Education Drivers

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

Proactive classroom management strategies promote appropriate behavior and reduce or prevent misbehavior. Reinforcement is at the core of most proactive strategies. It is defined as a consequence that follows a behavior and increases the frequency of that behavior. Contingent praise is a versatile strategy based on reinforcement. Through positive statements delivered by the teacher, contingent praise acknowledges appropriate conduct and informs students what they did well. A rule of thumb is to maintain a 4:1 ratio of positive praise to corrective statements. Teachers should avoid the trap of becoming overly critical, which can damage the student-teacher relationship and lead to increased misbehavior. Other reinforcement-based strategies that use praise as well as material reinforcers include class-wide group contingencies, point systems, and behavior contracts. Material reinforcers commonly used in schools include tangible reinforcers (stickers, toys, food), preferred activities (games, computer time), and privileges (running errands, distributing papers). Additional proactive strategies are classroom rules and procedures, a structured environment, active supervision, and effective instruction; see classroom management drivers.

Supporting Appropriate Behavior

Supporting Appropriate Behavior PDF

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting appropriate behavior by students in the classroom is important for helping students to be successful. Academic learning time (i.e., the time in which students are actively engaged in academic instruction) is correlated with stronger academic outcomes (Fisher et al., 2015). Engagement in academic instruction includes a variety of prerequisite behaviors such as paying attention, remaining on task, and following directions. Other appropriate behaviors that educators may want to support include hand raising/appropriately gaining attention, asking for help, and prosocial behavior. When students do not engage in appropriate behavior, they limit access to academic instruction for themselves and their peers. Office disciplinary referrals have been correlated with decreased standardized test scores and grade point averages (McIntosh, Flannery, Sugai, Braun, & Cochran, 2008; McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Boland, & Good, 2006).

The levels of inappropriate behavior and appropriate behavior in the classroom are inherently linked: if inappropriate behavior is occurring, appropriate behavior is likely not occurring, and vice versa. Responding to inappropriate behavior will be discussed more thoroughly in the decreasing disruptive behavior overview, but it is important to note that resorting to negative consequences or efforts to discourage inappropriate behavior can result in negative side effects including emotional reactions, aggression, avoidance, and undesirable modeling (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Increasing appropriate behavior is a critical component of decreasing inappropriate behavior. In the Institute of Education Sciences practice guide, Epstein, Atkins, Cullinan, Kutash, and Weaver (2008) identified a strong evidence base for teaching and reinforcing appropriate behavior to reduce behavior problems in elementary school classrooms. Further, the U.S. Department of Education (2014) stated that the first guiding principle for addressing school climate and discipline is to utilize evidence-based strategies to prevent challenging behavior and promote positive behavior. This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

How to Increase Behavior: Reinforcement

Reinforcement occurs when something happens immediately after a behavior and the behavior increases in the future under similar circumstances (Cooper et al., 2007). Behavior only continues to occur if it is reinforced; thus, an increase in appropriate behavior in the classroom requires reinforcement of appropriate behavior. Terms such as “reward,” “incentive,” and “acknowledgment” have been used to refer to a reinforcer; in this overview, the terms “reward” and “reinforcer” are used interchangeably. While the term “reward” usually suggests a physical item such as a prize, other reinforcers such as attention, activities, special privileges, or a break from work are also ways to acknowledge positive behavior. It is important to note that reinforcers differ across individuals; what works as a reinforcer for one student may not work as a reinforcer for another student.

 

External Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation

Whether external rewards impact intrinsic motivation is an issue that has been debated for decades (Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, & Little, 2004). Extrinsic rewards may include praise, prizes, snacks, free time, or special activities earned by students for engaging in specific behaviors. Intrinsic motivation implies that there is no visible reward for a student’s behavior. Some researchers suggest that external rewards are a detriment to intrinsic motivation (e.g., Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999), and others suggest that external rewards do not decrease intrinsic motivation (e.g., Cameron, Banko, & Pierce, 2001; Cameron & Pierce, 1994).

            It is challenging to interpret the research surrounding this controversial issue. Akin-Little et al. (2004) emphasized that the assumption that students who were not engaging in appropriate behavior should be intrinsically motivated to engage in these behaviors is unlikely to result in effective action to increase behavior. Therefore, if a student or a group of students are not engaging in appropriate behavior, external rewards may be necessary to initially engage those students without resorting to negative consequences, which potentially carry challenging side effects (Cooper et al., 2007).

 

Multitiered Systems of Support

As reinforcers are different across students, different levels of intervention intensity may be required to support appropriate behavior for all students. These levels can be achieved via a multitiered system of support (MTSS). Tier 1 utilizes universal strategies with all students across a school community to prevent challenging behavior and promote appropriate behavior. Tier 2 provides additional instruction and feedback to classes or groups of students who experience challenges despite tier 1 interventions. Tier 3 involves more intensive support for individual students who experience challenges beyond tiers 1 and 2. To the extent that effective tier 1 interventions are in place, fewer students will require more intensive interventions.

