Education Drivers

Professional Induction

Teacher induction is a set of practices that help transferring and beginning teachers become competent and effective instructors. The goals of induction are to improve instructional practices; to help teachers in their first years understand and effectively integrate into school and community cultures; and ultimately to improve pupil learning. By supporting the teachers and facilitating their socialization into the profession, school systems could potentially reduce the significant turnover rate of teachers in the first 5 years of employment. Despite its substantial cost, induction has failed to meet most of the stated goals. Research reveals that despite setting high expectations, current models fall short in selecting evidence-based approaches for accomplishing the task. Goals and practices for induction activities are not clearly defined nor is performance effectively monitored. Finally, most models fail to provide effective implementation strategies necessary for sustainability. The overall message is that comprehensive teacher induction has the potential to positively impact teaching practices and pupil learning, but it requires careful reconsideration of current conceptual, procedural, and empirical foundations of the practice.

Teacher Induction Overview

Teacher Induction PDF

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Teacher quality is an important factor in student achievement and has an impact on student success (Hattie, 2009; Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Students who have high-quality teachers have higher test scores than students who do not have high-quality teachers (American Education Research Association, 2004).

Ensuring student access to high-quality teachers has been a focus of reforms and legislation for decades (No Child Left Behind Act, 2002; States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012). However, the United States has struggled with low academic achievement, stagnant academic growth, and educational inequalities (Maheady, Jabot, Rey, & Michelli-Pendl, 2007). On the 2019 Nation’s Report Card, 75% of fourth graders and 66% of eighth graders scored below proficiency in reading. In math, 59% of fourth graders and 66% of eighth graders scored below proficiency (National Assessment of Education Progress, 2020).

Teacher preparation has been named a potential reason for trends in low academic achievement (Maheady et al., 2007). This raises the question: are teachers getting the preparation they need to be successful in raising student achievement from the start of their careers?

Currently, teachers graduating from teacher preparation programs may or may not be prepared to teach successfully. As a result, teacher induction programs have been created to serve as a bridge between university programs and classroom teaching (Hart Research Associates, 2010).

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs. Important questions about teacher induction programs include:

  • What should teacher induction programs focus on? What are the effective components of a teacher induction program?
  • How should professional development be delivered in teacher induction programs?
  • What benefits can schools and districts expect to see from teacher induction programs?

[A head][C1] Need for Teacher Induction Programs

New teachers require training that meets their unique needs and provides intensive experiences to quickly boost their skills and integrate them into their new schools. Newly trained teachers report that they feel unprepared for the actual demands of teaching (Cibulka, 2009; Duncan, 2009). Specifically, they feel poorly prepared to handle behavior, assess student performance, and implement teaching strategies (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005).

Perhaps because they feel ill-equipped for the classroom, new teachers often produce lower student achievement than more veteran teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). Also, turnover among new teachers is high: 15% of new teachers leave teaching and 14% change schools after their first year (Ingersoll & Smith, 2004; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). That turnover rate is almost double the national teacher turnover rate of 8% (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017).

Teacher induction programs attempt to address the specific needs of new teachers. The American Association of State Colleges and Universities (2006) defines teacher induction as professional development focused on the needs of novice teachers and prioritizing the practices that help them become effective in the classroom. To this end, teacher induction programs teach practices that help new teachers become effective classroom professionals (American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2010). They also provide a way to train teachers for the specific schools they have been hired to teach in, and allow for the involvement of existing staff in mentoring and training.

Since they started in the 1980s, teacher induction programs have demonstrated the following benefits (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2004; Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004; Fletcher, Strong, & Villar, 2008; Howe, 2006; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004):

  • Increased teacher retention
  • Refined teacher practice
  • Improved teacher quality
  • Improved student achievement

Another potential benefit is the improved morale and communication between administration and teachers (Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004).

[A head]Current State of Teacher Induction

Prior to the 1980s, teacher induction programs consisted of a few hours of orientation before teachers started work in the classroom (States et al., 2012). In the 1980s, more formal teacher induction programs were instituted to potentially improve teacher competency. Since then, teacher induction programs have become increasingly common (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). Recently, García and Weiss (2019) reported that the vast majority of teachers in their first year of teaching participated in teacher induction programs (72.7%). Of the teachers in these programs, 79.9% worked with a mentor and 91.9% completed additional professional development opportunities.

