Education Drivers

Structured Environments

How a teacher organizes the classroom environment will produce either positive or negative consequences for students. A wide range of structural conditions available to teachers can prevent problem behavior and avoid the need for delivering consequences. Antecedent interventions include producing visual displays, creating a classroom setting that is inviting but doesn’t increase off-task behavior, adapting the physical environment by using the walls and dividers to minimize distractions, controlling traffic flow to prevent or minimize events that are predictably disruptive, maintaining optimum temperatures, providing sufficient lighting, minimizing noise levels, limiting undesirable proximity to peers, and arranging desks and tables in certain patterns. Evidence strongly suggests that the type of academic task and the lesson’s objective will dictate the seating arrangement. Rows are found to be consistently superior in reducing disruptive behavior and maximizing on-task behavior during individual tasks. On the other hand, if the task is designed to increase interactivity among students, a group seating arrangement is better. Evidence consistently supports the conclusion that classrooms with more structure produce better academic outcomes.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention.

Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., Witt, J. C., et al. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

 

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions.

Interpersonal spacing patterns were studied in environments of different density and design. Results showed that an apparently spacious (74 m2) classroom may produce behavioral changes reminiscent of crowding in young children. When more space (864 m2) was available: (I) children increased interpersonal distances overall; (2) children aggregated more with classmates and teachers, fragmenting into subgroups which were separated from the class overall.

Burgess, J. W., & Fordyce, W. K. (1989). Effects of preschool environments on nonverbal social behavior: toddlers’’ interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environ- mental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 261-276.

 

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

Performance Feedback and Teachers' Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature

This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).

Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms

Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.

Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions. 

Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review43(4), 367-384.

A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation

A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin125(6), 627.

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior. 

Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review48(1).

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide20(8), 12-22.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.

The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools25(2), 154-163.

Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning

This paper examines the impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. Specifically, it examines the impact of seating locations on a) student learning motivation, b) student-student and teacher-student relationships, c) the nature of different tasks and activities performed, and d) student classroom participation.

Fernandes, A. C., Huang, J., & Rinaldo, V. (2011). Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 10(1), 66-77.

Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.

The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. 

Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction17(1), 2-15.

Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research84(4), 546-571.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training

The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(1), 17-38.

Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.

Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior20(2).

A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. 

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth60(4), 1-8.

The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes

Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session. 

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology60(3), 255-265.

The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children

Children in high structure classes were more attentive in circle time and helped to clean up more after free play, but they did not show more independent task persistence. The latter finding suggested that high levels of adult direction produce conformity when adults are present but do not facilitate independent task-oriented behavior.

Huston-Stein, A., Friedrich-Cofer, L. & Susman, E. J. (1977). The relation of classroom structure to social behavior, imaginative plan, and self-regulation of economically disadvantaged children. Child Development, 48, 908-916.

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). 

Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3), 154-167.supp

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. 

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly29(2), 138.

A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get 'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors

This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools49(2), 163-175.

Self‐recording of attention versus productivity

The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis22(3), 315-32

Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy

This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.

Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International24(4), 369-377.

Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School

Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9

McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(4), 243-255.

Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom

A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology21(3), 255-265.

Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms

This paper identified 2 behavioral dimensions of classroom structure: amount of child activity and proportion of activity controlled by the teacher. Research showed that high-structured classrooms (low activity/high proportion controlled) had the most work involvement.

Morrison, T. L. (1979). Classroom structure, work involvement, and social climate in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(4), 471.

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International35(2), 191-205.

Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.

The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 335-338.syste

Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.

This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study. 

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review43(3).

A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance

The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education40(2), 112-128.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.

In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.

SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right

Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education7(1), 99-112.

The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli

 
Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education

The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.

Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education8(2), 162-169.

Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research

Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural outcomes for primary through secondary high school students with a range of characteristics.

Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioural outcomes: A review of empirical research. Support for Learning, 23(2), 89-93.

The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design

The study observed the spatial distribution of activity in a second-third-grade open classroom before and after a change in the physical design. It tested the general hypothesis that minor changes in the physical setting could produce predictable, desirable changes in student behavior.

Weinstein, C. S. (1977). Modifying student behavior in an open class- room through changes in the physical design. American Educational Research Journal, 14(3), 249-262.

Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students

This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. 

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children32(4), 551-571.

A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out

This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. 

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(2), 74-88.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is one of the least written about and least understood of our major global institutions. This new book builds a well-rounded understanding of this crucial, though often neglected, institution.

Woodward, R. (2009). The organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Routledge.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

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