Differential Reinforcement Overview
Differential Reinforcement PDF
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2021). Overview of Differential Reinforcement. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-differential
Across school settings, the ultimate goal is for students to engage in appropriate behavior instead of inappropriate behavior so all students may access a safe and productive learning environment. In the overviews on supporting appropriate behavior and decreasing inappropriate behavior, the behavioral processes of reinforcement and negative consequences are discussed along with interventions based on these principles. Differential reinforcement involves combining these two processes to promote optimal behavior; appropriate or desirable behavior is reinforced, and inappropriate or undesirable behavior is not reinforced. Further, there are several variations of differential reinforcement, allowing for flexibility and individualization for the context in which the intervention is to be applied.
Types of Differential Reinforcement
Start with the Function
All behavior serves a function; a disruptive behavior occurs because the student needs or wants something. Identifying the purpose of the behavior is the first step in implementing differential reinforcement. Common functions of behavior are attention (including negative attention such as “Don’t do that”), escape from work, and access to tangible items (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2020). For example, if a student is sent to sit in the hallway each time they engage in disruptive behavior, the purpose of the disruptive behavior may be to escape the classroom. One way to determine the purpose of behavior is with a functional behavior assessment (FBA), which includes a variety of procedures such as teacher interviews, direct observations, and systematic assessments (Anderson, Rodriguez, & Campbell, 2015). Once the purpose of the behavior is identified, an appropriate differential reinforcement procedure can be selected to decrease the disruptive behavior.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
DRA provides reinforcement for an alternative behavior that serves the same purpose as a challenging behavior.
LeGray, Dufrene, Mercer, Olmi, and Sterling (2015) compared the effects of DRA with and without pre-teaching appropriate behavior on two preschool students and two kindergarten students. First, the researchers conducted an FBA with each student to determine the function of the disruptive behavior; they found that, for all four participants, disruptive behavior was maintained by access to teacher attention. In the DRA-only condition, the teacher provided positive attention for appropriate vocalizations and ignored inappropriate vocalizations. In the pre-teaching and DRA condition, the teacher briefly met with each participant prior to the session. They reviewed expectations about appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations, asked the participant two questions about the expectations, and ensured that the participant answered both questions correctly. Otherwise, the session was identical to the DRA-only condition.
Both DRA conditions resulted in decreased inappropriate behavior and increased appropriate behavior, but combining DRA with pre-teaching resulted in greater increases in appropriate behavior for all four participants. This suggests that pre-teaching can help ensure that students know what to do to meet expectations and can enhance the effectiveness of DRA.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
DRI is a specific type of DRA in which the alternative behavior is incompatible with the inappropriate behavior. That is, the student cannot engage in the alternative behavior (e.g., walking) and the challenging behavior (e.g., running) at the same time.
Wheatley et al. (2009) evaluated the effects of DRI on inappropriate lunchroom behavior by elementary school students. The researchers identified incompatible, appropriate replacements for three challenging behaviors: Running was replaced with walking, littering with placing trash in trash receptacles, and inappropriate sitting with appropriate sitting. A praise note system was used for reinforcement. Each time a student engaged in appropriate behavior, teachers or lunchroom staff provided praise and wrote the student’s name on a small slip of paper that was entered into a drawing for prizes at the end of the day. At the beginning of each phase of the intervention, a training session was held to review the new lunchroom expectations and the praise note system. The training sessions involved games and activities to teach the incompatible behaviors in a fun way (e.g., a relay race for throwing trash in a receptacle). Three separate training sessions were held for each target behavior. The intervention successfully reduced littering by 96%, inappropriate sitting by 65%, and running by 75%.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
DRO provides a reinforcer after a designated interval of time in which the challenging behavior does not occur (Jessel & Ingvarsson, 2016).
Austin, Groves, Reynish, and Francis (2015) compared the effects of three different reinforcers within a DRO on three elementary school students. An FBA was conducted with each participant to identify the function of the challenging behavior (off-task behavior and calling out to the teacher). For two students, the purpose of the challenging behavior was to access teacher attention; for the third, the purpose was to escape work. During the intervention, a reinforcer was provided if the participant did not engage in challenging behavior for 2 minutes. The three reinforcers were teacher attention, peer attention, and a 30-second break from work. Although all three DRO procedures reduced challenging behavior, the reinforcer that matched the results of the FBA resulted in the greatest reductions for each participant. It is important to note that a limitation of DRO is that the student is not taught an appropriate replacement for challenging behavior.
