Education Drivers

Evidence-Based Curriculum

An effective curriculum is designed to facilitate the acquisition of skills and knowledge that align with standards, that is, what students need to learn. Curriculum is how the lesson is planned, designed, and constructed to address standards. Instruction is the way the curriculum is delivered to students. Curriculum ranges from lessons developed by teachers to professionally published textbooks. An evidence-based curriculum consists of practices that have been vetted through rigorous research. The curriculum should be selected after a thorough assessment to ensure that the following criteria have been met: it aligns with standards; research of sufficient quality and quantity is available; levels of competency are defined; high rates of responding are embedded; opportunities for providing feedback for correct answers is addressed; corrective feedback and remediation are designated; scope and sequencing that lead to increasing levels of difficulty are spelled out; mastery-based instruction is required; and formative assessment is specified. In the end, for maximum effectiveness, lessons need to be linked to “big ideas,” those core concepts, principles, theories, and processes that provide meaning and context to instruction.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Implementing the Findings of Research: Bridging the Gap between Knowledge and Practice

This book provides a guide to the conceptual and practical knowledge principals, superintendents, and other school leaders need to implement evidence-based educational innovations.

Wallace, F., Blasé, K., Fixsen, D., & Naoom, S. (2008). Implementing the Findings of Research: Bridging the Gap between Knowledge and Practice. Educational Research Service.

What is Evidence?

This article focuses on the most fundamental question regarding evidence-based practice: What is evidence? To address this question, the authors first review several of the definitions, criteria, and strategies that have been used to define scientific evidence.

Drake, R.E., Latimer, E.S., Leff, H. S., McHugi, G. J., Burns, B. J. (2004). What is Evidence?. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 13, pp. 717-728

Getting Honest about Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose.

This document discusses what is needed for accurate graduation rates and provides data on state graduation rates, along with adequate yearly progress information. 

Hall, D. (2005). Getting Honest about Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose. Education Trust.

Framework for Improving Education Outcomes

Multitiered system of support (MTSS) is a framework for organizing service delivery. At the core of MTSS is the adoption and implementation of a continuum of evidence-based interventions that result in improved academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. MTSS is a data-based decision making approach based on the frequent screening of progress for all students and intervention for students who are not making adequate progress.

 

States, J., Detrich, R., and Keyworth, R. (2017). Multitiered System of Support Overview. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are We Making the Differences That Matter in Education? In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 119-138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Have reading scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform?

This review examines student reading performance since 1971 to look for evidence of school reform's impact.

Keyworth, R. (2015). Have reading scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform? Retrieved from have-reading-scores-improved865.

Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of differing approaches to teaching science.

States, J. (2013). Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from which-approaches-teaching-science944.

Has student mathematics proficiency improved over the past 20+ years?
This review looks at student math performance since 1992 for trends and to determine the level of progress for student in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Has student mathematics proficiency improved over the past 20+ years? Retrieved from has-student-mathematics-proficiency.
Has student reading proficiency improved over the past 20+ years?
This review looks at student reading performance since 1992 for trends and to determine the level of progress for student in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Has student reading proficiency improved over the past 20+ years? Retrieved from has-student-reading-proficiency.
Have mathematics scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform?
This review examines student math performance since 1971 to look for evidence of school reform's impact.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Have mathematics scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform? Retrieved from have-mathematics-scores-improved.
What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance?
The analysis examines direct influences tht have the greatest impact on student performance. 28 categories were distilled by combining the effect size along professional judgment of educational experts.
States, J. (2010). What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance? Retrieved from what-are-critical-influences808.
How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading?
This review lookes at teacher pre-service efforts to provide comprehensive instruction in the 5 critical practice elements identified for effective reading instruction.
States, J. (2011). How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading? Retrieved from how-effective-are-teacher.
What are the most effective ways for teachers to teach reading?
This analysis examines the critical practice elements for effective teaching of reading. The piece also looks at practices that have been shown to be less effective.
States, J. (2011). What are the most effective ways for teachers to teach reading? Retrieved from what-are-most-effective.
What does science tell us about teaching reading?
This review examines the evidence that identifies the critical practice elements for effective reading instruction.
States, J. (2011). What does science tell us about teaching reading? Retrieved from what-does-science-tell.
What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom?
This analysis examines meta-analyses to identify teaching practices that have the greatest impact on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom? Retrieved from what-practices-make-difference.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2011). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-amanda-vanderheyden.

Teaching Skills That Make a Difference
This paper provides checklist of evidence-based skills that should be the foundation of every teacher's preparation.
States, J. (2013). Teaching Skills That Make a Difference [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teachers Matter: Evidence from Value-Added Assessments.

Value-added assessment proves that very good teaching can boost student learning and that family background does not determine a student's destiny. Students taught by highly effective teachers several years in a row earn higher test scores than students assigned to particularly ineffective teachers.