 

Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Supports. A multitiered system of support, schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) includes several components to promote a positive school climate and prevent challenging behavior. SWPBS involves (1) initial teaching of appropriate behaviors, (2) reminders, (3) rewards for appropriate behavior, (4) corrective consequences for inappropriate behavior, (5) consistent implementation, and (6) targeted support for students with persistent challenging behavior (Taylor-Greene et al., 1997). Targeted support is the second tier in the three-tiered system of support that is the essence of SWPBS.

SWPBS has been implemented in rural, suburban, and urban elementary, middle, and high schools (Chitiyo, May, & Chitiyo, 2012). In a randomized trial of 37 elementary schools, SWPBS resulted in decreased disruptive behavior and concentration problems and increased emotional regulation and positive behaviors according to teacher reports (Bradshaw, Waasdorp, & Leaf, 2012).

 

Reinforcement-Based Interventions to Support Appropriate Behavior

Researchers have explored a number of different interventions based on reinforcement for supporting appropriate behavior in school settings including (1) behavior-specific praise, (2) self-management, (3) peer-mediated interventions, and (4) packaged interventions.

 

Behavior-Specific Praise

Behavior-specific praise (BSP) is a low effort, tier 1 intervention that involves noting vocally or in writing the specific behavior of the student along with how it created a positive outcome or met an expectation. BSP should reference behaviors that the student can control instead of intrinsic characteristics (e.g., “You did a great job with spelling this week. I can tell you have been practicing” versus “You did a great job with spelling this week, you’re so smart”) and should be sincere (Royer, Lane, Dunlap, & Ennis, 2019).

 

Delivering BSP. There are a number of ways to deliver BSP. It can be given vocally and publicly, that is, in front of other students. BSP presented in this manner can also serve as a reminder of expectations for other students. Alternatively, vocal BSP can be delivered privately (e.g., Houghton, Wheldall, Jukes, & Sharpe, 1990), an option some students may prefer.

Written BSP can also be delivered. For example, a study by Wheatley et al. (2009) evaluated the effects of praise notes on littering, running, and inappropriate sitting (i.e., any position with “back pockets off the seat”) in an elementary school lunchroom. Teachers and school staff delivered praise notes (small slips of paper with signature lines for the student and teacher) and specific verbal praise for appropriate behavior. Students submitted praise notes into a drawing for small prizes. This intervention resulted in substantial decreases in the three targeted inappropriate behaviors. However, it is unclear if these effects can be attributed to the BSP or to the possibility of earning a prize.

 

Strategies for Supporting Educators in Delivering BSP. Even if teachers receive training on delivering BSP, additional strategies may help the teachers deliver higher levels of BSP over time. One strategy is the use of prompts or reminders. Reminders can be visual, tactile, or auditory. One study (Haydon & Musti-Rao, 2011) placed a document with guidelines and examples of praise statements beside the overhead projector in the classroom as a visual reminder, then delivered a vibratory cue using a MotivAider (a small electronic device worn on the hip that vibrated at prescribed times). Another study (van der Mars, 1989) delivered auditory reminders to a physical education teacher via a headset. This study took place several decades ago, and more modern technology such as smart phones could be applied in a similar way. Rewards for teachers can also increase use of BSP. In the praise note system, the Wheatley et al. study (2009) called for both the student and the teacher to sign each praise note and enter it in a raffle. If the note was selected, both the student who earned the praise note and the teacher who wrote it received small prizes.

            Ultimately, just as students may require varying levels of support to engage in appropriate behavior, teachers may require varying levels of support to effectively deliver BSP. A study by Myers, Simonsen, and Sugai (2011) utilized a multitiered system of support to train teachers to deliver BSP. All teachers participated in initial training on SWPBS (including instruction on how to deliver BSP) as the tier 1 intervention. Teachers who did not meet predetermined performance criteria proceeded to tier 2, which involved a brief consultation, reviewing before and after data on praise delivery, and weekly praise from the researchers if the teachers improved. Tier 3 included additional meetings with the researchers, reminders in the classroom, and vocal and written feedback after each observation. Teachers moved between tiers 2 and 3 as needed based on their performance.

 

Self-Management

Teachers who have to attend to large numbers of students can find it challenging to deliver praise or rewards frequently enough to maintain appropriate behavior. One strategy for mitigating this concern is self-management, which involves students monitoring, evaluating, rewarding, and recording their own behavior and may be used as a tier 2 or 3 intervention (Briesch & Chafouleas, 2009). Ideally, students will be involved in the development of a self-management program by choosing and defining the target behaviors, choosing the rewards they want to earn and helping decide on the criteria for earning rewards, and prompting themselves to engage in the target behaviors (Fantuzzo, Polite, Cook, & Quinn, 1988). For example, a study with students with autism in a general education classroom used photographs of the participants self-modeling on-task behavior as cues for self-management (Cihak, Wright, & Ayres, 2010).