As teacher induction programs developed, they went through four waves (Wood & Stanulis, 2009). Prior to 1986 (first wave), programs were informal and unfunded, and focused on increasing teacher competence and satisfaction, with the goal of decreasing attrition. In the second wave (1986–1989), mentoring was added to many programs, with more structured observations and professional development. In the third wave (1990–1996), programs added formative assessment and teacher observation. Despite showing promise, many of these programs were defunded. Finally, in the fourth wave (1997–2006), programs became more comprehensive and organized, with additional assistance and assessment for new teachers.

By 2004, most states mandated support for new teachers as they transitioned from college to the classroom (Villar & Strong, 2007). Today, the scope and quality of teacher induction programs vary. A National Council on Teacher Quality report (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020) found that among 124 districts, the majority (82) provided an orientation that ranged from 3 to 4 hours to 6 days. Additionally, 92 districts provided mentoring for new teachers, ranging from 30 weeks to 4 years. And 25% of districts incorporated collaborative time for teachers during daily planning.

The vast majority of teachers will experience some kind of induction or professional development during their first year of teaching (García & Weiss, 2019). However, especially given the range of induction experiences that districts provide, the amount of professional development provided to new teachers may not be sufficient to produce necessary improvements (Glazerman et al., 2010; Saenz-Armstrong, 2020).

[A head]Research on Teacher Induction Programs

Research has examined the effect that induction programs have on teacher quality and retention. Lopez, Lash, Schaffner, Shields, and Wagner (2004) reviewed 89 studies (3 experimental, 41 quasi-experimental, 22 qualitative, 23 reviews of research) and concluded that while much has been written about teacher induction, few rigorous studies have investigated the impact of induction on teacher quality and retention. The studies reviewed by Lopez et al. were weak for a variety of reasons including lack of definition of core variables, reliance on self-reporting, the use of one outcome measure, and many potentially confounding variables. Based on these flaws, Lopez et al. could not conclude that teacher induction programs produced an impact on teacher quality or retention.

Since then, an Institute of Education Science report (Glazerman et al., 2010) examined the results of a randomized control trial (RCT) on teacher induction. The study included 1,009 teachers across 418 schools in 17 districts. Within this group, teachers were randomly assigned to receive comprehensive induction or standard induction programming. The RCT compared benchmarks (retention, achievement, and classroom practices) of teachers who received a comprehensive induction program with those of new teachers who received only standard new teacher support. Teachers who had the benefit of comprehensive induction, which included 1 to 2 years of full-time mentor support, monthly professional development, and opportunities to observe veteran teachers. Teachers were followed for 3 years to gauge the impacts of comprehensive induction.

After one year of comprehensive induction, there was no impact on student achievement or teacher retention. However, teachers who received 3 years of comprehensive induction saw a positive impact on student achievement in their third year. The resulting impact was the equivalent of moving a student who was in the 50th percentile in reading to the 54th percentile in reading and the 58th percentile in math. There was no impact on teacher retention (Glazerman et al., 2010).

In another study, Ingersoll and Strong (2011) examined 15 studies conducted between the mid-1980s and 2010. They included only studies that compared outcome data for participants and non-participants, and studies with clear explanations of the methods, data sources, sample sizes, methods, and outcomes. The parameters resulted in a group of studies that examined at least one aspect of teacher induction programs. Overall, the studies provided support for the conclusion that induction programs have a positive impact on new teachers’ job satisfaction, commitment, and retention. Teacher induction programming also improved new teachers’ classroom practices (keeping students on task, classroom management, questioning strategies, developing lesson plans). This is important because new teachers have indicated struggling with classroom management and implementing instructional strategies (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005). Finally, the students of teachers who participated in teacher induction programs had higher scores on academic achievement tests than students whose teachers did not participate. From this research, additional research is needed to examine the content, duration, and intensity of induction that produces the best results. In addition, additional research is needed to determine the cost-benefit of induction programs for districts.

Perry and Hayes (2011) used a matched group of 44 newly hired K–6 teachers in one district (22 in the treatment group and 22 teachers who provided a matched comparison) to do a two-group comparative study of teacher induction practices. The teachers in the treatment group participated in a teacher induction program. All teachers in the study completed a survey of their knowledge of the district’s educational processes and procedures. The induction program involved an initial induction process before they started the school year and ongoing professional development across their first 2 to 3 years. Professional development included training, collaboration, mentoring, and visits to demonstration classrooms. Teachers in their third year of the program were better able to use assessment results to improve instruction and increase student achievement. In other aspects, there was no difference between teachers who participated and those who did not participate. Between their first and third years of teaching, both groups of teachers did not demonstrate a difference in their ability to communicate with students and parents, to understand classroom management techniques, to monitor student growth, and to use research-based practices. The results indicated that induction must be multiyear and comprehensive if it is to incorporate teachers fully into a district and to reap the benefits of the program. The cost-benefit of this program was not addressed in the study.

