase of the study, students were instructed to sit with the same peers who were previously in their group, but with the desks arranged in rows. Across all three classrooms, on-task behavior increased and disruptive behavior decreased when the seating arrangement changed from groups to rows. The teachers also engaged in more positive interactions and less negative interactions with students when they were seated in rows than when seated at groups, which may be a result of lower levels of disruptive behavior.

Another type of desk arrangement involves seating students in a circle or semicircle. Rosenfield, Lambert, and Black (1985) compared the effects of three seating arrangements—groups, rows, and circles—on the behavior of fifth- and sixth-grade students. The researchers analyzed several on-task behaviors (hand raising, listening, comments) and off-task behaviors (disruption, withdrawal, aggression). The group arrangement produced the most hand raising while the circle arrangement produced the most comments, and, overall, on-task behavior was higher in the group and circle arrangements than the row arrangement. The row arrangement produced the lowest level of disruptive behavior, but also the highest level of withdrawal behavior.

Marx, Fuhrer, and Hartig (1999) also explored a circular seating arrangement by evaluating its effects on question-asking behavior with fourth-grade students. The two seating arrangements included rows and semicircles, and the effects were compared across two types of lessons (German and math). Across both types of lessons, significantly more questions were asked when desks were arranged in semicircles than in rows.

Overall, the research suggests that arranging desks in rows produces the highest levels of on-task behavior and the lowest levels of disruptive behavior. One exception to this was Rosenfield et al.’s (1985) findings that clusters produced higher levels of on-task behavior than rows, but rows produced lower levels of disruptive behavior than clusters. Arranging seats in a circle or semicircle was the least studied arrangement. Both the Marx et al. (1999) and Rosenfeld et al. (1985) studies found that this arrangement resulted in higher levels of participation and engagement than rows, but more research is needed in this area.

Seating Choice

Providing choices is an effective, proactive strategy for increasing engagement and decreasing disruptive behavior (Dunlap et al., 1994). In the aforementioned research on desk arrangements, it was not always clear if students selected their own seats or if teachers assigned them. Additional research has shown that providing students with the choice of where to sit can have different effects on behavior.

Schmidt, Stewart, and McLaughlin (1987) evaluated the effects of free seating and teacher-selected seating on attendance, participation, assignment completion, and academic performance with five Native American seventh-grade students. Across all measures, there were minimal differences produced by the two seating arrangements. The participants were surveyed at the end of the experiment: two of the five participants preferred free seating, while the remaining three participants preferred the teacher-selected seating.

Bicard, Ervin, Bicard, and Baylot-Casey (2012) compared the effects of teacher-selected seating arrangement and student-selected seating arrangements during group and individual work with fifth-grade students. When the teacher selected seats, they placed certain students as follows: (1) they seated easily distracted students away from windows and doors, (2) they seated students who previously had difficulty paying attention closest to the teacher, and (3) they kept apart students who were previously disruptive when seated together. The study also compared two different desk arrangements. During group work, students were seated in groups of four or five. During independent work, students were seated in rows of four or five. Overall, levels of disruptive behavior were higher during group work (i.e., sitting in groups) than during independent work (i.e., sitting in rows), supporting the findings of previous research (e.g., Axelrod et al., 1979; Hastings & Schwieso, 1995; Wheldall et al., 1981). During both group and independent work, greater levels of disruptive behavior occurred when students selected their own seats than when the teacher selected their seats.

Visual Displays

Visual displays include artwork produced by students, educational posters, maps, charts, and other classroom decorations. Although a warm and inviting classroom environment is important, and personalizing the classroom is related to increased student self-esteem (Maxwell & Chmielewski, 2008), overly complex displays can negatively affect attention and learning.