Once the desired behaviors have been identified, the criteria for reinforcement defined, and reinforcers identified, students observe and record their own behavior. For example, a study by Moore, Prebble, Robertson, Waetford, and Anderson (2001) called for students to fill out a worksheet by answering the question, “What does the teacher want me to do?” at various points throughout the lesson. One way to remind students to record their behavior is with an audio tone; when it sounds, the students record what they are doing at that moment (e.g., Lloyd, Bateman, Landrum, & Hallahan, 1989; Moore et al., 2001). Another key component is to involve students in determining when they have met their goals. This may involve some additional teaching; for example, the Lloyd et al. study (1989) taught students in a special education classroom to identify productive versus nonproductive behavior prior to implementing self-monitoring. Lastly, students graph or chart their own behavior and obtain rewards when they have met their goals (e.g., DiGangi, Maag, & Rutherford, 1991).

The level of teacher involvement in self-management interventions can vary across programs. Briesch and Chafouleas (2009) reviewed 30 self-management studies and found that students primarily attended to some components, with teachers more often managing others. For instance, students were primarily responsible for observing and recording their own behaviors and prompting themselves to engage in the defined appropriate behavior, while adults were primarily responsible for selecting and defining target behaviors, setting performance goals, and delivering rewards.

While self-management may involve an up-front effort in teaching students to monitor their own behavior, it is possible to gradually remove elements of the intervention that require more effort while maintaining appropriate behavior. Moore et al. (2001) observed substantial increases in on-task behavior with a self-management program in which students recorded and graphed their own behavior. Later, they introduced goal setting and removed the recording sheet and graphs. High levels of on-task behavior continued despite this change.

 

Peer-Mediated Interventions

Teachers responsible for large groups of students may not be able to deliver reinforcement often enough to sustain appropriate behavior. Another way to support appropriate behavior with less teacher involvement is through peer-mediated interventions (PMI), which involve peers providing prompts and reinforcement for one another’s behavior. PMI has been used effectively as a tier 3 intervention to teach social skills, communication skills, and appropriate classroom behavior of individual students with and without special education classifications (see Dart, Collins, Klingbeil, & McKinley, 2014, for review).

            PMI can also be used in the classroom as a tier 1 intervention. “Tootling” (a fusion of “tattling” and “tooting one’s horn”) is a peer-mediated intervention in which students anonymously report their peers’ prosocial behavior (Skinner, Cashwell, & Skinner, 2000). The first step in a tootling program is teaching students how to tootle. This can be achieved by providing correct and incorrect examples of prosocial behavior, having students generate their own examples, and providing feedback on examples (Cihak, Kirk, & Boon, 2009; Skinner et al., 2000). Initial teaching can be brief; the Skinner et al. study completed initial tootling training in two, 15-minute sessions at the beginning of the school day.

After providing students with index cards or slips of paper to record tootles and designating a place to deposit them (e.g., a box on the teacher’s desk), the next key component of this program is public display of the number of tootles written. This can be achieved in a number of ways; in one study, the teacher announced the number of tootles each day and moved a marker on a ladder visual (Skinner et al., 2000). In another study, tootles were placed in a clear container so students could see the box fill up (Cihak et al., 2009). Alternatively, technology can be used to post the number of tootles written. In their study, McHugh Dillon, Radley, Tingstrom, Dart, and Barry (2019) used ClassDojo, a free online tool that allows teachers to record student behavior via a computer, smartphone, or tablet and project real-time feedback.

            Rewards are provided both for prosocial behavior and for writing tootles, and can also vary in the manner of delivery. One option is to establish a group goal: when the whole class reaches a certain number of tootles, everyone earns a reward (Cihak et al., 2009; McHugh Dillon et al., 2019; Skinner et al., 2000). Another strategy is random selection. For example, Lum et al. (2019) called for drawing a few tootles from the box at the end of each class period. Three students who had tootles written about them and two students who had written tootles selected small prizes.

            Lastly, tootling emphasizes collaboration with students in designing the intervention and can be adapted for use with elementary, middle, and high school students. For example, the Lum et al. (2019) study implemented tootling with high school students and allowed the students to decide what to call the tootles (e.g., brags, kudos, shout-outs). Also, students can nominate reasonable rewards they would be interested in earning, such as free time, extra recess time, or small snacks (McHugh Dillon et al., 2019).

 

Package Interventions

Package interventions include multiple components of the interventions described above as well as other elements. These packages can be implemented as tier 1, 2, or 3 interventions within a multitiered system of support.