Overall, while the research that has been conducted shows some positive findings, there is a lack of rigorous research and a lack of recent research on this topic (Glazerman et al., 2010; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011).

[A head]Questions Driving Teacher Induction

The most important questions have to do with what teacher induction programs should include and the benefits that districts should expect from them.

[B head]What Should Be Included? What Should Teacher Induction Programs Focus On?

There are two ways to approach these questions. First, what should be included specifically for teachers who are new to the profession? Second, which strategies are most effective and should be the focus of induction programs?

What should be included specifically for new teachers? The Alliance for Excellent Education (2004) identified high-quality teacher induction as having the following:

  • High-quality mentoring
  • Shared planning time and collaboration
  • Ongoing professional development
  • Participation in an external network of teachers
  • Standards-based evaluation

From this checklist, it is clear that effective teacher induction programs are more than an overview of human resource protocols and operations procedures (although those are important for new hires to know).

The teacher induction program that Perry and Hayes (2011) examined included a continuum of professional development through systematic support across a teacher’s first 2 to 3 years in the classroom. This support involved the following:

  • Study groups that allowed teachers to network
  • Administrative support
  • Mentorship through assignment of a specific mentor
  • Opportunities for teachers to visit demonstration classrooms and see model lessons
  • Building-level professional development through school-based instructional facilitators

A logical follow-up question: Once elements are in place, how long should an induction program be implemented to have an impact? The results from the Glazerman et al. (2010) study indicate that teacher induction programs should last through a teacher’s third year to demonstrate significant impacts on student achievement. However, a review of all 50 states’ induction program policies by the New Teacher Center (Goldrick, Osta, Barlin, & Burn, 2012) revealed that only half of states required any induction or mentoring for new teachers, and no state provided an induction program that included high-impact multiyear induction support.

What strategies should teacher induction programs focus on? In a report focusing on the aspects of instruction that most influence student learning, Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1997) identified 28 aspects of teaching and created weighted scores by combining the effect sizes of each. The higher the weighted score, the greater the effect size and the more impactful the strategy. From those, they identified the top items that most influenced student learning (the numbers in parentheses are the weighted scores):

  • Classroom management (64.8)
  • Student-teacher interaction (56.7)
  • Quantity of instruction (53.7)
  • Classroom climate (52.3)

A meta-analysis by Hattie (2009) corroborated these findings. Hattie identified formative assessment (observation and feedback), classroom management, and teaching strategies as key. From all three of these studies, focusing on classroom management, relationships and interactions with students, and maximizing time for instruction should be priorities for teacher induction programs (Hattie, 2009; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Wang et al., 1997).

[B head]What Methods Should Teacher Induction Programs Use?

The goal of teacher induction (like the goal of teacher preparation) is for teachers to transfer their knowledge from training to the classroom. Teacher induction programs have the added focus of accelerating new teacher practices to maximize new teacher impacts on student achievement and to minimize turnover (Rivkin et al., 2005). On the whole, induction programs have focused on mentoring and formative assessment of new teachers (Wood & Stanulis, 2009).

Joyce and Showers (2002) examined four methods of training teachers: (1) Discussion, readings, and lectures; (2) modeling of skills/demonstration; (3) practice and feedback under simulated conditions; and (4) coaching, or collaboration between trainer and trainee, to solve problems in the classroom. Training teachers through lectures and modeling was insufficient to transfer skills to the classroom; practice and feedback were also insignificant. Only coaching produced a significant transfer of skills to the classroom.

Coaching could be a strong option for teacher induction programs as many programs are built on a combination of mentoring and formative assessment (Wood & Stanulis, 2009), and coaching already has a strong research base to support its effectiveness (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2018).

Teacher coaching has been shown to impact teacher practice and student achievement, specifically reading instruction (Sailors & Price, 2010). Coaching has also been shown to have a positive impact on classroom environment (Neuman & Wright, 2010; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). Finally, coaching has demonstrated positive effects on improving specific teacher practices, such as their implementation of a model-lead-test math lesson format (Kraft, Blazer, & Hogan, 2018; Kretlow, Wood, & Cook, 2011).

Another method included in Joyce and Showers’ 2002 review was collaboration among teachers. Professional learning communities (PLCs) engage teachers in thoughtful, explicit examination of teaching practices and their impacts (Little, 1990). Teachers can use PLC time to observe peers and review their own practice, both of which can change teacher practice and effectiveness (Lustick & Sykes, 2006; Sato, Wei, & Darling-Hammond, 2008). Intensive, content-rich, collaborative working experiences such as those in a PLC can improve teacher practice and student outcomes (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009). PLCs may also address needs identified by new teachers to plan instruction and observe teaching (Barlin, 2010).