American Education Research Association (AERA). (2004). Teachers matter: Evidence from value-added assessments. Research Points, 2(2). Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/ Portals/38/docs/Publications/Teachers%20Matter.pdf

A Policymaker’s Guide: Research-Based Policy for Principal Preparation Program Approval and Licensure

Intended as a formative assessment tool, this guide provides detailed, individual state profiles and state-to-state comparisons of 8 policy areas and 21 policy criteria that support the development of effective leaders.

Anderson, E., & Reynolds, A. L. (2015). A policymaker’s guide: Research-based policy for principal preparation program approval and licensure. Charlottesville, VA: University Council for Educational Administration.

Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers' advanced-stage effectiveness trial

This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers “Skills for Success” conduct problems prevention program.

August, G. J., Bloomquist, M. L., Lee, S. S., Realmuto, G. M., & Hektner, J. M. (2006). Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers’ advanced-stage effectiveness trial. Prevention Science7(2), 151-165.

The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics

This article explores factors influencing the sustained use of Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) in math in one elementary school.

Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. A., & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education25(1), 5-24.

Ending the Science Wars

This book has been raging for decades, raising many questions about the power of science. The book not only helps resolve many current debates about science, but it is also a major contribution to explaining science in terms of a powerful philosophical system.

Baldwin, J. D. (2015). Ending the science wars. Routledge.

Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence?

Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed. 

Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record102(1), 5-27.

Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide.

This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.

Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education26, 40-54.

Evidence-Based Programs and Cultural Competence

This was a historic meeting among developers of evidence-based programs, leaders of various cultural, racial, and ethnic professional associations, and representatives of family associations. Evidence-based program implementation and cultural competence in human services have had parallel paths with limited intersection and dialogue.

Blase, K. A., & Fixsen, D. L. (2003). Evidence-based programs and cultural competence. Tampa, FL: National Implementation Research Network, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida.

Special education teachers' views of research-based practices

Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n= 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n= 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers' perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.

Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education39(3), 168-180.

Qualitative Studies in Special Education

An overview of the many types of studies that fall into the qualitative design genre is provided. Strategies that qualitative researchers use to establish the authors’ studies as credible and trustworthy are listed and defined

Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional children71(2), 195-207.

Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?.

The authors discuss the emergence of the evidence-based practice movement and the challenges of integrating what we know from scientific research into daily practice with children and families.

Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?. Zero to Three (J)27(2), 50-55.

Campaigns for Moving Research Into Practice

in this perspective, the author challenge us to accept the responsibility of moving education forward by doing more than paying lip service to the translation of research into practice. 

 

Carnine, D. (1999). Campaigns for moving research into practice. Remedial and Special Education20(1), 2-35.

Why education experts resist effective practice: Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation

This essay provides examples from reading and math curricula, describes how experts have, for ideological reasons, shunned some solutions that do display robust evidence of efficacy, then examines how public impatience has forced other professions to “grow up” and accept accountability and scientific evidence. 

Carnine, D. (2000). Why education experts resist effective practices (Report of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation.

The Frontier of Evidence-Based Practice

These guidelines emphasized the dimensions of 1) efficacy and 2) effectiveness. A model is provided that proposes how evidence--however defined--will ultimately connect with practice. 

Chorpita, B. F. (2003). The frontier of evidence-based practice.

Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Opportunities, challenges, and cautions.

This paper describes opportunities, challenges, and cautions in response to T. R. Kratochwill and K. C. Stoiber's vision and other critical issues for the evidence-based intervention (EBI) movement in school psychology. 

Christenson, S. L., Carlson, C., & Valdez, C. R. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Opportunities, challenges, and cautions. School Psychology Quarterly17(4), 466.

Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively

This practice guide released by What Works Clearinghouse presents three recommendations for helping students in grades 6 to 12 develop effective writing skills along with the strength of evidence to support the recommendations.

  • Explicitly teach appropriate writing strategies using a model-practice-reflect instructional cycle. Strong Evidence
  • Integrate writing and reading to emphasize key writing features. Moderate Evidence
  • Use assessments of student writing to inform instruction and feedback. Minimal evidence

Each recommendation includes specific actionable guidance for educators on implementing these practices in the classroom. It is geared toward administrators and teachers in all disciplines who want to help improve their students’ writing.

CLEARINGHOUSE, W.W. Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively.

Teacher-Delivered Strategies to Increase Students’ Opportunities to Respond: A Systematic Methodological Review.

This systematic review of the literature examines the evidence behind teacher-directed strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) during whole-group instruction. 

Common, E. A., Lane, K. L., Cantwell, E. D., Brunsting, N. C., Oakes, W. P., Germer, K. A., & Bross, L. A. (2019). Teacher-delivered strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond: A systematic methodological review. Behavioral Disorders, 0198742919828310.

From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services

The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division (CAMHD) adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality of services and outcomes for youth.

Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics14(2), 329-349.

What is Evidence?

This article focuses on the most fundamental question regarding evidence-based practice: What is evidence? To address this question, the authors first review several of the definitions, criteria, and strategies that have been used to define scientific evidence. 