 

Good Behavior Game. One example of a tier 1 package intervention is the good behavior game. This intervention begins by splitting the class into two or more teams. In the original application, the teacher delivered points to teams for inappropriate behavior, and the members of the team with the lowest number of points (or all students, if both teams had less than five points) received a reward (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969). Since then, a number of variations have been used (see Tingstrom, Sterling-Turner, & Wilczynski, 2006, for review), including awarding points for appropriate behavior, which is more consistent with a model of SWPBS and positive reinforcement.

Multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported the good behavior game’s effectiveness across dozens of studies (Bowman-Perrott, Burke, Zaini, Zhang, & Vannest, 2016; Flower, McKenna, Bunuan, Muething, & Vega, 2014). The good behavior game has been applied across diverse student populations, including general and special education classrooms, in grade levels from kindergarten through high school, and in several different countries in North America and Europe (Nolan, Houlihan, Wanzek, & Jenson, 2014).

 

Mystery Motivator Game. Another tier 1 package intervention is the mystery motivator game. The teacher sets behavioral goals with the students and then selects specific times or lessons unknown to the students during which the mystery motivator game will be played. A mystery motivator chart shows days of the week or month. The teacher marks random days in a way that the students cannot see (e.g., under a piece of paper, with invisible ink). Each day, at the end of the designated mystery motivator time, the teacher asks a student to remove the piece of paper or use a magic marker to reveal the invisible ink. If the chart indicates that it is a mystery motivator day (e.g., marked with an “M”), the teacher provides the students with a surprise or “mystery” reward. If the chart does not reveal a mark, the teacher simply provides praise (Kowalewicz & Coffee, 2014).

            The mystery motivator game has been utilized to increase homework completion and accuracy (Madaus, Kehle, Madaus, & Bray, 2003; Waguespack, Moore, Wickstrom, & Witt, 1994) and on-task behavior (Kraemer, Davies, Arndt, & Hunley, 2012). Further, Robichaux and Gresham (2014) compared delivering mystery rewards and student-selected rewards; both variations resulted in substantial decreases in challenging behavior.

 

Check-in/Check-out. An example of a tier 2 intervention is check-in/check-out (CICO). At check-in each morning, the participating student meets with a mentor (a member of the school staff) to review schoolwide expectations and to set a goal. The mentor provides the student with a daily progress report (DPR) document, which the student uses to recruit feedback from adults throughout the school day. At check-out, the student and mentor meet again to review the DPR. The mentor delivers rewards based on the student’s performance, and the student takes the DPR home to review with a caregiver (Wolfe et al., 2016).

            The effectiveness of CICO can vary based on what works as a reinforcer for each student. For example, Campbell and Anderson (2008) modified the CICO procedures for two students who did not respond to initial procedures. Functional behavior assessments suggested that peer attention was more valuable to these students than adult attention. The procedural modification had these two students earn rewards such as choosing whom to sit with at lunch or checking out together instead of individually, and resulted in greater decreases in challenging behavior than the original CICO procedures. These individualized modifications may make this version of CICO a tier 3 intervention.

 

Classwide Function-Related Intervention Teams. Another intervention package incorporating multiple strategies for supporting appropriate behavior is classwide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT), initially implemented as a tier 2 intervention for classrooms that were not engaging in appropriate behavior with SWPBS alone (Kamps et al., 2011). The program teaches appropriate behavior to replace inappropriate behavior (e.g., raising a hand to gain the teacher’s attention instead of calling out). It also calls for reviewing skills at the beginning of lessons where skills may be needed. Rewards for appropriate behavior can include behavior-specific praise, points or tokens to be traded for prizes, or group contingencies in which the class is split into teams and rewards delivered based on the performance of the whole team. Teachers also remove potential reinforcers for inappropriate behavior (e.g., withhold attention for calling out).

            An additional component of CW-FIT is self-management, which can be added for students who continue to engage in disruptive behavior. For instance, if the class is split into teams and one student’s behavior negatively affects the whole team, self-management is introduced for that student. A miniature version of the class goals chart is placed on the student’s desk. When a tone sounds, the student awards points to himself or herself for engaging in appropriate behavior while the teacher awards points to the teams (Kamps et al., 2011). This additional level of individualization is characteristic of a tier 3 support.

            CW-FIT has been primarily applied in elementary schools in culturally diverse urban communities (Kamps et al., 2015) but has also been utilized in self-contained, special education classrooms (Weeden, Wills, Kottwitz, & Kamps, 2016).

 

Key Components of Reinforcement-Based Interventions

Supporting appropriate behavior is critical for helping all students access a safe and productive learning environment. The aforementioned interventions for supporting appropriate behavior highlight a few key components of all effective programs.