Another way that districts provide development for new teachers are mentorship programs (Villar & Strong, 2007). Mentoring involves facilitating a relationship between an established teacher and a new teacher with the focus on guiding, influencing, and supporting the new teacher. Typically, a new teacher is paired with a veteran teacher who can provide experience in teaching as well as information about the school and district (Feiman-Nemser & Parker, 1992).

Strong mentoring programs have research support for boosting student achievement. For example, Fletcher et al. (2008) studied three California districts with a new teacher training program that included mentoring. The researchers categorized programs based on the ratio of mentors to novice teachers. Across the three districts, 89 teachers impacting 3,268 students participated in the study. Spring achievement test data for students in grades 2 through 6 was used to gauge the impact of teachers. Overall, mentor-based induction had a positive impact on student achievement when teachers maintained weekly contact with mentors who were veteran teachers and were selected through a rigorous interview process and provided with ongoing training.

In summary, teacher induction programs should include high-quality coaching or mentoring, as well as collaboration, which could be accomplished through school-based PLCs.  

[B head]What Benefits Should Schools and Districts Expect to See from Teacher Induction Programs?

There are two main questions about the benefits of teacher induction programs. First, is there an impact on teacher quality? Second, is there an impact on teacher retention?

Do teacher induction programs have an impact on teacher quality? The goal of increasing teacher quality is to raise student achievement; therefore, research into teacher quality studied student achievement in the form of test scores or reading assessments (Glazerman et al., 2010; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Villar & Strong, 2007). In their review of studies, Ingersoll and Strong (2011) found that teachers who participated in an induction program improved their ability to implement core practices, including keeping students on task, developing lesson plans, creating a positive classroom atmosphere, and using effective questioning strategies. Students of teachers who participated in an induction program also had higher achievement scores on standardized tests than students of teachers who did not participate (specific effect sizes were not discussed).

In a review of a mentoring program in California, Villar and Strong (2007) found that the students of new teachers who participated in a mentoring program achieved reading gains that were equivalent to those achieved by students of more veteran teachers. This is also significant because the new teachers were assigned to classes with lower initial achievement and a higher percentage of students with language learning needs.

It does take time to see benefits in student achievement; Glazerman et al. (2010) found positive effects on student learning occurred only after 2 full years of mentoring. High-quality teacher induction programs can improve teacher quality when quality indicators are in place across multiple years.

Do teacher induction programs have an impact on teacher retention? Research by Smith and Ingersoll (2004) suggests a relationship between the duration and intensity of induction and new teacher turnover. The researchers used an analysis of National Center for Education Statistics school personnel survey data from 1999–2000 to examine information about induction, mentoring, and turnover, and the impact that various levels of induction had on teacher retention. A sample of 52,000 teachers in elementary and secondary schools was included in the analysis. The levels of induction ranged from none (no support components) to basic (two support components) to comprehensive (four support components). The list of possible support components included:

  • Professional development
  • Common planning time and collaboration with other teachers
  • Participation in an external network of teachers
  • Regular, supportive communication with the principal or administration
  • Reduced teaching schedule
  • Fewer number of classes to prepare for
  • A teacher’s assistant

            Smith and Ingersoll’s analysis found that the more comprehensive the induction, the fewer teachers left teaching or changed schools. In general, mentoring and collaboration reduced the risk that a teacher would leave the district. Having a mentor in the same field reduced the likelihood that a teacher would leave the profession by 30% (significant), but did not impact whether or not a teacher would move schools. Having common planning time reduced the risk of leaving by 43% (significant). Other supports (professional development, participation in an external network, supportive communication with administration, and fewer classes to prepare for) also reduced the risk that a teacher would leave, but were not significant. A reduced teaching schedule and a classroom aide both increased the risk of a teacher leaving, but were not significant.

Another study (Perry & Hayes, 2011) that examined teacher retention in new teacher induction programs found that there was a significant difference between mobility results within the district compared to outside the district. When teachers moved schools, they were more likely to move within the district than to leave it.

Many questions remain, such as the effectiveness of various induction components, and the optimal duration and intensity of induction. Also, demands of the teaching profession are constantly changing and evolving. More contemporary research into this topic is necessary.

[A head]Cost of Teacher Induction

Because teacher induction is such an intensive intervention, it is important to understand the cost-benefit of providing this type of program to new teachers.