Drake, R.E., Latimer, E.S., Leff, H. S., McHugi, G. J., Burns, B. J. (2004). What is Evidence?. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 13, pp. 717-728

Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula

A review of school‐based drug abuse prevention programs was conducted for 1989–1994. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, interviews were conducted with a panel of 15 leading experts in prevention research. Key elements of promising prevention curricula were identified.

Dusenbury, L., & Falco, M. (1995). Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. Journal of school health65(10), 420-425.

Moving Teacher Preparation into the Future

This report discuss how to use research findings as a base to support stronger teacher preparation programs. 

Dynarski, M. (2014). Moving Teacher Preparation into the Future. Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/moving-teacher-preparation-into-the-future/

Indicators for Sustainable Communities: A Strategy Building on Complexity Theory and Distributed Intelligence

This article reviews the research and practice of indicator development and use, summarizing several key lessons from this review.

E. Innes, J., & Booher, D. E. (2000). Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence. Planning theory & practice1(2), 173-186.

Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Evidence-Based Interventions

This section includes tools and resources that can help school leaders, teachers, and other stakeholders be more strategic in their decision-making about planning, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based interventions to improve the conditions for learning and facilitate positive student outcomes.

Elliott, S. N., Witt, J. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1991). Selecting, implementing, and evaluating classroom interventions. Interventions for achievement and behavior problems, 99-135.

Could John Stuart Mill have saved our schools

This book compares what actually occurred since publication of A System of Logic with some of the more probable scenarios of what could have happened if education had been framed as a science that resides on a logical-empirical base.

Englemann, S., & Carnine, D. (2016). Could John Stuart Mill have saved our schools?. Attainment Company Inc.

The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: Ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research.

This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.

Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society7(2), 246-259.

Scientific culture and educational research.

In this article, which draws on a recently released National Research Council report, the authors argue that the primary emphasis should be on nurturing and reinforcing a scientific culture of educational research.

Feuer, M. J., Towne, L., & Shavelson, R. J. (2002). Scientific culture and educational research. Educational researcher31(8), 4-14.

Do students benefit from longer school days? Regression discontinuity evidence from Florida’s additional hour of literacy instruction

This research examines the impact of longer school days on student achievement. This study attempts to fill in gaps in the evidence-base on this topic. Although this study finds positive outcomes for additional reading instruction, it is important to note that for achieving maximum results it is important to pair evidence-based reading instruction practices with the additional instruction time in order to achieve maximum results.

 

Figlio, D., Holden, K. L., & Ozek, U. (2018). Do students benefit from longer school days? Regression discontinuity evidence from Florida’s additional hour of literacy instruction. Economics of Education Review67, 171-183.

Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination

Ever-increasing demands for accountability, together with the proliferation of lists of evidence-based prevention programs and policies, led the Society for Prevention Research to charge a committee with establishing standards for identifying effective prevention programs and policies. 

Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., ... & Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention science6(3), 151-175.

Evidence-Based Assessment of Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents

The reliability and validity of 4 approaches to the assessment of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. The authors identify serious psychometric problems that affect the reliability of models based on aptitude-achievement discrepancies and low achievement.

Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Morris, R. D., & Lyon, G. R. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology34(3), 506-522.

Researchers and teachers working together to adapt instruction for diverse learners

This paper explain a three-stage process of Pilot Research, Formal Evaluation, and Scaling Up. Finally, we discuss several misconceptions about empirical research and researchers.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1998). Researchers and teachers working together to adapt instruction for diverse learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.

The Effects of Frequent Curriculum-Based Measurement and Evaluation on Pedagogy, Student Achievement, and Student Awareness of Learning

This study examined the educational effects of repeated curriculumbased measurement and evaluation. Thirty-nine special educators, each having three to four pupils in the study, were assigned randomly to a repeated curriculum-based measurement/evaluation (experimental) treatment or a conventional special education evaluation (contrast) treatment

Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1984). The effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement and evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal21(2), 449-460.

Educational research: An introduction

This text provides a comprehensive introduction to educational research. This textbook has been revised to reflect a balance of both quantitative and qualitative research methods

Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction. Longman Publishing.

Sorting Out the Roles of Research in the Improvement of Practice

This paper discusses the effectiveness of research‐based educational approaches on
classroom practice.

Gersten, R. (2001). Sorting out the roles of research in the improvement of practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(1), 45-50.

Designing high quality research in special education

This article discusses critical issues related to conducting high-quality intervention research using experimental and quasi-experimental group designs.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J. W. (2000). Designing high-quality research in special education: Group experimental design. The Journal of Special Education34(1), 2-18.

Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices

This article reviews key findings from school-reform studies of the 1980s and explains their relevance to special education. It also highlights significant findings from more recent studies that help elucidate and flesh out the earlier findings. 

Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of learning disabilities33(5), 445-456.

Policy Implications for Implementing Evidence-Based Practices

The authors describe the policy and administrative-practice implications of implementing evidence-based services, particularly in public-sector settings. They review the observations of the contributors to the evidence-based practices series published throughout 2001 in Psychiatric Services.

Goldman, H. H., Ganju, V., Drake, R. E., Gorman, P., Hogan, M., Hyde, P. S., & Morgan, O. (2001). Policy implications for implementing evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Services52(12), 1591-1597.