  1. Teach appropriate behavior. To support appropriate behavior, students first must be taught to engage in appropriate behavior (e.g., Kamps et al., 2011; Taylor-Greene et al., 1997). Specifically, it may be helpful to teach appropriate replacements for potentially disruptive behavior (e.g., raising a hand instead of calling out, asking for help instead of refusing to complete a difficult task) and to provide ample reinforcement for these alternatives. Moreover, if using self-management or peer-mediated interventions, students must be taught to tell the difference between appropriate and inappropriate behavior before recording their own or their peers’ behavior (e.g., Lloyd et al., 1989; Skinner et al., 2000). Defining appropriate behavior likely varies across environments, and some students may need separate instruction in these different situations (e.g., Campbell & Anderson, 2008). Therefore, choosing a few behaviors to teach in one context may be a good place to start before extending to additional environments.
  2. Provide reinforcement for appropriate behavior. Once students learn appropriate behavior, they must receive reinforcement or rewards so they continue to engage in that behavior. Rewards do not have to be expensive or complex. Behavior-specific praise can be delivered publicly or privately, and can be vocal or written (Houghton et al., 1990; Wheatley et al., 2009). Small prizes might include stickers, pencils, or small snacks. Additional free time or recess can also be used as a reward. Moreover, points or tokens can be collected and traded for a larger reward (e.g., lunch with the teacher, a pizza party). Rewards can be delivered to individual students or to a group. That is, a small group of students or the whole class may be required to meet a goal for all students to receive the reward (Cihak et al., 2009; McHugh Dillon et al., 2019; Skinner et al., 2000), or of all the students who engage in appropriate behavior, a few may be randomly selected to receive a reward (Lum et al., 2019; Wheatley et al., 2009).
  3. Involve students. There are a number of ways for students to provide input in the development of a reward system. Creating a list of class expectations and goals is an initial way to collaborate with students (e.g., Hollingshead, Kroeger, Altus, & Trytten, 2016). Soliciting student input on rewards they would like to earn is another approach (McHugh Dillon et al, 2019; Lum et al., 2019). Teaching students to monitor their own behavior is yet another method (see Self-Management) or monitor the behavior of peers (see Peer-Mediated Interventions).

 

Using Reinforcement Effectively

Strategies for supporting appropriate behavior are based on the principle of reinforcement. That said, there are some additional considerations for using reinforcement effectively.

  1. Act immediately. Rewards for appropriate behavior should be delivered immediately after the behavior occurs (Cooper et al., 2007). If there is a delay between the time the behavior happens and the reward is delivered, other behavior may occur during that delay, and the student will lose the connection between the appropriate behavior and the reward.
  2. Be sure it’s a reinforcer. Just because something looks like a reinforcer does not mean that it is. We can only know that something is a reinforcer if the behavior that follows increases. For example, a teacher provides praise for on-task behavior, but on-task behavior does not increase. In this case, praise may not be an effective reward for that student or group of students, and a different reward should be tried. Seeking student input on desired rewards is a good place to start, but it is also important to note that student reports may not always lead to effective reinforcers (Northup, 2000). Pay careful attention to whether or not the target behavior is increasing when determining the effectiveness of reinforcers.
  3. Set students up for success. The effort required to engage in appropriate behavior should be less than the effort required to engage in inappropriate behavior. Set achievable criteria for rewards when implementing a reward system; this will help students experience reinforcement as soon as possible. As students maintain success, the criteria to earn rewards can gradually increase (Heward, 1980). For example, a teacher is trying to increase hand raising in a classroom where hand raising is occurring only about five times a day. The teacher could begin by providing a reward if hand raising occurs six times a day so the students gain experience with the reward system quickly. Then as students continue to raise their hands consistently, the teacher may increase the requirement for reinforcement to seven times a day, eight times a day, and so on.
  4. Start strong, then plan for the long term. Reinforcement must be provided frequently enough for behavior to increase and maintain. Therefore, at the outset, provide a reward for every instance of the behavior. As students maintain high levels of appropriate behavior, gradually provide reinforcement for some but not all instances of the behavior (Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001).

 

Cost Considerations

Behavior-Specific Praise. BSP costs nothing to deliver, but teachers may require training and feedback to effectively implement this intervention (see Cavanaugh, 2013, for a review). After initial training, tools to remind teachers to deliver BSP may carry additional costs. A written document with guidelines or examples placed in the classroom is a low-cost option, while technology used to delivery vibratory or audio cues may be more expensive.

 

Other Rewards. Small prizes like stickers, pencils, or folders (Wheatley et al., 2009) are relatively low cost. When students nominate rewards they are interested in earning, sometimes their suggestions (bonus points, homework passes, snacks, extra recess or free time) are also low to no cost (Lum et al., 2019; McHugh Dillon et al., 2019). Extra recess or free time costs nothing to deliver, although attention should be paid to the potential loss of instructional time.