Although this study demonstrated the effectiveness of DRO, the procedure provides reinforcement very frequently and may be difficult for a teacher to implement without assistance. Therefore, DRO is more likely to be used as a tier 2 or 3 intervention than a tier 1 intervention (see Multitiered System of Support).
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
DRL provides reinforcement if the student engages in the designated behavior at or below a determined criterion (full-session DRL) or in only one instance of the behavior in a given period of time (spaced-responding DRL). Reinforcement is withheld if the student engages in the behavior more frequently than the criterion. This strategy allows for reducing behavior without completely eliminating it. DRL is particularly useful for behaviors that are necessary but may be disruptive if they occur at high levels, such as asking to go to the bathroom or commenting in class.
Austin and Bevan (2011) evaluated the effects of DRL on requests for teacher attention by three elementary school students. The classroom teacher reported that these students engaged in excessive attention seeking that interfered with learning. The intervention established an acceptable rate of requesting attention in consultation with the classroom teacher: two or three requests in a 20-minute lesson. Prior to the first session, a researcher met with each participant individually to explain the card system that would be implemented and to provide examples of requesting teacher attention and examples of working independently. Each participant was given an index card with boxes corresponding to the number of permitted requests for attention, as well as one additional box. Each time the participant used a permitted request for teacher attention in any way (e.g., raising a hand, calling out to the teacher, leaving their seat to request assistance or approval), the teacher provided attention and initialed one of the boxes. If a participant requested attention an additional time beyond the permitted amount, the teacher initialed the final box but did not provide attention (this never occurred during the experiment). A participant who had at least one blank box by the end of the 20-minute work session earned points for their team as part of an existing classroom management system.
For all three participants, DRL effectively reduced requests for attention without eliminating them completely. During baseline, the participants engaged in an average of seven requests for attention per 20-minute lesson. During the DRL intervention, the participants engaged in an average of 0.5 requests for attention per 20-minute lesson, or one request every other lesson.
Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)
DRH provides reinforcement if the student meets or exceeds a minimum threshold of a behavior and withholds reinforcement if the student does not meet that criterion.
Hawkins, Haydon, McCoy, and Howard (2017) used DRH in a group reinforcement program to improve transition behavior across three middle school classrooms. The teacher selected a number randomly from a paper bag; that number of students had to be in their seats within 2 minutes of class start time for the whole class to earn a reward. Prior to this intervention, in a 15-minute training session, the teacher reviewed the expectations for appropriate transition behavior, answered student questions, and solicited suggestions for potential rewards. Across the three classrooms, the average number of students ready at class start time during baseline was 65% compared with 98% during the intervention.
DRH is also useful for gradually increasing student behavior by adjusting the criteria for reinforcement, or goal modification. This allows students to be successful early while working toward a larger goal. McDaniel and Bruhn (2016) incorporated DRH into a check-in/check-out (CICO) intervention with two middle school students. CICO calls for a student to check in with a coordinator (a teacher or paraprofessional) at the beginning of the day, review behavioral expectation and goals, and receive encouragement. Throughout the day, the student solicits feedback from their teachers, who provide ratings on a CICO report card. At the end of the day, the student checks out with the coordinator, who reviews the report card and delivers reinforcement for meeting goals. In this study, the criteria for reinforcement started at 40%—that is, the students had to meet 40% of the goals on their report cards to access reinforcement. Throughout the study, this percentage increased to 75%, then 85%.
For both participants, the percentage of goals met each day corresponded approximately to the criteria for reinforcement. For example, when the criterion for reinforcement was meeting 75% of goals, the participants averaged 79% of goals met, and when the criterion was 85%, the participants averaged 91% of goals met.
Comparisons of Differential Reinforcement Procedures
Differential reinforcement can be adapted to a wide variety of contexts. Researchers have compared the effects of various differential reinforcement procedures.
LeGray, Dufrene, Sterling-Turner, Olmi, and Bellone (2010) compared the effects of DRO and DRA on the disruptive behavior of two Head Start students and one kindergarten student. Each participant underwent an FBA to determine why disruptive behavior was occurring. For two participants, the purpose of disruptive behavior was to access attention, and for the third participant, the purpose was to access tangible items (e.g., toys). Next, the researchers alternated among DRA, DRO, and no treatment across 12 to 15 sessions. DRA involved pre-teaching appropriate vocalizations as a replacement skill by providing expectations and encouraging appropriate vocalizations before each lesson. The teacher delivered the reinforcer (attention or tangible item) after the participant engaged in appropriate vocalizations and withheld the reinforcer if the participant engaged in inappropriate vocalizations. In DRO, the teacher delivered the reinforcer after 30 seconds elapsed with no inappropriate vocalizations. The researchers cued the teacher with green and red cards to deliver or withhold the reinforcer. In the no-treatment condition, the teacher was directed to provide instruction and manage behavior normally. For all three participants, disruptive behavior occurred at the lowest levels when DRA was implemented (average 7.4% of intervals), followed by DRO (average 15.1% of intervals), and finally no treatment (average 18.6% of intervals). At the end of the study, the teachers rated DRA and DRO favorably, noting no difference between them.