Highlights From TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context

TIMSS is designed to align broadly with mathematics and science curricula in the participating countries. This report focuses on the performance of U.S. students relative to that of their peers in other countries in 2007, and on changes in mathematics and science achievement since 1995. This report also describes additional details about the achievement of U.S. student subpopulations. All differences described in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level. No statistical adjustments to account for multiple comparisons were used.

Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., & Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of US Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2009-001. National Center for Education Statistics.

When Evidence-based Literacy Programs Fail.

This study examines the implementation of Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) for struggling readers that had been proven to work in early grades. The findings highlight the importance of considering context and implementation, in addition to evidence of effectiveness, when choosing an intervention program. Not only do schools need to adopt programs supported by evidence, but equally educators need to implement them consistently and effectively if students are to truly benefit from an intervention.

Gonzalez, N. (2018). When evidence-based literacy programs fail. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(4), 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718815675

Utility of intelligence tests for treatment planning, classification, and placement decisions: Recent empirical findings and future directions.

This article maintains that intelligence tests contribute little if any information useful for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for children. This argument is supported by the virtual absence of empirical evidence supporting the existence of aptitude × treatment interactions. 

Gresham, F. M., & Witt, J. C. (1997). Utility of intelligence tests for treatment planning, classification, and placement decisions: Recent empirical findings and future directions. School Psychology Quarterly12(3), 249.

Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies

This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.

Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.

Will the “principles of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study

This study examines adoption and implementation of the US Department of Education's new policy, the `Principles of Effectiveness', from a diffusion of innovations theoretical framework. In this report, we evaluate adoption in relation to Principle 3: the requirement to select research-based programs.

Hallfors, D., & Godette, D. (2002). Will the “principles of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research, 17(4), 461–470.

Student testing in America’s great city schools: An Inventory and preliminary analysis

this report aims to provide the public, along with teachers and leaders in the Great City Schools, with objective evidence about the extent of standardized testing in public schools and how these assessments are used.

Hart, R., Casserly, M., Uzzell, R., Palacios, M., Corcoran, A., & Spurgeon, L. (2015). Student Testing in America's Great City Schools: An Inventory and Preliminary Analysis. Council of the Great City Schools.

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education: Achievements, Challenges, & Opportunities

The contributing authors present literature reviews, conceptual analyses, and data from several original studies; they describe advancements in curricula, classroom and schoolwide interventions, and teacher training programs; and they offer personal perspectives on the current status and future directions of behavior analysis in education.

Heward, W. L., Heron, T. E., Neef, N. A., Peterson, S. M., Sainato, D. M., Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., Peterson, L. D., Hersh, S. B., Dardig, J. C. (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

School psychology: a public health framework I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies

This report, preceded as it was by the seminal report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health (2000) and followed by the Surgeon General’s Youth Violence (2001) and Culture, Race and Ethnicity Reports (2002), represented a critical shift in federal health priorities.

Hoagwood, K., & Johnson, J. (2003). School psychology: A public health framework: I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies. Journal of School Psychology41(1), 3-21.

Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support.

The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). 

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.

 

Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice

The purpose of this document is to lay out the current evidence assessing SWPBIS and the considerations that may be relevant for state, district and national decision-makers. 

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Lewis, T. (2015). Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making

This book presents clear and functional techniques for deciding what students with learning disabilities should be taught and how. This book can also function as a tool to assist pre-service teachers (students) with deciding how to teach and what to teach to regular/non-special education children.

Howell, K. W. (1993). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making. Cengage Learning.

Toward a Science of Education: The Battle Between Rogue and Real Science

This book summarize how science works, why it offers hope to educators, how science has been neglected and abused in education, and what I think science now tells us — and doesn’t tell us—about several issues in education.

Kauffman, J. M. (2011). Toward a science of education: The battle between rogue and real science. Full Court Press.

Single-Case Designs for Educational Research

This book provides up-to-date, in-depth information about the use of single-case experimental designs in educational research across a range of educational settings and students.

Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Pearson/A & B.

Sustaining Research-Based Practices in Reading: A 3-Year Follow Up

This study examined the extent to which the reading instructional practices learned by a
cohort of teachers who participated in an intensive, yearlong professional development
experience during the 1994-1995 school year have been sustained and modified over time.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Tejero Hughes, M., & Arguelles, M. E. (1999). Sustaining research-based practices in reading: A 3-year follow-up. Remedial and Special Education20(5), 263-287.

Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology

This paper is an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and dissemi- nating evidence-based interventions (EBIs).

Kratochwill, T. R., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Evidence-based practice: Promoting evidence-based interventions in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 389.

Diversifying Theory and Science: Expanding the Boundaries of Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology

The task force on interventions by the American Psychological Association (APA, Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995) stimulated considerable enthusiasm among many about the role of ESIs in practice.

Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Diversifying theory and science: Expanding the boundaries of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Journal of School Psychology38(4), 349-358.

Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force.