Stern-Ellran, Zilcha-Mano, Sebba, and Binnun (2016) demonstrated this effect by using colorful and non-colorful backgrounds with preschoolers as they performed tasks that included completing a puzzle, constructing a Lego tower to match a model, and playing a card matching game. The researchers measured interfering behaviors including indicators of frustration, searching for items, and looking away from the task. The colorful background included brightly colored images of a classroom, a playground, and other child-friendly scenes while the non-colorful background was plain white. The participants engaged in significantly more interfering behavior with the colorful background than with the non-colorful background.

Fisher, Godwin, and Seltman (2014) evaluated the effects of classroom visual displays on off-task behavior and learning with kindergarten students. The researchers presented science lessons in a decorated environment (walls covered in posters, artwork, and other visual displays) and a sparse environment (blank walls). A statistically significant difference in time off-task occurred between the decorated (39%) and sparse (28%) classrooms. Although students learned in both environments, the difference in learning scores between the decorated (42%) and sparse (55%) classrooms was also statistically significant.

In the spirit of creating an inclusive classroom environment, it is critical to consider how the effects of environmental arrangements can differentially affect students with and without disabilities. Hanley et al. (2017) evaluated the effects of classroom visual displays on attention and learning in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The researchers designed two types of videos of simulated classroom tasks: a storybook read aloud and mini-lessons, each about 5 minutes long. In the high visual display (HVD) version, the instructor stood in front of a background that contained educational posters and artwork, while in the no visual display (NVD) version, the teacher stood in front of a blank background.

Both the typically developing students and students with ASD looked at the teacher’s face more than the background in the NVD video. During the HVD video, the students with ASD looked at the background more than the teacher’s face. The typically developing students looked at the background more than they did with the NVD video, but still looked at the teacher’s face more frequently than the background. Overall, all students learned slightly more from the NVD videos than the HVD videos. The students with ASD overall learned less than the typically developing students, but this difference was more pronounced with the HVD videos. In summary, classroom visual displays impacted attention and learning for all students in this study, but particularly affected students with ASD.

Classroom Noise

Background noise from the outside environment (e.g., traffic) and in the classroom (e.g., students talking) may not be completely avoidable, but these different types of noise have different effects on learning. Dockrell and Shield (2006) compared the effects of three types of noise on academic performance with year 3 students in the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) baseline (no talking or additional noise), (2) babble (children talking), or (3) babble plus environmental noise (children talking plus outside noise). The researchers measured accuracy and speed as the students completed reading, spelling, and arithmetic tasks. For verbal tasks (i.e., spelling and reading), the students in the babble plus environmental noise group performed better than the students in the baseline group and babble group. For nonverbal tasks (i.e., arithmetic), students in the baseline group performed better than students in the babble group, but there were no differences in performance between students in the babble plus environmental noise group and the other two group. Further, these effects were more pronounced for students with special needs compared to typically developing students. One possible explanation for these results is that the combination of babble and environmental noise cancelled out the effects of babble, but more investigation is needed to clarify this relation.

Ljung, Sorqvist, and Hygge (2009) compared the effects of road noise and irrelevant speech on academic performance with students ages 12 and 13. Students were randomly assigned to road noise, irrelevant speech, and silence groups, and asked to perform reading, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning tasks. The researchers found that road noise decreased reading speed, but not reading comprehension, and irrelevant speech did not affect either reading measure. Similarly, road noise produced decreased performance on a basic mathematics task, but not on a mathematical reasoning task, and irrelevant speech did not affect either math task.

Background noise also has the potential for positive effects on student performance. Massonnié, Rogers, Mareschal, and Kirkham (2019) examined the effects of noise on creativity with students ages 5 to 8 and 8 to 11. Students were asked to perform idea generation tasks (e.g., coming up with novel uses for an item) in a silent room and in a room with simulated classroom noise including conversation, movement, and outside noise. The younger group of students provided fewer original ideas in the noisy room, while there were no differences in performance for the older students. This suggests that age may factor into the effects of noise on creativity, as other research has demonstrated that noise can increase creativity with adults (e.g., Mehta, Zhu, & Cheema, 2012).