 

Large-Scale Interventions. Package interventions implemented at the school or district level involve multiple components and therefore more complex cost considerations. For example, Blonigen et al. (2008) conducted an economic analysis assessing the cost of implementing SWPBS. The costs associated with implementation included (1) development of a leadership team, (2) initial training of trainers and coaches, (3) initial training of teachers, and (4) maintenance costs including day-to-day implementation, data collection, additional training, and rewards for students. The first three elements are fixed costs, or will be incurred only once at the outset of the program. Therefore, the analysis by Blonigen et al. revealed that SWPBS involved a high cost for one school, but the cost per school decreased as the number of participating schools increased. For example, the cost for implementing SWPBS in one school was $172,050. If 10 schools participated, the cost per school would be $66,235; if 25 schools participated, the cost per school would be $59,194. Further, the costs associated with implementing SWPBS were substantially lower than the costs associated with school dropout. Swain-Bradway, Lindstrom Johnson, Bradshaw, and McIntosh (2017) indicated that “…every $1 invested in SWPBS resulted in a fiscal savings of $104.90, solely from reducing dropout by way of reducing suspensions” (p. 5).

 

Conclusions and Implications

Supporting appropriate behavior is essential for promoting a positive school environment and preventing challenging behavior. While responding effectively to disruptive behavior is also important and will be discussed in the decreasing disruptive behavior overview, resorting to negative consequence procedures can result in a number of unwanted effects. Because behavior only increases when it is reinforced, appropriate behavior must be reinforced for it to maintain at school. What works as reinforcement, however, varies across students or groups of students. While some students may be intrinsically motivated to engage in appropriate behavior, others may not. A multitiered system of support can address this challenge by applying universal strategies, then adding supplementary interventions for students who require more intensive support.

Rewards for appropriate behavior can include praise, small items, snacks, free time, or a special activity. Rewards can be earned by individual students, a random selection of students who displayed appropriate behavior, or groups of students working as a team. Appropriate behavior can be monitored and reinforced by teachers, peers, or the students themselves via self-management. However, determining whether or not the appropriate behavior is increasing is critical for assessing the effectiveness of a reinforcement system.

 

 

Citations

 

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Fisher, C., Berliner, D., Filby, N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L., & Dishaw, M. (2015). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 50(1), 6–24.

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega, R. (2014). Effects of the good behavior game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of Educational Research, 84(4), 546–571. doi: 10.3102/0034654314536781

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(1), 17–38. doi:10.1901/jaba.2001.34-17

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior, 20(2), 31–39.

Heward, W. L. (1980). A formula for individualizing initial criteria for reinforcement. Exceptional Teacher, 1(9), 7­–8.

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure, 60(4), 278-285. doi: 10.1080/1045988X.2015.1124832

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 255–265. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1990.tb00943.x

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Dawson-Bannister, H., Heitzman-Powell, L., Kottwitz, E., Hansen, B., & Fleming, K. (2015). Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams “CW-FIT” efficacy trial outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(3), 134–145. doi: 10.1177/1098300714565244

Kamps, D., Wills, H., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide Function-related Intervention Teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(3), 154–167. doi: 10.1177/1098300711398935

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery motivator: A tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(2), 138–156. doi: 10.1037/spq0000030

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C. Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get ’Em On Task interventions for off-task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 163–175. doi: 10.1002/pits.20627

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self-recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(3), 315–323. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1989.22-315

Lum, J. D. K., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., Olmi, D. J., & Wright, S. J. (2019). Tootling with a randomized independent group contingency to improve high school classwide behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(2), 93–105. doi: 10.1177/1098300718792663

Madaus, M. M. R., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International, 24(4), 369–377. doi: 10.1177/01430343030244001

McHugh Dillon, M. B., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., & Barry, C. T. (2019). The effects of tootling via ClassDojo on student behavior in elementary classrooms. School Psychology Review, 48(1), 18–30. doi: 10.17105/SPR-2017-0090.V48-1

McIntosh, K., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 243–255.

McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Good, R. H. (2006). The use of reading and behavior screening measures to predict nonresponse to school-wide positive behavior support: A longitudinal analysis. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 275–291.

Moore, D., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 255-265. doi: 10.1080/01443410123466

Myers, D. M., & Simonsen, B. & Sugai, G. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of praise with a response-to-intervention approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 34(1), 35–59.

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The good behavior game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International, 35(2), 191–205.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 335–338.

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential effects of the mystery motivator intervention using student-selected and mystery rewards. School Psychology Review, 43(3), 286–298.

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education, 40(2), 112–128. doi: 10.1177/0741932517751054

Skinner, C. H., Cashwell, T. H., & Skinner, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 37(3), 263–270.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions? Eugene, OR: Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education.