The authors presents the conceptual, philosophical, and methodological basis for the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions

Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force. School Psychology Quarterly17(4), 341.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest.

In this discussion, we examine the relationship between science and education and delineate four reasons for characterizing science as an uninvited guest in schools. 

Landrum, T. J., & Tankersley, M. (2004). Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest. Journal of Learning Disabilities37(3), 207-212.

Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game.

This study examines the impact of a Teacher Versus Student Game, a program that is based upon The Good Behavior Game (GBG). This paper found that the game increased teachers rates of praise; however, the teachers gradually decreased their use of BSP over time.

 

Lastrapes, R. E., Fritz, J. N., and Hasson, R. C., (2019). Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game. Retrieved from Researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331178227_Increasing_Teachers%27_Use_of_Behavior-Specific_Praise_with_the_Teacher_vs_Student_Game

 

Evidence-Based Practices in a Changing World: Reconsidering the Counterfactual in Educational Research.

Populations and study samples can change over time—sometimes dramatically so. We illustrate this important point by presenting data from 5 randomized control trials of the efficacy of Kindergarten Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies, a supplemental, peer-mediated reading program.

Lemons, C. J., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, J. K., & Fuchs, L. S. (2014). Evidence-based practices in a changing world: Reconsidering the counterfactual in education research. Educational Researcher43(5), 242-252.

Educational/Psychological Intervention Research Circa 2012

The chapter focuses on the historically perceived poor methodological rigor and low scientific credibility of most educational/psychological intervention research.

Levin, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2012). Educational/psychological intervention research circa 2012. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition7.

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International Tests, Tracking and Ability Grouping, and Advanced Math in 8th Grade.

This is the twelfth edition of the Brown Center Report. Part I examines the latest data from state, national, or international assessments. This year the focus is on the latest results from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) released in December, 2012. Part II explores a perennial theme in education studies—the topics that never seem to go away in terms of research and debate. This year it’s on the controversial topics of tracking and ability grouping. Part III is on a prominent policy or program. This year’s analysis is on the national push for eighth graders to take algebra and other high school math courses. 

Loveless, T. (2013). How well are American students learning? With sections on the latest international tests, tracking and ability grouping, and advanced math in 8th grade. The 2013 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2013-brown-center-report-web-3.pdf

Rigorous Evidence: Key to Progress Against World Poverty?

The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) sponsoring rigorous independent evaluations of its funded projects to build scientifically-valid evidence about "what works." On October 29, the nonprofit, nonpartisan Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, in collaboration with MCC, hosted a forum with leaders of the development policy and research community on MCC's evidence-based approach.

Lyon, R. L. (2002, November). Rigorous evidence: The key to progress in education. In forum of the Coalition for Evidence Based Policy, Washington, DC.

Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis research cover all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated in search of empirical evidence. The authors conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.

Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological science25(8), 1608-1618.

Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring

This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils’ academic performance.

Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B., & Karnes, M. (2004). Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring. Teacher Education and Special Education27(4), 408-418.

 
Practice and Research in Special Education

This article considers possible reasons that research knowledge is not used more extensively in special education practice and suggests issues to be addressed in solving this problem. 

Malouf, D. B., & Schiller, E. P. (1995). Practice and research in special education. Exceptional Children61(5), 414-424.

Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary students.

This Campbell Collaboration systematic review examines the effectiveness of school-based mindfulness-based interventions on cognition, behavior, socioemotional outcomes, physiological, and academic achievement.

Maynard, B. R., Solis, M. R., Miller, V. L., & Brendel, K. E. (2017). Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary students. Campbell Systematic Reviews:5

Effects of The Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension.

The effects of a cloze procedure developed from transfer feature theory of processing in reading on immediate and delayed recall of good and poor readers were studied

Mcgee, L. M. (1981). Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior13(2), 145-156.

A nation at Risk: The full Account

This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.

National Commission on Excellence in Educatio. (1984). A nation at Risk: The full Account. Cambridge, MA: USA Research. 

Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups

This report present the panel’s conclusions, an indication of the readiness for application in the classroom of the results of this research, and, if appropriate, a strategy for rapidly disseminating this information to facilitate effective reading instruction in the schools.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups(NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.

Scientific Research in Education

This book describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas.

National Research Council. (2002). Scientific research in education. National Academies Press.

The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.

In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.

Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record107(5), 895-934.

The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children.

In this article, implementation is proposed as the link between evidence-based practices and positive outcomes. Strategies for promoting implementation through “enlightened professional development” are proposed.

Odom, S. L. (2009). The tie that binds: Evidence-based practice, implementation science, and outcomes for children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education29(1), 53-61.

Evidence-Based Practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education: Single-Subject Design Research

The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of scientific evidence from single-subject research underlying the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices.

Odom, S. L., & Strain, P. S. (2002). Evidence-based practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Single-subject design research. Journal of Early Intervention25(2), 151-160.

Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices

This article sets the context for the development of research quality indicators and guidelines
for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies.

Odom, S. L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Horner, R. H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional children71(2), 137-148.