An analysis of Yeh (2007) research found that the effectiveness ratio (the effect size/cost per student) of teacher induction was slight (0.00018). From this, Yeh suggested that induction was not a cost-effective intervention, especially when compared to formative assessment, which was more cost-effective, and to other interventions that were not cost-effective (e.g., class size reduction, charter schools, increased spending, high-stakes testing).

A benefit-cost analysis of a mentoring program for new teachers (Villars & Strong, 2007) found that the program produced a monetary benefit that decreased over time. The benefit was highest for first-year teachers, and smallest for third-year teachers. Of course, the benefit to individual districts will vary depending on many factors. However, note that the benefit of mentoring decreased over time, presumably as teachers improved in their skills and became more comparable to veteran teachers in their ability to produce gains for students.

In terms of retention, the Villars and Strong analysis assumed that the cost of hiring a replacement teacher was worth 50% of the teacher’s salary. With this assumption, the investment in new teacher mentoring provided $1.66 for each $1 spent. Here also, the exact benefit will differ by district and each individual case, but there is a benefit to investment in keeping new teachers through high-quality mentorship programs.

[A head]Recommendations for Teacher Induction

Teacher induction is an intense, complicated intervention that requires significant investment in resources, time, and money. To show impacts, teacher induction programs may need to span at least the first 2 years of a teacher’s career (Glazerman et al., 2010).

Teacher induction programs should focus on high-leverage and high-impact teaching strategies: classroom management, student-teacher interactions (e.g., questioning strategies), classroom climate, and quantity of instruction (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Wang et al., 1997).

Induction programs should also focus on leveraging professional development approaches that have the most impact in changing teacher practice and student achievement, namely coaching, mentoring, and PLCs. Successful induction programs are fully integrated into a school’s culture, from hiring practices to curriculum, orientation, mentoring and support, and evaluation (Cherian & Daniel, 2008; New Teacher Center, 2006). They also require ongoing support from administration (Barlin, 2010). Teacher induction must allow teachers to observe, be observed, and learn as part of a collaborative network (Perry & Hayes, 2011). Finally, induction programs should be comprehensive, designed to incorporate teachers into the district, and multiyear (Perry & Hayes, 2011). Providing this level of implementation would align the design and delivery of induction programs with existing implementation best practices (Fixen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005).

School leaders implementing teacher induction programs should measure the impact on (1) the practices used by new teachers, (2) student achievement, and (3) teacher retention. It may be beneficial to consider teacher retention in a district when examining districtwide impacts (Perry & Hayes, 2011).

The New Teacher Center recommends that states set policies to formally create induction programs and establish policies to ensure that the programs align with best practices, including hiring and training effective mentors, providing formative assessment and classroom observation for teachers, providing teacher induction across multiple years, and adequately funding these programs (Goldrick et al., 2012). 

The needs of teachers are constantly shifting. Currently, many new teachers enter education with the expectation that they teach online during an international pandemic. In a review of teacher induction programs within the current demands of education, the National Council on Teaching Quality (NCTQ) (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020) recommends:

  • Increasing orientation time for new teachers to help them navigate school expectations, culture, and instructional demands
  • Structure mentoring programs to provide support across 2 years
  • Prioritize collaborative time for all teachers
  • Commit to professional development, particularly around remote instruction

            NCTQ acknowledged that, under typical conditions, many districts do not have mentoring and new teacher induction programs that provide the adequate quality and duration to produce desired results. However, this year many new teachers have arrived with less preparation than ever for the challenges of the job, so more induction is necessary (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020).

Conclusion

Teacher induction programs serve an important function for new teachers who do not feel prepared for the demands of the job, and for schools and districts that want to ensure teacher quality and reduce turnover. High-quality teacher induction programs, when delivered with fidelity and across multiple years, can have a positive impact on teacher quality and teacher retention. These programs have the potential to reduce the financial burden on districts while increasing the capacity of teachers. Particularly during periods of online instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, teacher induction programs should be organized to help new teachers develop successful practices and habits, and connect them with mentor teachers or coaches who can help integrate them into school settings, even when those settings are virtual.  

 

Citations

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Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257. http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/002/834/127%20-%20Nye%20B%20%20Hedges%20L%20%20V%20%20%20Konstantopoulos%20S%20%20(2004).pdf

Perry, B., & Hayes, K. (2011). The effect of a new teacher induction program on the new teachers reported teacher goals for excellence, mobility and retention rates. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 6(1). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972907.pdf

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 299–312.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.