Becraft, Borrero, Mendres-Smith, and Castillo (2017) compared the effects of two DRL procedures and DRO on bids for attention by three preschool students. The first DRL condition was a spaced-responding DRL; attention and a sticker were provided only if at least 2 minutes elapsed between each request for attention. The second DRL condition was a full-session DRL; participants could request attention no more than two times in each interval to receive attention and a sticker. In both DRL conditions, the overall number of allowable responses was the same. In the DRO condition, attention and stickers were provided if the participant did not request attention at all during the 4-minute interval. The three participants averaged 2.03 requests for attention per minute during baseline. All three differential reinforcement procedures reduced requests for attention, with the spaced-responding DRL resulting in an average of 0.66 requests per minute, full-session DRL averaging 0.76, and DRO averaging 0.23. The spaced-responding DRL resulted in the rate closest to the optimal responses per minute determined by the teacher (i.e., 0.5 requests per minute). Although the DRO resulted in lower levels of requests for attention, the goal of this intervention was to have the participants request attention at the predetermined appropriate rate. These procedures were effective, but it should also be noted that the study was conducted in a simulated classroom setting, where the procedures were implemented by a researcher. A classroom teacher might find these procedures difficult to implement without assistance.
How Differential Do We Need to Be?
Traditionally, the term “differential reinforcement” implies that no reinforcement is provided for the undesirable behavior. In other words, it is placed on extinction. For example, in a DRA for inappropriate vocalizations maintained by access to attention, the teacher would completely ignore inappropriate vocalizations while providing attention for appropriate vocalizations. However, extinction can be difficult to implement and has a number of undesirable side effects (see Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview). More recently, researchers have clarified that differential reinforcement does not have to include extinction. More or better reinforcement can be provided for appropriate behavior while less or lower quality reinforcement can be provided for inappropriate behavior (Vollmer, Peters, Kronfli, Lloveras, & Ibañez, 2020). Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of DRA without extinction; the amount, immediacy, or quality of reinforcement was adjusted in response to appropriate versus inappropriate behavior (MacNaul & Neely, 2018).
For example, Briggs, Dozier, Lessor, Kamana, and Jess (2019) examined the effects of DRA without extinction on four individuals with developmental disabilities. All four participants engaged in destructive behavior that served the purpose of escaping work. Instead of placing destructive behavior on extinction by working through the destructive behavior and continuing to present tasks, the researchers adjusted how reinforcement was presented in three different ways. When the amount of reinforcement was adjusted, destructive behavior resulted in 30 seconds of escape from work, while task completion resulted in a 2-minute escape from work. When the quality of reinforcement was adjusted, destructive behavior resulted in 30 seconds of escape from work with no toys, while task completion resulted in 30 seconds of escape from work with toys. When the researchers adjusted both parameters, destructive behavior resulted in 30 seconds of escape with no toys, and task completion resulted in 2 to 4 minutes of escape with toys. All of the adjustments effectively reduced challenging behavior and increased appropriate behavior, but the combined adjustment led to the longest lasting effects.
Conclusions and Implications
Differential reinforcement is an effective strategy for increasing desirable behavior and decreasing undesirable behavior. Its numerous variations allow for flexibility and adaptability to individual contexts. DRA and DRI provide reinforcement for an alternative or incompatible behavior, respectively. Selecting an alternative behavior that serves the same purpose as the challenging behavior to be decreased is key. DRO provides reinforcement if the undesirable behavior does not occur for a set period of time. The disadvantage of this procedure is that the student does not learn what to do instead of the inappropriate behavior.
DRL provides reinforcement if the behavior occurs at or below a predetermined criterion. This is useful when the goal is to reduce behavior without completely eliminating it. DRH provides reinforcement if the behavior occurs at or above a predetermined criterion, and can be combined with goal setting or goal modification to help students be successful early while working toward a larger goal.
Some differential reinforcement procedures may be difficult to implement in classroom settings if reinforcement must be provided frequently (e.g., every 2 minutes when disruptive behavior does not occur). Therefore, collaborating with an interdisciplinary team (teachers, paraprofessionals, behavior specialists) is essential in determining the most feasible and effective intervention for the setting.