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., Swartz, J., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 99–112. doi: 10.1023/A:1022849722465

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969–2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225–253. doi: 10.1177/014544550326116

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.

van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 8(2), 162–169.

Waguespack, A., Moore, L. A., Wickstrom, K. F., & Witt, J. C. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 42(1), 285–293.

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and Treatment of Children, 32(4), 551–571.

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 74–88.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties
This paper discusses methods for making valid data-based decisions for student social behavior.
Gresham, F. (2009). Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-frank-gresham.
Teaching Skills That Make a Difference
This paper provides checklist of evidence-based skills that should be the foundation of every teacher's preparation.
States, J. (2013). Teaching Skills That Make a Difference [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-aba-presentation-jack-states.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention.

Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., Witt, J. C., et al. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

 

Extrinsic Reinforcement in the Classroom: Bribery or Best Practice

The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature. 

Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review33(3), 344-362.

Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children.

Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).

Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.

Applying Positive Behavior Support and Functional Behavioral Assessments in Schools

The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA.

applying positive behavior support

Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence

In response to the continuing gun violence in American schools, an interdisciplinary group of 19 scholars are proposing an eight-point plan to prevent future tragedies that have become common place in the nation. This one-page position statement proposes a public health approach to protecting children as well as adults from gun violence involves three levels of prevention: (1) universal approaches promoting safety and well-being for everyone; (2) practices for reducing risk and promoting protective factors for persons experiencing difficulties; and (3) interventions for individuals where violence is present or appears imminent.

Astor, R. et al. (2018). Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. University of Virginia.

 

Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom.

The present study investigated the effects of a classroom behavior management technique based on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other than teacher attention.

Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis2(2), 119-124.

Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Book Five: Life Skills Training

This volume describes research aimed at identifying 10 model programs proven effective for violence prevention; describes the 10 programs selected from the more than 400 reviewed; and details the goals, targeted risk and protective factors, design, and other aspects of Life Skills Training, one of the model programs selected.

Botvin, G. J., Mihalic, S. F., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention: Book five: Life skills training. Boulder, CO: Center for Study and Prevention of Violence.

Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on The Good Behavior Game across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. 

Bowman-Perrott, L., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Zhang, N., & Vannest, K. (2016). Promoting positive behavior using the Good Behavior Game: A meta-analysis of single-case research. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(3), 180-190.

A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative

This paper summarizes an approach to prevention partnerships developed over a decade and centered on the three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) model.

Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Bloom, J., Barrett, S., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., ... & Leaf, P. J. (2012). A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research39(4), 225-237.

Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems

The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics130(5), e1136-e1145.

Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior

Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed. 

Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities15(2), 99-118.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.
 

In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.

Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: The Myth Continues

The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations.

Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst24(1), 1-44.

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction

The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task. 

Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis16(1), 101-109.

Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science

This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.

Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions4(1), 4-16.

Performance Feedback and Teachers' Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature

This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).

Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms

Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.

Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management

This volume describes basic concepts and strategies for thinking about instructional classroom management and reviews general strategies for rethinking and reorganizing a classroom to reflect an instructional classroom management approach. Instructional classroom management approaches student behavior based on the premise that strategies for teaching and managing social behavior are not different from strategies for teaching subject matter.

Darch, C.B., & Kame’enui, E.J. (1995). Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions. 

Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review43(4), 367-384.

The effect of active supervision and pre-correction on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom.

This study examines the effect of using active supervision, pre-correction, and daily data review on occurrences of minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. The results suggest a functional relationship between the use of the teacher-training package and concomitant decreases in minor behavioral incidents.

De Pry, R.L., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and pre-correction on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 255-264.

A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation

A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin125(6), 627.

Classwide peer tutoring

The purpose of this article is to discuss classwide peer tutoring as an effective instructional procedure. The article is organized into three major sections:(a) general principles of instruction,(b) description of classwide peer tutoring procedures, and (c) review of effectiveness data concerning classroom process (ie, ecological and behavioral factors) and student achievement outcomes.

Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., Whorton, D., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V. (1986). Classwide peer tutoring. Exceptional children, 52(6), 535-542.

Chicago

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior. 

Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review48(1).

Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis A Familial Alliance

The purpose of this article is to address some of the key points of confusion, identify areas of overlap and distinction, and facilitate a constructive and collegial dialog between proponents of the PBS and ABA perspectives.

Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Zarcone, J. R., & Schwartz, I. (2008). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification32(5), 682-698.

Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges

Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. 

Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis27(3), 505-518.

The Good Behavior Game: A Best Practice Candidate as a Universal Behavioral Vaccine

Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution

Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review5(4), 273-297.

Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families : programs and evaluation best practices

Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services. 

Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide20(8), 12-22.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.

The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools25(2), 154-163.