Implementation of parent management training at the national level: The case of Norway

This article describes early aspects of the nationwide implementation of an evidence‐based program (EBP) in Norway and the design for studying program fidelity over time. 

Ogden, T., Forgatch, M. S., Askeland, E., Patterson, G. R., & Bullock, B. M. (2005). Implementation of parent management training at the national level: The case of Norway. Journal of Social Work Practice19(3), 317-329.

The Learning Styles Educational Neuromyth: Lack of Agreement Between Teachers’ Judgments, Self-Assessment, and Students’ Intelligence.

This study examined the hypothesis that teachers’ and students’ assessment of preferred LS correspond. The study found no relationship between pupils’ self-assessment and teachers’ assessment. Teachers’ and students’ answers didn’t match up. The study suggests that teachers cannot assess the LS of their students accurately.

Papadatou-Pastou, M., Gritzal, M., & Barrable, A. (2018). The Learning Styles educational neuromyth: Lack of agreement between teachers’ judgments, self-assessment, and students’ intelligence. Frontiers in Education, 3, 1-5. [105]. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00105

Foundations of special education: basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education

This enlightening book contains papers (presented as chapters) commissioned from nationally recognized scholars, which examine topics related to ethics, culture, science, and philosophy that have a direct bearing on the future of special education.

Paul, J. L. (1997). Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education. Pacific Grove: Brooks.

Report Urges Educators to Avoid Using International Test to Make Policy

This articles suggest policymakers to focus less on the international test and more on how states compare to each other when trying to improve schools. This article also shows how it's not worthwhile to compare school in countries where the conditions are different. 

Rabinovitz, j. (2015, October). Report urges educators to avoid using international tests to make policy. Standford Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://ed.stanford.edu/news/national-test-superior-international-ones-assessing-us-schools-says-report

Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility

In this paper, we analyze racial differences in the math section of the general SAT test, using publicly available College Board population data for all of the nearly 1.7 million college-bound seniors in 2015 who took the SAT. The evidence for a stubborn race gap on this test does meanwhile provide a snapshot into the extraordinary magnitude of racial inequality in contemporary American society. Standardized tests are often seen as mechanisms for meritocracy, ensuring fairness in terms of access. But test scores reflect accumulated advantages and disadvantages in each day of life up the one on which the test is taken. Race gaps on the SAT hold up a mirror to racial inequities in society as a whole. Equalizing educational opportunities and human capital acquisition earlier is the only way to ensure fairer outcomes.

Reeves, R. V., Halikias, D. (2017). Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/race-gaps-in-sat-scores-highlight-inequality-and-hinder-upward-mobility/

State Department of Education Support for Implementation Issues Faced by School Districts during the Curriculum Adoption Process.

This review examined the overlap between state-created curriculum evaluation tools and The Hexagon Tool created by the National Implementation Research Network. The author followed systematic procedures while conducting a web search and visiting each state’s department of education website in search of curriculum evaluation tools.

Rolf, R., R. (2019). State Department of Education Support for Implementation Issues Faced by School Districts during the Curriculum Adoption Process. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/student-research-2019.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark

Casting a wide net through history and culture, Sagan examines and authoritatively debunks such celebrated fallacies of the past as witchcraft, faith healing, demons, and UFOs. And yet, disturbingly, in today's so-called information age, pseudoscience is burgeoning with stories of alien abduction, channeling past lives, and communal hallucinations commanding growing attention and respect. 

Sagan, C. (2011). The demon-haunted world: Science as a candle in the dark. Ballantine Books.

The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness

This book looks at research and theoretical models used to define educational effectiveness with the intent on providing educators with evidence-based options for implementing school improvement initiatives that make a difference in student performance.

Scheerens, J. and Bosker, R. (1997). The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness. Oxford:Pergmon

Toward Effective Quality Assurance in Evidence-Based Practice: Links Between Expert Consultation, Therapist Fidelity, and Child Outcomes

This study validated a measure of expert clinical consultation and examined the association between consultation, therapist adherence, and youth outcomes in community-based settings.

Schoenwald, S. K., Sheidow, A. J., & Letourneau, E. J. (2004). Toward effective quality assurance in evidence-based practice: Links between expert consultation, therapist fidelity, and child outcomes. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology33(1), 94-104.

Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: An illustration of Task Force coding criteria using single-participant research design.

This paper illustrates the application of the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology coding criteria using a single-participant research design study.

Shernoff, E. S., Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: An illustration of Task Force coding criteria using single-participant research design. School Psychology Quarterly17(4), 390.

Curriculum-based Measurement: Assessing Special Children

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.

Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.

Advanced Applications of Curriculum-based Measurement

Developed specifically to overcome problems with traditional standardized instruments--and widely used in both general and special education settings throughout the US--curriculum-based measurement (CBM) comprises brief assessment probes of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics that serve both to quantify student performance and to bolster academic achievement.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. Guilford Press.

Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits

The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs

Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.

Bridging the great divide: Linking research to practice in scholarly publications

This article define what constitutes research to practices study and differentiate the terms research to practice and evidence-based practice. 