Saenz-Armstrong, P. (2020). Supporting teachers through mentoring and collaboration. Washington, DC: National Council on Teaching Quality. https://www.nctq.org/blog/Supporting-teachers-through-mentoring-and-collaboration

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110(3), 301–323.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. https://www.beteronderwijsnederland.nl/files/cumulative%20and%20residual%20effects%20of%20teachers.pdf

Sato, M., Wei, R. C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of national board certification. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 669–700.

Smith, T., & Ingersoll, R. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 681–714. https://www.gse.upenn.edu/pdf/rmi/Effects-of-Induction-and-Mentoring-RMI-Fall-2004.pdf

States, J., Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2012). Effective teachers make a difference. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.), Education at the Crossroads: The state of teacher preparation, Vol. 2 (pp. 1–45). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol2Ch1.pdf

Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and five-year rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum: Journal of Research and Information, 25(3), 1–17. https://edsource.org/wp-content/uploads/old/ment-8.pdf

Wang, M., Haertel, G., & Walberg H. (1997). Learning Influences. In H. Walberg & G. Haertel (Eds.), Psychology and educational practice (pp. 199–211). Berkeley. CA: McCutchan Publishing.

Wood, A. L., & Stanulis, R. N. (2009). Quality teacher induction “fourth wave” (1997–2006) induction programs. New Educator, 5(1), 1–23. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868911.pdf

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416–436.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overview of Teacher Evaluation.

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service

Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L., & Jabot, M. (2012). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don’t Know, and Must Learn Soon! In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 65-89). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?

This review examines the effectiveness of teacher induction.

Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact928.

What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of staff development methods that include, didactic presentation, modeling, practice with feedback, and coaching.

States, J. (2011). What Teacher Training Methods Result in Changes in Classroom Practices? Retrieved from what-teacher-training-methods.

Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This analysis examines evidence on the influence of teacher induction programs on reducing teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact884.
What is the status of experimental research on teacher induction?
This analysis reviews the quality of research on the effectiveness of teacher induction programs.
Keyworth, R. (2010). What is the status of experimental research on teacher induction? Retrieved from what-is-status-of.
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.
Does Feedback Improve Performance?
This review is a summary of the effect size of the effectiveness feedback to improve both student and teacher performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Feedback Improve Performance? Retrieved from does-feedback-improve-performance.
Does professional development make a difference in student performance?
This analysis looks at a systematic review of teacher professional development on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does professional development make a difference in student performance? Retrieved from does-professional-development-make.
How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement?
This analysis compares the effectiveness of coaching compared to traditional forms of professional development for teachers.
States, J. (2012). How does coaching compare with traditional staff development in improving student achievement? Retrieved from how-does-coaching-compare.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L. (2010). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-larry-maheady.

Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training
Staff training is often seen as the solution to all performance problems. This paper discusses the choices that have to be made when designing effective staff training.
Detrich, R. (2007). A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-decision-matrix-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.

This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).  It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.

Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

This paper: reviews research on beginning teacher induction programs, summarizing previous reviews of the topic; identifies various state- and local-level induction programs, analyzing best practices that exist today. 

Arends, R. I., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. J. (2000). Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Teacher Preparation and Induction.

This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,

Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-20012(3), n3.

On the Path to Equity: Improving the Effectiveness of Beginning Teachers

This report highlights the work of New Teacher Center (NTC), a national nonprofit organization headquartered in Santa Cruz, California, that has partnered with states, districts, and policymakers to develop programs and policies that accelerate new teacher effectiveness.

Alliance for Excellent Education (2014). On the path to equity: Improving the effectiveness of beginning teachers. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PathToEquity.pdf

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal112(1), 107-131.

The Clinical Preparation of Teachers: A Policy Brief

This policy brief focuses on the clinical aspects of teacher preparation in each of these key features. These aspects include the typical processes of clinical work, the location, and the duration of the training.

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). (2010). The clinical preparation of teachers: A policy brief. Washington, DC: Author.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development

This article reviews empirical articles published over the past two decades to determine what and how student teaching experiences contribute to preservice teachers’ development. While keeping this central focus, the article also considers the implications of student teaching for the schools that play host to it and for the students who attend those schools.

Anderson, L. M., & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development A Review of Research Focused on the Preparation of Teachers for Urban and High-Needs Contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.

Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs

A 10-year comparison of graduates from 4- and 5-year teacher education programs at the same institution revealed significant differences between graduates of the two programs. Limitations of the study and alternative explanations for these differences are discussed.

Andrew, M. D. (1990). Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 45–51

Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs.

This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.

Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education17(3), 43-53.

Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence?

Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed. 

Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record102(1), 5-27.

Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs

This article reviewed a number of comprehensive instructional-mentoring programs and identified three critical factors that seem to be making a positive difference. 

Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week29, 27.

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

A review of teacher induction in special education: Research, practice, and technology solutions.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about teacher induction in special education and to outline recommendations for the design of induction programs and further research.

Billingsley, B. S., Griffin, C. C., Smith, S. J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. NCIIP Document Number RS-1. National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development.

Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look

The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.

Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Return on Educational Investment A district-by-district evaluation of U.S. educational productivity

This report examines the efficiency of the nation's public education system

Boser, U. (2011). Return on Educational Investment: A District-by-District Evaluation of US Educational Productivity. Center for American Progress.

Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States.

This report tells policymakers what metrics they must track in order to make the best decisions regarding the supply and training of school leaders.

Campbell, C., & Gross, B. (2012). Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Helping Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession: A Successful Induction Program

This paper examines the importance of systematic Induction training as one solution to beginning teacher retention. It advocates for systematic and sustained assistance and not merely orientation meetings or evaluation for new teachers.

Carr, S. C., & Evans, E. D. (2006). Helping Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession: A Successful Induction Program. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(2), 113-115.

Principal leadership in new teacher induction: Becoming agents of change

This small-scale pilot study investigated the role of school principals in the induction of new teachers in Ontario, Canada.

Cherian, F., & Daniel, Y. (2008). Principal Leadership in New Teacher Induction: Becoming Agents of Change. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership3(2), 1-11.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation.

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on professional development and its impact on student achievement, as well as offer recommendations for future teacher professional development.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-in-service

Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature

This paper draws upon a structured analysis of over 300 research-based papers on mentoring across three discipline areas in an attempt to make more valid inferences about the nature and outcomes of mentoring.

Ehrich, L. C., Hansford, B., & Tennent, L. (2004). Formal mentoring programs in education and other professions: A review of the literature. Educational administration quarterly40(4), 518-540.

Tapping The Potential: Retaining And Developing High-Quality New Teachers

This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.

Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

A Conceptual Review of Literature on New Teacher Induction.

This paper reports the results of a literature review on the subject of beginning teacher induction, presenting a conceptually oriented discussion of the induction literature.

Feiman-Nemser, S., Schwille, S., Carver, C., & Yusko, B. (1999). A Conceptual Review of Literature on New Teacher Induction.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California

Policy makers are concerned about reports of teacher shortages and the high rate of attrition among new teachers. Prior studies indicate that mentor-based induction can reduce the numbers of new teachers leaving schools or the profession

Fletcher, S., Strong, M., & Villar, A. (2008). An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California. Teachers college record110(10), 2271-2289.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Developing Leaders: The Importance—and the Challenges—of Evaluating Principal Preparation Programs

The role of today's principal is changing, as is the principal workforce. The new generation of principals is younger with less teaching experience, and is more mobile, working more hours, and experiencing more job stress. Understanding how to better prepare new leaders for the role of principal is an urgent policy concern.

George W. Bush Institute, Education Reform Initiative, (2016). Developing Leaders: The Importance—and the Challenges—of Evaluating Principal Preparation Programs. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED570672

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Results from the frst year of a randomized controlled study

The study examines whether comprehensive teacher induction programs lead to higher teacher retention rates and other positive teacher and student outcomes as compared to prevailing, generally less comprehensive approaches to supporting new teachers

Glazerman, S., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Isenberg, E., Lugo-Gil, J., ... & Ali, M. (2008). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4034. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Final results from a randomized controlled study

To evaluate the impact of comprehensive teacher induction relative to the usual induction support, the authors conducted a randomized experiment in a set of districts that were not already implementing comprehensive induction.

Glazerman, S., Isenberg, E., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Grider, M., & Jacobus, M. (2010). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis

The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement 

Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September3, 2009.

New Teacher Induction in Special Education

This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.

Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12

This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.

Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.

Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper.

This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels. 

Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review

The most successful teacher induction programs reported here include opportunities for experts and neophytes to learn together in a supportive environment promoting time for collaboration, reflection and acculturation into the profession of teaching. 

Howe, E. R. (2015). Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review. In In Search of Subjectivities (pp. 33-44). Routledge.

Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs.

This paper describes some implication of research on learning to teach to the design of induction and mentoring programs. 

Huling-Austin, L. (1992). Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs. Journal of teacher education43(3), 173-180.

Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?

This study examines whether such supports have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers. The study also focuses on different types and components of induction, including mentoring programs, collective' group activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads. 

Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?. NASSP bulletin88(638), 28-40

The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says

This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid 1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs— collectively known as induction — for beginning teachers.

Ingersoll, R., & Kralik, J. M. (2004). The impact of mentoring on teacher retention: What the research says. GSE Publications, 127.

Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072.

This research evaluated the impact of structured and intensive teacher induction programs over a three-year time period, beginning when teachers first enter the teaching profession. The current report presents findings from the second year of the evaluation and a future report will present findings from the third and final year.

Isenberg, E., Glazerman, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Lugo-Gil, J., Grider, M., ... & Britton, E. (2009). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the Second Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4072. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don't Know, and Need to Know Soon

This paper examines teacher induction through the lens of scientific evidence.

Maheady, L., & Jabot, M. (2012). Comprehensive Teacher Induction: What We Know, Don’t Know, and Must Learn Soon! In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 65-89). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring

This study focused on preservice general education teachers who were prepared to use an evidence-based teaching practice and the effects the practice had on their pupils’ academic performance.

Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., Mallette, B., & Karnes, M. (2004). Preparing preservice teachers to implement class wide peer tutoring. Teacher Education and Special Education27(4), 408-418.

 
The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).

Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

Growing Great Teachers: How School System Leaders Can Use Existing Resources to Better Develop, Support, and Retain New Teachers--and Improve Student Outcomes

The authors use research-based "impact modeling" to show how a strategic approach to recruiting and supporting rookie teachers could yield as much as 4.2 extra months of student learning. We provide 5 recommendations for school systems to leverage their investment in structures that provide rookie teachers with both shelter and development.

Rosenberg, D., & Miles, K.H. (2018). Growing Great Teachers: How School System Leaders Can Use Existing Resources to Better Develop, Support, and Retain New Teachers--and Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED593368.pdf

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Teacher Induction Found to Raise Student Scores

Teachers who received two years of comprehensive induction services boosted student scores in reading and math more than teachers in a comparison group who didn’t receive the support, a study released today by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences finds.

 

Sawchuk, S. (2010) (2010, June 28). Teacher induction found to raise student scores. Education Week. Retrieved from www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/06/28/36induction.h29.html

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?

This study examines whether such programs - collectively known as induction - have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers.

Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?. American educational research journal41(3), 681-714.

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Teacher induction, mentoring, and retention: A summary of the research

This paper reviews the research literature on new teacher mentoring, focusing on issues of definition, why teachers quit, and the effects of mentoring on retention. 

Strong, M. (2005). Teacher induction, mentoring, and retention: A summary of the research. The New Educator1(3), 181-198.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look

The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. 

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 201516 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction
The main aim of this report is to identify and map studies that will shed light on the impact of induction programmes on teacher performance, career development and retention rates.

Totterdell, M., Bubb, S., Woodroffe, L., & Hanrahan, K. (2004). The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction. Research evidence in education library.

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and five-year rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers.

This study describes a benefit-cost analysis of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers conducted in a medium-sized California school district.

Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and fiveyear rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum25(3), 1-17.

Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

This report examines research on teacher certification, reviewing every published study or paper, and many unpublished dissertations, cited by prominent advocates of teacher certification.

Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers’ teaching: A critical review of the literature

Drawing on literature since 1997, this review explores the effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' conceptions and practice of teaching, and it identifies three approaches to understanding such effects, as found in the literature. 

Wang, J., Odell, S. J., & Schwille, S. A. (2008). Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' teaching: A critical review of the literature. Journal of teacher education59(2), 132-152.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

A review of literature on beginning teacher induction.

This review of teacher induction4 literature is designed to summarize current research on the practices, policies, and programs intentionally developed to support novice teachers.

Whisnant, E., Elliott, K., & Pynchon, S. (2005). A review of literature on beginning teacher induction. Center for Strengthening the teaching profession.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

Value Added Teacher Preparation Assessment Model: A Bold Step Forward in Preparing, Inducting, and Supporting New Teachers Qualitative Research Study
This quantitative research valued added study assesses the effectiveness of teacher preparation programs in Louisiana to understand why some teacher preparation programs are more effective than other programs.
Burns, J. M., Noell, G. H., & Gansle, K. A. (2009). Value Added Teacher Preparation Assessment Model: A Bold Step Forward in Preparing, Inducting, and Supporting New Teachers Qualitative Research Study.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
Steps: Student Training and Education in Public Service
How to Survive Your First Year Teaching

Do’s and don’ts, resources, and expert advice on how to navigate challenges as a new teacher and make the successful transition from college to classroom.

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