The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.

Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.

Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.

The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. 

Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction17(1), 2-15.

Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research84(4), 546-571.

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

This paper summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem-solving.

Friman, P. C., & Poling, A. (1995). Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(4), 583-590.

Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations

The purpose of this classroom-based experiment was to explore methods for helping students generate conceptual mathematical explanations during peer-mediated learning activities. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. The Elementary School Journal97(3), 223-249.

Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior

Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.

Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education16(1), 101-110.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training

The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(1), 17-38.

Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood

To examine the long-term effects of an intervention combining teacher training, parent education, and social competence training for children during the elementary grades on adolescent health-risk behaviors at age 18 years. 

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine153(3), 226-234.

Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.

Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior20(2).

A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children's mental health

This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.

Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.

A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. 

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth60(4), 1-8.

School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative

In this issue of JPBI, the forum is dedicated to comments from administrators, teachers, parents, students, and specialists who are participating in efforts to establish school-wide behavior support. 

Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions2(4), 231.

The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET; Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd, & Horner, 2001) was created to provide a rigorous measure of primary prevention practices within school-wide behavior support. In this article, the authors describe the SET and document its psychometric characteristics. 

Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET) a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions6(1), 3-12.

The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes

Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session. 

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology60(3), 255-265.

Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity

This evaluation used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. 

Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A. W., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., & Boland, J. B. (2006). Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(1), 10-23.

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). 

Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3), 154-167.supp

Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach

Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.

Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

History of Behavior Modification

This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right. 

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.

Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Management Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Behavioral, Psychiatric, and Social Outcomes

The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.

Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence95, S5-S28.

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. 

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly29(2), 138.

A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get 'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors

This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools49(2), 163-175.

Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders

The bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized offenders. 

Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Self‐recording of attention versus productivity

The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis22(3), 315-32

Effectiveness of the coping power program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up

This study examines key substance use, delinquency, and school-based aggressive behavior outcomes at a 1-year follow-up for a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents at the time of these children's transition to middle school. 

Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy34(4), 493-515.

Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy

This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.

Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International24(4), 369-377.

Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School

Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9

McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(4), 243-255.

Blueprints for violence prevention

This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.

Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom

A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology21(3), 255-265.

Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems

This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author. 

Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis.

The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavior disorders.

Nelson, J.R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, M. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.

Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback.

Examined the treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students

Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly12(1), 77.

Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence

this article traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe. 

Noguera, P. (1995). Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review65(2), 189-213.

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International35(2), 191-205.

Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.

The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 335-338.syste

Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.

This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study. 

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review43(3).

The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards

The authors report a randomized field experiment (N = 15,329) that tests the impact of two types of symbolic awards on student attendance: preannounced awards (prospective) and surprise awards (retrospective).

Robinson, C., Gallus, J., Lee, M., & Rogers, T. (2018). The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards.

A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance

The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education40(2), 112-128.

The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.

Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology2(1), 18-26.

Using Staff and Student Time Engaged in Disciplinary Procedures to Evaluate the Impact of School-Wide PBS

This article presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support (PBS). 

Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions6(1), 21-27.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.

In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.

SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports

The thesis of this paper is that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach. The foundation for such an approach lies in the emerging technology of positive behavior support. 

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy24(1-2), 23-50.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Suppor

This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review35(2), 245.

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right

Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education7(1), 99-112.

The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence

This paper discusses four types of violence then briefly review the risk literature in order to highlight promising targets for intervention. Then the authors organize their review of the efficacy of specific approaches by the specific level targeted. 

Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence. An empirical review of the field boulde.-CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli

 
Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General

This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of violent behaviors.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Service; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.

Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education

The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.

Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education8(2), 162-169.

The Measurement of Behavior: Behavior Modification

practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version

Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.

The Acting-Out Child: Coping with Classroom Disruption

This text provides practical guidelines and techniques for effectively managing acting out behavior in elementary students. It attempts to characterize acting-out behavior in the context of schooling; describe what is known about coping effectively with it; and illustrate applications of successful interventions. 

Walker, H. M. (1995). The acting-out child: Coping with classroom disruption. Sopris West, 1140 Boston Ave., Longmont, CO 80501.

Integrated Approaches to Preventing Antisocial Behavior Patterns Among School-Age Children and Youth

This article provides a reconceptualization of the role of schools in preventing antisocial behavior problems among children and youth.

Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders4(4), 194-209.

Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time.

A major goal of this article (and of our much larger book) is to communicate and adapt this knowledge base for effective use by educators in coping with the rising tide of antisocial students populating today's schools.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2003). Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time. American Educator26(4), 6-45.

Antisocial Behavior in School: Evidence-based Practices

This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices. Belmont, CA: Thomson.

The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students

This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. 

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children32(4), 551-571.

A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out

This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. 

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(2), 74-88.

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