Conclusions and Implications

The physical environment of the classroom affects student behavior and learning. The arrangement of desks in the classroom can affect levels of on-task behavior, class participation, and disruptive behavior. Rows are associated with the lowest levels of disruptive behavior and the highest levels of on-task behavior (especially during individual work), but groups of desks are associated with greater participation and engagement—and the latter arrangement may be best suited for activities that require interaction among students. Results of research on allowing students to select their own seats are mixed; when considering using this strategy, teachers should weigh the benefits of providing choice with the risks of increasing disruptive behavior.

Visual displays in the classroom can be distracting and inhibit learning, especially for younger learners and students with disabilities. When selecting classroom visual displays and decorations, teachers should balance minimizing potential distractions while providing a welcoming, personal environment. A moderate level of environmental noise, including outside noise and conversation, is not detrimental to learning and may even be beneficial in some circumstances. Research suggests that the effects of noise on learning and creativity may be different for students at different ages, with younger students benefitting from less background noise.

More research is needed on the effects of changing the physical classroom environment on student behavior. As a first step, simply paying attention to how the physical environment may be affecting students and making modifications as necessary can serve as a proactive strategy for promoting appropriate behavior and discouraging inappropriate behavior.

 

Citations

Axelrod, S., Hall, R. V., & Tams, A. (1979). Comparison of two common classroom seating arrangements. Academic Therapy, 15(1), 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/105345127901500103

Bicard, D. F., Ervin, A., Bicard, S. C., & Baylot-Casey, L. (2012). Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(2), 407–411. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-407

Dockrell, J. E., & Shield, B. M. (2006). Acoustical barriers in classrooms: The impact of noise on performance in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 509–525.

Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(3), 505–518. https://doi.org/ 10.1901/jaba.1994.27-505

Fisher, A. V., Godwin, K. E., & Seltman, H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1326–1370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614533801

Hanley, M., Khairat, M., Taylor, K., Wilson, R., Cole-Fletcher, R., & Riby, D. M. (2017). Classroom displays—attraction or distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism. Developmental Psychology, 53(7), 1265–1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000271

Hastings, N., & Schwieso, J. (1995). Tasks and tables: The effects of seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms. Educational Research, 37(3), 279–291.

Ljung, R., Sorqvist, P., & Hygge, S. (2009). Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children’s reading and mathematical performance. Noise and Health, 11(45), 194–198. https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.56212

Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., & Hartig, T. (1999). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children’s question-asking. Learning Environments Research, 2(3), 249–263.

Massonnié, J., Rogers, C. J., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2019). Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00381

Maxwell, L. E., & Chmielewski, E. J. (2008). Environmental personalization and elementary school children’s self-esteem. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(2), 143–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.10.009

Mehta, R., Zhu, R. J., and Cheema, A. (2012). Is noise always bad? Exploring the effects of ambient noise on creative cognition. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 784–799. https://doi.org/10.1086/665048

Rosenfield, P., Lambert, N. M., & Black, A. (1985). Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 101–108.

Schmidt, R. E., Stewart, J. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1987). Effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom participation and academic responding with Native American junior high school students. Techniques, 3(3), 172–180.

Stern-Ellran, K., Zilcha-Mano, S., Sebba, R., & Binnun, N. L. (2016). Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01661

Wheldall, K., & Lam, Y. Y. (1987). Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341870070405

Wheldall, K., Morris, M., Vaughan, P., & Ng, Y. Y. (1981). Rows versus tables: An example of the use of behavioral ecology in two classes of eleven-year-old children. Educational Psychology, 1(2), 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341810010206

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Structured Environment Overview

This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments.

 

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention.

Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., Witt, J. C., et al. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

 

Comparison of two common classroom seating arrangements.

17 underachieving 6th graders were observed under 4 conditions: sitting at tables, sitting in rows, sitting at tables again, sitting in rows again. The dependent variable was study behavior.