Shriver, M. D., & Watson, T. S. (2005). Bridging the great divide: Linking research to practice in scholarly publications. Journal of Evidence Based Practices fo

The Shame of American Education

Recent analyses of American schools and proposals for school reform have missed an essential point: Most current problems could be solved if students learned twice as much in the same time and with the same effort.

Skinner, B. F. (1984). The shame of American education. American Psychologist, 39(9), 947.

Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to
improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction
(CAI), and instructional process programs.

Slavin, R. E., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of educational research78(3), 427-515.

Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief.

This paper pointed out three prominent points of impact in addressing the poor performance of America’s fourth-graders on national examinations of reading proficiency. 

Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, 7th Edition

Comprehensively succinct and advanced in its scope, this widely adopted text addresses the full-range of curriculum and instructional topics involved in educating individuals with moderate, severe, and multiple disabilities.

Snell, M. E., & Brown, F. E. (2011). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Higher Ed.

Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom.

In this book the author describes six teaching myths that prevent reform in education. 

Snider, V. (2006). Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706.

Digest of Education Statistics 2010

The 2010 edition of the Digest of Education Statistics is the 46th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The Digest includes a selection of data from many sources, both government and private, and draws especially on the results of surveys and activities carried out by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES).

Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A., (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2010. U.S. Department of Education: Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf

A Meta-Analysis of Direct Instruction

A soon to be published meta-analysis of Direct Instruction (DI) curricula that reviews research on DI curricula between 1966-2016 reports that DI curricula produced moderate to large effect sizes across the curriculum areas reading, math, language, and spelling.  The review is notable because it reviews a much larger body of DI research than has occurred in the past and covers a wide range of experimental designs (from single subject to randomized trials).  328 studies were reviewed and almost 4,000 effects were considered.  Given the variability in research designs and the breadth of the effects considered, it suggests that DI curricula produce robust results.  There was very little decline during maintenance phases of the study and greater exposure to the curricula resulted in greater effects.

Stockard, J., Wood, T. W., Coughlin, C. & Khoury, C. R. (in press), Review of Educational Research.  DOI: 10.3102/0034654317751919

 

Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices

The purpose of this chapter is to present a combined research- and practice-based framework for integrating a comprehensive MTSS model with EBP, and thus, optimize the results stemming from school improvement efforts.

Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 121-141). Springer, Boston, MA.

Best practices in school psychology III.

Increasingly, school services are being guided by a problem solving approach and are evaluated by the achievement of positive outcomes. This shift is explored here in 96 chapters and 11 appendices. The volume provides a comprehensive reference relating contemporary research and thought to quality professional services

Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology III.Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

Evaluating the Quality of Evidence From Correlational Research for Evidence-Based Practice

The present article proposes some quality indicators for evaluating correlational research in efforts to inform evidence-based practice.

Thompson, B., Diamond, K. E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S. W. (2005). Evaluating the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children71(2), 181-194.

Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.

This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities. 

Tilly III, W. D. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.

The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model.

This chapter chronicles some of the major steps school psychology has taken toward adopting science as the basis of practice. Each step has yielded benefits for students as well as practice challenges to be overcome.

Tilly, W. D. (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology–5(pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A National Action Agenda.

The purpose of the conference was to engage a group of citizens in a thoughtful, meaningful dialogue about issues of prevention, identification, recognition, and referral of children with mental health needs to appropriate, evidence-based treatments or services. 

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A national action agenda.

The Innovation Journey

The Innovation Journey presents the results of a major longitudinal study that examined the process of innovation from concept to implementation of new technologies, products, processes, and administrative arrangements.

Van de Ven, A. H., Polley, D. E., Garud, R., & Venkataraman, S. (1999). The Innovation Journey, New York: Oxford Univ.

Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools

This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. This article describes the ways in which evidence-based practice (EBP) and  response to intervention (RtI) can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. 

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205-213.

Finding, evaluating, refining, and applying empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents

The Child Task Force report represents an important initial step in this direction. Here they offer both praise and critique, suggesting a number of ways the task force process and product may be improved. 

Weisz, J. R., & Hawley, K. M. (1998). Finding, evaluating, refining, and applying empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology27(2), 206-216.

Evidence-Based Education (EBE)

This slide show presents what is EBE and what are EBE goals in education. 

Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Evidence-based education (EBE). Washington, DC. Retrieved Juanuary9(2), 6.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Pre-school Children
This is an experimental single-subject reverse design study of the effects of caffeine on student behavior and performance in the classroom.
Baer, R. (1987). Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Pre-school Children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 20(3): 225-234.
Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled
The study investigates the effect of teaching unknown key words as a preteaching strategy with 20 students identified as learning disabled in reading skills.
Burns, M. K., Dean, V. J., & Foley, S. (2004). Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled. Journal of school psychology, 42(4), 303-314.
Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm
The study looks at the impact of preteaching as a practice to improve student performance.
Carnine, D. (1980). Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm. Journal for research in Mathematics Education, 375-379.
Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings
This study is a meta-analysis of school tutoring programs that shows these programs have positive effects on the academic performance and attitudes of those who receive tutoring.
Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. L. C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. American educational research journal, 19(2), 237-248.
Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?
This research looks at the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention combined with algorithmic cognitive instruction in an elementary school setting.
Desoete, A., Roeyers, H., & De Clercq, A. (2003). Can offline metacognition enhance mathematical problem solving?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 188.
Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents
This study examined self-discipline on eighth-grade students and the impact on final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.
Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low- Per forming Students: What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic
This study examined the effectiveness on achievement of very-low-performing students receiving inclusive fraction instruction or specialized fraction intervention and with the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Wehby, J., Schumacher, R. F., Gersten, R., & Jordan, N. C. (2015). Inclusion Versus Specialized Intervention for Very-Low-Performing Students What Does Access Mean in an Era of Academic Challenge?. Exceptional Children, 81(2), 134-157.
The importance and decision making utility of a continuum of fluency based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high stakes outcomes
This study examines fluency-based indicators of early literacy skills to predict reading outcomes, inform educational decisions, and change reading outcomes for students at risk.
Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms
This paper examines research on group-based mastery learning programs and the impact on student learning outcomes, including academic achievement, material retention, involvement in learning activities, and student attitudes.
Guskey, T. R., & Gates, S. L. (1986). Synthesis of Research on the Effects of Mastery Learning in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43(8), 73-80.
Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis.
This meta-analysis of 51 studies identified features of study skills interventions that are likely to lead to academic success.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 66(2), 99-136
Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression- Discontinuity Design
This paper assesses the effectiveness of summer programs. The study uses quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design to look at the causal effects of summer school as an intervention to improve student achievement. They find that the net effect of remedial programs such as summer school programs was to substantially increase academic achievement among third-graders, but not sixth-graders.
Jacob, Brian A., and Lars Lefgren, “Remedial Education and Student Achievement: A Regression- Discontinuity Design,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2004, pp. 226-244.
Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities
This is a differential effects study of two instructional strategies, an explicit schema-based strategy and a traditional basal strategy, on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of mathematical word problem solving.
Jitendra, A. K., Griffin, C. C., McGoey, K., Gardill, M. C., Bhat, P., & Riley, T. (1998). Effects of mathematical word problem solving by students at risk or with mild disabilities. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 345-355.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping
This paper compares the effectiveness of “elaborative studying with concept mapping” and students “practicing retrieving and reconstructing knowledge” procedures. The study finds retrieval practice to be an effective tool to promote conceptual learning about science.
Karpicke, J. D., & Blunt, J. R. (2011). Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science, 331(6018), 772-775.
Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching.
This study examines evidence for guided instruction in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert-novice differences, and cognitive load.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.
Task force on Evidence-based Interventions in School Psychology
The purpose of this manual is to assist psychologists to identify, code, and review interventions that have subjected to rigorous research and evaluation.
Kratochwill, T. R. (2003). Task force on evidence-based interventions in school psychology. American Psychology Association.
Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis
This meta-analysis of findings from 108 studies shows mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools.
Kulik, C. L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 60(2), 265-299.
Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math
This study examines and compares the effectiveness of pre-teaching and re-teaching on math achievement and academic self-concept of third grade students identified as low achievers.
Lalley, J. P., & Miller, R. H. (2006). Effects of Pre-Teaching and Re-Teaching on Math Achievement and Academic Self-Concept of Students with Low Achievement in Math. Education, 126(4), 747-755.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
American Education Research Association (AERA)
This national organization works to advance the public good through advocacy and the promotion of rigorous research in education.
American Enterprise Institute
AEI is a private, nonpartisan, not-for-profit institution dedicated to research and education on issues of government, politics, economics and social welfare.
Australian Society for Evidence Based Teaching

This web site provides evidence-based resources for free to teachers, principals, and parents.

Balefire Labs

Balefire Labs provides an online educational app review service for mobile apps. It helps teachers and parents to find the highest quality educational apps for kids, ages 0-19 years. It uses rigorous, science-based, review criteria and publishes a detailed rubric on its site.

California Services for Technical Assistance and Training (CalSTAT)
CalSTAT is a project of the California Department of Education. that supports and develops partnerships with schools and families by providing training, technical assistance and resources to both special education and general education.
Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL)
CTL is research center that conducts and disseminates research that focuses on practical solutions to serious problems in school systems.
Edutopia
Edutopia focuses on practices and programs that help students acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, skills and beliefs to achieve their full potential.
Fluency Project
This web site disseminates information about behavioral fluency; and to connect people interested in building fluent behavior of all kinds and for all types of people.
K-12 Education: Gates Foundation
K-12 Education works to make sure tools, curriculum, and supports are designed using teacher insights.
New Evidence-based Web Site for ESSA

The Center for Research and Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University has announced a February release for a website that reviews every math and reading program for grades K to 12 to determine which meet the strong, moderate, or promising levels of evidence defined in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). This web site is designed to provide education decision-makers at the state, district and school levels, teachers, parents, and the public with the information to ascertain which programs meet the ESSA evidence standards.

 

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