Although the traditional definition of “differential reinforcement” implies that inappropriate behavior must be placed on extinction, recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of differential reinforcement without extinction. This is often easier to implement and mitigates the side effects associated with extinction. Differential reinforcement without extinction adjusts the amount, immediacy, or quality of reinforcement for appropriate and inappropriate behavior so that appropriate behavior results in a more desirable reinforcer.
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Extrinsic Reinforcement in the Classroom: Bribery or Best Practice
The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature.
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Functional behavior assessment in schools: Current status and future directions
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Applying Positive Behavior Support and Functional Behavioral Assessments in Schools
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Increasing pre-service teachers’ use of differential reinforcement: Effects of performance feedback on consequences for student behavior
Significant dollars are spent each school year on professional development programs to improve teachers’ effectiveness. This study assessed the integrity with which pre-service teachers used a differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) strategy taught to them during their student teaching experience.
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Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom.
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Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration.
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Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.
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Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training.
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This volume describes research aimed at identifying 10 model programs proven effective for violence prevention; describes the 10 programs selected from the more than 400 reviewed; and details the goals, targeted risk and protective factors, design, and other aspects of Life Skills Training, one of the model programs selected.
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Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
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Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research
This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on The Good Behavior Game across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12.
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Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities
In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.
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Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems
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A randomized trial of case management for youths with serious emotional disturbance
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Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.
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The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.
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Reducing Behavior Problem Through Functional Communication
It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. The authors address this issue in two experiments.
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Comprehensive Multisituational Intervention for Problem Behavior in the Community: Long-Term Maintenance and Social Validation
Assessment and intervention approach for dealing with problem behavior need to be extended so that they can be effectively and comprehensively applied within the community. To meet assessment needs, the authors developed a three-component strategy: description, categorization, and verification.
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Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.
This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda
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Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect was performed to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles.
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Comparison of Two Community Alternatives to Incarceration for Chronic Juvenile Offenders.
The relative effectiveness of group care (GC) and multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) was compared in terms of their impact on criminal offending, incarceration rates, and program completion outcomes for 79 male adolescents who had histories of chronic and serious juvenile delinquency.
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The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching
The author argues that there is a body of evidence that shows quite clearly how to teach so that students will learn far more than they are learning today. This reader-friendly volume provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching.
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Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading.
The oral reading of 65 first-graders experiencing difficulties in beginning reading was observed during primary reading instructional time. Findings indicate most instruction for struggling readers was not aligned with recent research on preventing reading difficulties, and even struggling readers receiving reading instruction aligned with best practices are making minimal progress.
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The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction.
This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design.
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Performance Feedback Overview
This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.
Meta-Analysis of Mathematic Basic-Fact Fluency Interventions: A Component Analysis
Mathematics fluency is a critical component of mathematics learning yet few attempts have been made to synthesize this research base. Seventeen single-case design studies with 55 participants were reviewed using meta-analytic procedures.
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Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills
This study sought to investigate the impact of a supplemental program’s script on the rate of on-task and off-task instructional opportunities offered by the instructor for students to practice the specific skills targeted in lesson exercises.
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Using Parents as a Therapist to Evaluate Appropriate Behavior of Their Children: Application to a Tertiary Diagnostic Clinic
The authors conducted a preliminary analysis of maintaining variables for children with conduct disorders in an outpatient clinic. The assessment focused on appropriate child behavior and was conducted to formulate hypotheses regarding maintaining contingencies.
Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., & Donn, L. K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children: Application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 285-296.
Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary
Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.
Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(2), 155-173.
Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation
The author's objective is to assess treatment effectiveness for problem behaviours of individuals who have mental retardation.
Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. AJMR-American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101(4), 387-399.
Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education.
The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.
Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 356-367.
A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Distribution Of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don't
This meta-analysis reviews 63 studies on the relationship between conditions of massed practice and spaced practice with respect to task performance, which yields an overall mean weighted effect size of 0.46.
Donovan, J. J., & Radosevich, D. J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don't. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 795.
Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary by elementary students: A systematic replication
We compared active student response (ASR) error correction and no-response (NR) error correction while teaching science terms to 5 elementary students. When a student erred on ASR terms, the teacher modeled the definition and the student repeated it. When a student erred on NR terms, the teacher modeled the definition while the student looked at the vocabulary card. ASR error correction was superior on each of the study's seven dependent variables.
Drevno, G. E., Kimball, J. W., Possi, M. K., Heward, W. L., Gardener, R., & Barbetta, P. M. (1994). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary by elementary students: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 179–180.
Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Maintenance and Application in New Settings
The authors evaluated the initial effectiveness, maintenance, and transferability of the results of functional communication training as an intervention for the challenging behaviors exhibited by 3 students.
Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1991). Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: Maintenance and application in new settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 251-264.
Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology
The language of life as well as of science in attributing a memory to the mind attempts to point out the facts and their interpretation
Ebbinghaus, H. (2013). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. Annals of Neurosciences, 20(4), 155–156.
Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators
This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.
Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.
The Good Behavior Game: A Best Practice Candidate as a Universal Behavioral Vaccine
Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution
Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review, 5(4), 273-297.
Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families : programs and evaluation best practices
Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services.
Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.
The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.
Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.
Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model
This evidence on effective literacy teaching, which includes small group instruction, differentiation, and a response to intervention, presents a challenge for many teachers and schools.
Fisher, D. (2008). Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model. Author Monographs, 1–4.
Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature
This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
This meta-analysis examined the impact of lecturing as compared to active methods of instruction on learning and course performance. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies).
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.
Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited
Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations. The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.
Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: A report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education
A report entitled A Nation at Risk was published based on information distilled from commissioned research papers and public hearings. The report contains summaries of the papers and hearings; a list of findings in content, expectations, time, and teaching; a set of recommendations; and aspects of implementation related to con
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W., Campbell, A., & Crosby, E. A. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform (p. 65). Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.
Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education
Using the teacher‐centered systemic reform model as a framework, the authors explore the connection between chemistry instructors’ beliefs about teaching and learning and self‐efficacy beliefs, and their enacted classroom practices.
Gibbons, R. E., Villafañe, S. M., Stains, M., Murphy, K. L., & Raker, J. R. (2018). Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(8), 1111-1133.
Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion
This paper provides students with an opportunity to improve their reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The activity, which can be used with intermediate and advanced learners, is ideal for English language learners in content classes and is particularly useful for building foundational knowledge of a new topic.
Giovacchini, M. (2017). Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion. In English Teaching Forum (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 36-39). US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037.
When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.
This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.
Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4), 191-210.
The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, choral responding, the response card) on student participation and ontask behavior in preschool children with attending problems.
Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The Effects of Three Techniques on Student Participation with Preschool Children with Attending Problems. Education & Treatment of Children, 26(3).
A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails.
This paper confirms the predominance of lecture and adds to the existing literature by asking why principles instructors have selected their particular teaching methods.
Goffe, W. L., & Kauper, D. (2014). A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails. The Journal of Economic Education, 45(4), 360-375.
Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice.
A brief perspective is offered on the development and validation of one enabler—engagement in academic responding—and recent findings are provided of an effort to bridge the gap between research and practice by employing this knowledge in Title 1 elementary schools to improve instruction.
Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives in research and practice. School Psychology Review, 31(3).
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
Supporting Appropriate Behaviors
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
Effectiveness of Functional Communication Training With and Without Extinction and Punishment: A Summary of 21 Inpatient Cases
The main purposes of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of FCT for treating severe problem behavior in a relatively large sample of individuals with mental retardation (N = 21) and to determine the contribution of extinction and punishment components to FCT treatment packages.
Hagopian, L. P., Fisher, W. W., Sullivan, M. T., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 31(2), 211-235.
Modification of Behavioral Problems in the Home with a Parent as Observer and Experimenter
Four parents enrolled in a Responsive Teaching class carried out experiments using procedures they had devised for alleviating their children's problem behaviors. The techniques used involved different types of reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.
Hall, R. V., Axelrod, S., Tyler, L., Grief, E., Jones, F. C., & Robertson, R. (1972). MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN THE HOME WITH A PARENT AS OBSERVER AND EXPERIMENTER 1. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(1), 53-64.
Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies
This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.
Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.
Empowering students through speaking round tables
This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.
Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia, 4(1), 39-59.
The Rise of Universities
The Rise of Universities goes far beyond its central subject to offer a broad description of the social conditions in which universities took root and flourished.
Haskins, C. H. (2017). The rise of universities. Routledge.
Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood
To examine the long-term effects of an intervention combining teacher training, parent education, and social competence training for children during the elementary grades on adolescent health-risk behaviors at age 18 years.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 153(3), 226-234.
Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.
Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.
Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior, 20(2).
A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.
This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.
Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.
A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content.
The purpose of this article is to examine research on the effectiveness of guided notes. Results indicate that using guided notes has a positive effective on student outcomes, as this practice has been shown to improve accuracy of note taking and student test scores.
Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(4), 226-231.
A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature
This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.
Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(4), 181-188.
Multisystemic Therapy for Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents
This book explains the principles of MST and provides clear guidelines for clinical assessment and intervention with delinquent youth and their families.
Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Guilford Press.
Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.
ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.
Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.
Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education.
This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.
Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education, 36(4), 186-205.
Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes
This paper briefly discuss some pros and con of lecturing as a teaching method, describe how a strategy called "guided notes" can make lecturing more effective, and offer some specific suggestions for developing and using guided notes.
Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes. Talking About Teaching.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction To Special Education.
This book for teachers in the area of Special Education looks at highly effective, research-based practices described in a very step-by-step, applied manner.
Heward, W. L. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Pearson.
Using choral responding to increase active student response.
There are numerous practical strategies for increasing active student response during group instruction. One of these strategies, Choral Responding, is the subject of this article.
Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(3), 72-75.
Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping
This study aimed to examine active instruction and engagement across elementary, middle, and high schools using a large database of direct classroom observations.
Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(1), 30-39.
Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure
Ethical and legal concerns which have been raised regarding many types of response elimination techniques. The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedule is compared with other response elimination techniques. It is concluded that DRO schedules compare favorably with other techniques in speed and completeness of response elimination. In addition, DRO schedules may be superior to other techniques in durability and generalization of response reduction and in the type of side effects produced.
Homer, A. L., & Peterson, L. (1980). Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 449-471.
The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes
Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session.
Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 255-265.
The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes
The results showed clearly that both minimal use of private reprimands and use of private praise statements were effective in increasing the on-task behaviour of secondary aged pupils in all classes, by an average of over 20 per cent. Follow-up observations after two months on three classes showed that improved on-task behaviour was still apparent.
Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 255-265.
The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities.
An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.
Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 13-23.
Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices
The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.
Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 20-27.
Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Management Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Behavioral, Psychiatric, and Social Outcomes
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.
Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence, 95, S5-S28.
The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory
The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin, 119(2), 254.
Positive Behavioral Support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community
Each of the 4 sections ends with a discussion that establishes a framework within which to reflect on the contributions of the selected chapters.
Koegel, L. K. E., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. E. (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Paul H Brookes Publishing.
Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students
The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with several suggestions for creating and using guided notes to enhance other effective teaching methods, support students’ studying, and promote higher order thinking.
Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in school and clinic, 46(3), 131-140.
Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.
Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.
Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.
This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234-246.
Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices.
This paper provides a review of the theoretical discussions and practical studies relating to fluency instruction and reading development.
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of educational psychology, 95(1), 3.
Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.
The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.
Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88-99.
The Birth and Death Cycles of Educational innovations
A study of 27 promising programs reveals 8 common reasons that educational innovations fail, including disenchanted practitioners; departure of innovation supporters; lack of personnel training; disappearing funding; inadequate supervision; and lack of accountability, administrative support, and termination consequences. Innovations succeed by avoiding overload, complementing school mission, and securing board approval
Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal, 68(1), 41-43.
Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read.
Headsprout Early Reading™ is a new engaging, Internet-based reading program that effectively teaches the essential skills and strategies required for rapid reading success.
Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral technology today, 3(7), 20.
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in center-based classrooms: Evaluation of pre-teaching the alternative behavior
This study investigated the effectiveness of a differential reinforcement of alternative
behavior procedure in decreasing disruptive behavior while simultaneously increasing the
appropriate behavior of four children of typical development between the ages of 4 and 6 in
center-based classrooms. We began with brief functional analyses for each child.
LeGray, M. W., Dufrene, B. A., Mercer, S., Olmi, D. J., & Sterling, H. (2013). Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in center-based classrooms: Evaluation of pre-teaching the alternative behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 22(2), 85-102.
A comparison of function-based differential reinforcement interventions for children engaging in disruptive classroom behavior
This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three
children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive
LeGray, M. W., Dufrene, B. A., Sterling-Turner, H., Olmi, D. J., & Bellone, K. (2010). A comparison of function-based differential reinforcement interventions for children engaging in disruptive classroom behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(3), 185-204.
Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders
The bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized offenders.
Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Effectiveness of the coping power program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up
This study examines key substance use, delinquency, and school-based aggressive behavior outcomes at a 1-year follow-up for a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents at the time of these children's transition to middle school.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 493-515.
Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: A quantitative synthesis.
The overall effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on classroom learning are estimated. The constancy of effects of these instructional qualities were explored across characteristics of students, and educational and contextual conditions. The results confirm the Dollard-Miller-Carroll-Bloom theory that has evolved during the past four decades.
Lysakowski, R. S., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis. American Educational Research Journal, 19(4), 559-78.
Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis
This meta-analysis research cover all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated in search of empirical evidence. The authors conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.
Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological science, 25(8), 1608-1618.
Systematic review of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for individuals with autism
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism.
MacNaul, H. L., & Neely, L. C. (2018). Systematic review of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior without extinction for individuals with autism. Behavior Modification, 42(3), 398-421.
Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice
In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.
Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 65-89.
A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class
Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class.
Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1), 55-70.
Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement
This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd
Effects of The Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension.
The effects of a cloze procedure developed from transfer feature theory of processing in reading on immediate and delayed recall of good and poor readers were studied
Mcgee, L. M. (1981). Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 13(2), 145-156.
The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes.
The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on‐task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported.
McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(2), 209-215.
Blueprints for violence prevention
This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.
Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Combining Noncontingent Escape and Functional Communication Training as a Treatment for Negatively Reinforced Disruptive Behavior
In this study, FCT was superimposed on an existing NCE schedule in an attempt to maintain the advantages of each procedure while removing known limitations.
Mildon, R. L., Moore, D. W., & Dixon, R. S. (2004). Combining noncontingent escape and functional communication training as a treatment for negatively reinforced disruptive behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(2), 92-102.
Effects of Curricular and Materials Modifications on Academic Performance and Task Engagement of Three Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Effects of two curricular and materials modifications on the on-task behavior and correct academic responding of three elementary-aged students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) were evaluated in two separate studies.
Miller, K. A., Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Hummel, J., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Effects of curricular and materials modifications on academic performance and task engagement of three students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 28(2), 130-149.
Should U.S. Students Do More Math Practice and Drilling?
Should U.S. students be doing more math practice and drilling in their classrooms? That’s the suggestion from last week’s most emailed New York Times op-ed. The op-ed’s author argued that more practice and drilling could help narrow math achievement gaps. These gaps occur in the U.S. by the primary grades.
Morgan, P. L. (2018). Should U.S. students do more math practice and drilling? Psychology Today.Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/children-who-struggle/201808/should-us-students-do-more-math-practice-and-drilling
Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.
The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design.
Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(4), 483-490.
The Nation’s Report Card, 2017
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a national assessment of what America's students know in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history.
Nation’s Report Card. (2017). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from the NAEP Data Explorerhttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/
Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems
This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author.
Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback.
Examined the treatment integrity with which general education teachers implemented a reinforcement based intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 77.
The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.
In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.
Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 895-934.
Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.
This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.
Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 7(1), 1-55.
Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research
The school year and day length have varied over time and across localities depending on the particular needs of the community. Proponents argue that extending time will have learning and nonacademic benefits. Opponents suggest increased time is not guaranteed to lead to more effective instruction and suggest other costs.
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Allen, A. B. (2010). Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research (1985–2009). Review of educational research, 80(3), 401-436.
Active Student Response Strategies
a written guide for Active Student Response Strategies.
Pearce, A. R. (2011). Active student response strategies. CDE Facilities Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/facilityschools/download/pdf/edmeetings_04apr2011_asrstrategies.pdf
A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is one of the most common behavior analytic interventions used to decrease unwanted behavior. This literature review examined the DRA literature from the past 30 years to identify the aspects that are thoroughly researched and those that would benefit from further emphasis.
Petscher, E. S., Rey, C., & Bailey, J. S. (2009). A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(3), 409-425.
The effects of active participation on student learning.
The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. t was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.
Pratton, J., & Hales, L. W. (1986). The effects of active participation on student learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 79(4), 210-215.
Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading
The terms cloze procedure and cohesion are associated with reading development. Specifically, doze applies to the testing and teaching of reading while cohesion applies to a description of how the way in which reading material is written can affect reading development.
Raymond, P. (1988). Cloze procedure in the teaching of reading. TESL Canada Journal, 6(1), 91–97.
Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness
The authors extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing their work on processing experiences. This research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience.
Reber, R., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Winkielman, P. (2002). Processing fluency as the source of experiences at the fringe of consciousness. Psyche, 8(10), 1-21.
The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards
The authors report a randomized field experiment (N = 15,329) that tests the impact of two types of symbolic awards on student attendance: preannounced awards (prospective) and surprise awards (retrospective).
Robinson, C., Gallus, J., Lee, M., & Rogers, T. (2018). The Demotivating Effect (and Unintended Message) of Retrospective Awards.
Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.
The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.
Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 239-248.
The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.
Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology, 2(1), 18-26.
Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.
This article discuss about automaticity theory and attempt to do 2 things: 1. describe automaticity theory and its practical applications; and 2. explain some of the new ideas about automaticity.
Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited.
Teacher-centered instruction: The Rodney Dangerfield of social studies.
Teacher-centered instruction implies a high degree of teacher direction and a focus of students on academic tasks. And it vividly contrasts with student-centered or constructivist approaches in establishing a leadership role for the teacher
Schug, M. C. (2003). Teacher-centereed instruction. Where did social studies go wrong, 94-110.
Using Staff and Student Time Engaged in Disciplinary Procedures to Evaluate the Impact of School-Wide PBS
This article presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support (PBS).
Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 21-27.
Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches
As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.
Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.
Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.
Replication has taken on more importance recently because the ESSA evidence standards only require a single positive study. To meet the strong, moderate, or promising standards, programs must have at least one “well-designed and well-implemented” study using randomized (strong), matched (moderate), or correlational (promising) designs and finding significantly positive outcomes.
Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/
A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers.
In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior.
Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 567-584.
Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress.
A commentary on: Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress
Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science, 354(6315), 1046-1048.
How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?
The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program
Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?
This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.
States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.
Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?
This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?
States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.
Active Student Responding (ASR)
Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategies that designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond
Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools.
This article presents an analysis of data collected across 35 general education classrooms in four elementary schools, assessing instructional variables associated with OTR. The relationship among opportunities to respond (OTR), measures of classroom management, and student work products was analyzed across Title and non-Title schools.
Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high-and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68-81.
Effect on varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD.
This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities.
A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.
Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 178-195.
Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis.
The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), 109-119.
A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning.
The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.
Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.
Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.
This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning.
Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..
Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.
This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction
Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 355-367.
Enhancing engagement through active student response.
Student engagement is critical to academic success. High-Active Student Response (ASR) teaching techniques are an effective way to improve student engagement and are an important component of evidence-based practice. . This report provides techniques and strategies to enhance engagement through ASR. Key terms are appended.
Tincani, M., & Twyman, J. S. (2016). Enhancing Engagement through Active Student Response. Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University.
What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence
This paper discusses four types of violence then briefly review the risk literature in order to highlight promising targets for intervention. Then the authors organize their review of the efficacy of specific approaches by the specific level targeted.
Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence. An empirical review of the field boulde.-CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction
This experiment evaluated the effects of requiring overt answer construction in computer-based programmed instruction using an alternating treatments design.
Tudor, R. M. (1995). Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 343-344.
Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application.
A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program.
Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 361-368.
Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General
This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of violent behaviors.
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Service; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
The Measurement of Behavior: Behavior Modification
practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.
Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations
For many years, differential reinforcement has been a prevalent and preferred treatment procedure for the reduction of behavior disorders. This paper reviews the procedural variations of differential reinforcement and discusses their functional properties.
Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 393-417.
On the definition of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) has a long history as a behavioral treatment. The term has usually been defined in a manner that suggests one form of behavior (usually some appropriate alternative) is reinforced, while another form of behavior (usually problem behavior) is placed on extinction.
Vollmer, T. R., Peters, K. P., Kronfli, F. R., Lloveras, L. A., & Ibañez, V. F. (2020). On the definition of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 53(3), 1299-1303.
A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems
This research evaluated the separate treatment components of a functional communication training program for 3 severely handicapped persons who each displayed different topographies of aberrant behavior.
Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., NoRThUP, J. O. H. N., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., ... & DoNN, L. I. S. A. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(4), 417-429.
This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods
Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.
Integrated Approaches to Preventing Antisocial Behavior Patterns Among School-Age Children and Youth
This article provides a reconceptualization of the role of schools in preventing antisocial behavior problems among children and youth.
Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 4(4), 194-209.
Antisocial Behavior in School: Evidence-based Practices
This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.
Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.
This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.
Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students
This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems.
Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children, 32(4), 551-571.
Practice makes perfect—but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection.
On the one hand, it seems obvious that practice is important. After all, "practice makes perfect." On the other hand, it seems just as obvious that practicing the same material again and again would be boring for students. How much practice is the right amount?
Willingham, D. T. (2004). Ask the Cognitive Scientist Practice Makes Perfect, But Only If You Practice Beyond the Point of Perfection. American Educator, 28(1), 31-33.
Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom
The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.
This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.
Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(2), 39-47.
Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction.
This study shows that gaps between opportunities to learn and students' appropriation of those opportunities are instructionally produced and socially distributed via mechanism that affect engagement and lead to alienation from instruction - the dissociation between students' physical presence in academic classes and their thoughts while in class.
Yair, G. (2000). Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction. Sociology of Education, 247-269.