Axelrod, S., Hall, R. V., & Tams, A. (1979). Comparison of two common classroom seating arrangements. Academic Therapy, 15(1), 29–36. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232578625_Comparison_of_Two_Common_Classroom_Seating_Arrangements

 

 
Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork

The authors investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose.

Bicard, D. F., Ervin, A., Bicard, S. C., & Baylot-Casey, L. (2012). Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(2), 407–411. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-407

 
Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions.

Interpersonal spacing patterns were studied in environments of different density and design. Results showed that an apparently spacious (74 m2) classroom may produce behavioral changes reminiscent of crowding in young children. When more space (864 m2) was available: (I) children increased interpersonal distances overall; (2) children aggregated more with classmates and teachers, fragmenting into subgroups which were separated from the class overall.

Burgess, J. W., & Fordyce, W. K. (1989). Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 261-276.

 

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

Performance Feedback and Teachers' Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature

This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).

Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms

Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.

Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions. 

Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review43(4), 367-384.

A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation

A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin125(6), 627.

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior. 

Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review48(1).

Acoustical barriers in classrooms: The impact of noise on performance in the classroom

The article reports the results of a study that explores the effects of typical
classroom noise on the performance of primary school children on a series of literacy and
speed tasks. 

Dockrell, J. E., & Shield, B. M. (2006). Acoustical barriers in classrooms: The impact of noise on performance in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 509–525.

 
Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide20(8), 12-22.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.

The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools25(2), 154-163.

Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning

This paper examines the impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. Specifically, it examines the impact of seating locations on a) student learning motivation, b) student-student and teacher-student relationships, c) the nature of different tasks and activities performed, and d) student classroom participation.

Fernandes, A. C., Huang, J., & Rinaldo, V. (2011). Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 10(1), 66-77.

Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad

Children were more distracted by the visual environment, spent more time off task, and demonstrated smaller learning gains when the walls were highly decorated than when the decorations were removed.

Fisher, A. V., Godwin, K. E., & Seltman, H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1326–1370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614533801

 
Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.

The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. 

Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction17(1), 2-15.

Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research84(4), 546-571.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support. 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Structured Environment Overview

This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments.

 

Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training

The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(1), 17-38.

Classroom displays—attraction or distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism

The aim of this study was to use eye-tracking techniques to explore the impact of visual displays on attention and learning for children.

Hanley, M., Khairat, M., Taylor, K., Wilson, R., Cole-Fletcher, R., & Riby, D. M. (2017). Classroom displays—attraction or distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism. Developmental Psychology, 53(7), 1265–1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000271

 
Tasks and tables: The effects of seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms

Large‐scale research programmes in primary schools have frequently identified a mismatch between classroom seating arrangements and the nature of pupils’ tasks. While children are typically seated in groups, their assigned tasks are generally individual. 

Hastings, N., & Schwieso, J. (1995). Tasks and tables: The effects of seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms. Educational Research, 37(3), 279–291.

 
Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.

Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior20(2).

A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. 

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth60(4), 1-8.

The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes

Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session. 

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology60(3), 255-265.

The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children

Children in high structure classes were more attentive in circle time and helped to clean up more after free play, but they did not show more independent task persistence. The latter finding suggested that high levels of adult direction produce conformity when adults are present but do not facilitate independent task-oriented behavior.

Huston-Stein, A., Friedrich-Cofer, L. & Susman, E. J. (1977). The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children. Child Development, 48, 908-916.

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). 

Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3), 154-167.supp

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. 

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly29(2), 138.

A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get 'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors

This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools49(2), 163-175.

Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children’s reading and mathematical performance.

This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning.

Ljung, R., Sorqvist, P., & Hygge, S. (2009). Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children’s reading and mathematical performance. Noise and Health, 11(45), 194–198. https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.56212

 
Self‐recording of attention versus productivity

The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis22(3), 315-32

Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy

This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.

Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International24(4), 369-377.

Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children’s question-asking.

This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the
question-asking of fourth-graders. 

Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., & Hartig, T. (1999). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children’s question-asking. Learning Environments Research, 2(3)249–263.

Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise.

Extending adult findings, this study assessed whether moderate multi-talker noise promotes children’s creativity and whether this is modulated by children’s age, working memory, and selective attention.

Massonnié, J., Rogers, C. J., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2019). Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00381

 
Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School

Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9

McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(4), 243-255.

Is noise always bad? Exploring the effects of ambient noise on creative cognition

This paper examines how ambient noise, an important environmental variable, can affect creativity.

Mehta, R., Zhu, R. J., and Cheema, A. (2012). Is noise always bad? Exploring the effects of ambient noise on creative cognition. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 784–799. https://doi.org/10.1086/665048

 
Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom

A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology21(3), 255-265.

Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms

This paper identified 2 behavioral dimensions of classroom structure: amount of child activity and proportion of activity controlled by the teacher. Research showed that high-structured classrooms (low activity/high proportion controlled) had the most work involvement.

Morrison, T. L. (1979). Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(4), 471.

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International35(2), 191-205.

Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.

The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 335-338.syste

Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.

This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study. 

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review43(3).

Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior.

Observed 8 Ss in each of 2 5th-grade, 2 5th–6th grade, and 2 6th-grade classrooms, using a time-sampling method, to determine the effect of desk arrangements.

Rosenfield, P., Lambert, N. M., & Black, A. (1985). Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 101–108.

A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance

The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education40(2), 112-128.

Effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom participation and academic responding with Native American junior high school students.

Examined the effects of free vs integrated seating arrangements with 5 junior high Native American students in a class composed of 24 students.

Schmidt, R. E., Stewart, J. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1987). Effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom participation and academic responding with Native American junior high school students. Techniques, 3(3)172–180. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1988-27980-001

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.

In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.

SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers

The present research seeks to extend the previous studies to an even younger age group and focus on proximal colorfulness. With a sample of 15 pre-schoolers (3–4 years old) we examined whether a colorful play surface compared to a non-colorful (white) play surface would affect engagement in developmentally appropriate structured play. 

Stern-Ellran, K., Zilcha-Mano, S., Sebba, R., & Binnun, N. L. (2016). Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01661

 
What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right

Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education7(1), 99-112.

The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli

 
Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education

The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.

Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education8(2), 162-169.

Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research

Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics.

Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research. Support for Learning, 23(2), 89-93.

The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design

The study observed the spatial distribution of activity in a second-third-grade open classroom before and after a change in the physical design. It tested the general hypothesis that minor changes in the physical setting could produce predictable, desirable changes in student behavior.

Weinstein, C. S. (1977). Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design. American Educational Research Journal, 14(3), 249-262.

Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students

This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. 

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children32(4), 551-571.

Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes

Children were observed daily in four two week phases: seated around tables, then in rows, again around tables, and finally again in rows. Percentage on‐task behaviour was recorded along with rate of pupil disruption and rates of teacher approval and disapproval. 

Wheldall, K., & Lam, Y. Y. (1987). Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341870070405

 
Rows versus tables: An example of the use of behavioral ecology in two classes of eleven-year-old children

The effect of different classroom seating arrangements on children's on‐task behaviour was examined by observations of two top junior classes of ten‐ to eleven‐year‐old children.

Wheldall, K., Morris, M., Vaughan, P., & Ng, Y. Y. (1981). Rows versus tables: An example of the use of behavioral ecology in two classes of eleven-year-old children. Educational Psychology, 1(2), 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341810010206

 
A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out

This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. 

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(2), 74-88.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is one of the least written about and least understood of our major global institutions. This new book builds a well-rounded understanding of this crucial, though often neglected, institution.

Woodward, R. (2009). The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Routledge.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

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