Education Drivers

Informal (Walk Throughs)

Research on informal teacher evaluation reveals the predominant evaluation method is the walk-though, which ranges from a brief 2- to 3-minute snapshot to longer observation. Studies support the important role principals play in instructional leadership but also suggest that principals are not good at identifying which teachers are the best instructors. Research finds that principals overwhelmingly understand the need to sample teacher performance but that they are rarely trained in how to accomplish this. Over the past 30 years, the walk-through has become the primary vehicle for a principal to evaluate instruction. Walk-throughs fall into two categories: non-systematic and systematic. Non-systematic walk-throughs are brief scheduled or unscheduled observations with the primary purpose of detecting problems. Because these walk-throughs are brief, they are not well suited for teacher training. Studies have found that although they are more frequently embraced than systematic walk-throughs, they have little impact on student achievement. Systematic walk-throughs, on the other hand, are designed for more than just error detection. They can sample specific teaching practices and curriculum in use enabling the observer to provide targeted feedback to improve teacher’s skills and ultimately student achievement. Systematic walk-throughs take longer than non-systematic ones and, when incorporating coaching, have been found to significantly increase student achievement.  

Informal Evaluation Overview

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Summative assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.

Informal Evaluation PDF

How to measure teacher effectiveness has been a persistent issue in education for decades (Greenwood & Maheady, 1997; Scheeler, Ruhl, & McAfee, 2004). The primary way to measure teacher effectiveness is in student outcomes. Multiple research studies have demonstrated that teacher effectiveness contributes to student performance (e.g., Hattie, 2009; Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004). For example, Hattie (2009) found that teachers had a moderate effect size (0.35) on student reading, math, and writing outcomes. Nye et al. (2004) examined the between-teacher (within-school) variance of achievement gains, found that between 7% and 21% of student academic gains were attributable to teacher effectiveness. This latter study concluded that differences in class size could not explain variation in student achievement. Teacher experience and teacher education accounted for a small percentage (no more than 5%) of the difference in teacher effects. This indicates that there are “substantial differences” between teachers that contribute to differences in student achievement (Nye et al., 2004, p. 253).

In another study, Sanders and Rivers (1996) demonstrated that teachers had a cumulative effect over time. When students had three effective teachers across 3 consecutive years, there were differences in achievement of 50 percentile points. These studies (Hattie, 2009; Nye et al., 2004; Sanders & Rivers, 1996) confirm that teachers are important and that effective teachers make a difference in student outcomes, but they do not identify what effective teachers do to produce results for students.

            As a measure of teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation first came under scrutiny after the 1983 report, A Nation at Risk,was published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education and again after the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). The most recent federal education legislation, the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 does not require specific teacher evaluation, but does require state funds to go toward developing teacher evaluation and support systems that incorporate measures of performance and ways to give feedback (Fennell, 2016). There is now an understanding that teachers have an impact on student performance and that teacher practice can be improved. Feedback is one way to improve performance, and there are various ways to provide it, including informal evaluation.

            The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.

Defining Informal Evaluation

Teacher evaluation involves observation by a supervisor or peer followed by specific feedback, discussion, and reflection (Zepeda, 2009). Informal evaluation may occur within a broader context of teacher evaluation systems, which typically provide teachers, school leaders, and systems with information about how teachers are performing (Wise, Darling-Hammond, McLaughlin, & Bernstein, 1985).

Both formal and informal evaluation serve a variety of purposes for teachers and evaluators. The goals of formal evaluation are as follows:  

  • Create a common definition of “good teaching”
  • Create a shared understanding and language to talk about teaching
  • Support and cultivate strong evaluators (coaches, principals, etc.) who can observe and interpret evidence, and engage in dialogue about their practice with the goal of improving teacher performance and student achievement (Danielson, 2011).

            Often, formal evaluation is not implemented according to best practice yet frequently is part of a system that impacts a teacher’s career. It typically occurs a few times during the year but may occur less often for veteran teachers (Weisburg, Sexton, Mulhern, & Keeling, 2009). Although formal evaluation has a role in education, within current systems its drawbacks in implementation limit its effectiveness.

Informal observation tends to be defined in contrast to formal observation. Formal evaluation involves structure (e.g., checklists, rubrics), controlled comparison, and use of formal teacher and student data for everything from feedback conversations to bonuses and tenure (Stake, 1967). In contrast, informal evaluation occurs outside a formal structure but may incorporate a structure (e.g., a checklist). Informal evaluation differs from formal evaluation mainly in that it is not tied to teacher bonuses or benefits, or hiring and retention. One benefit of informal evaluation is the lack of formal reward or consequence, as teachers may be more receptive to feedback if they are provided with it outside of consequences.

It is important to note that informal evaluation is not equivalent to a 3-minute walkthrough; it is more structured and in-depth than that (Downey, Steffy, English, Frase, & Poston, 2004). A 3-minute walkthrough is intended to provide school leaders with quick information (e.g., a checklist) about teacher alignment with district curriculum, use of best practices, and use of practices that promote student achievement. In contrast, an informal evaluation provides a longer observation with data collection and performance feedback around observable teacher behaviors. [RK1] [SC2] 

 

How does Informal Evaluation Fit into Teacher Development?

The ultimate goal of teacher evaluation, formal or informal, is for teachers to improve their teaching practice (Danielson, 2011). This is accomplished through feedback and conversation after an initial observation. As occurs in a formal evaluation, the feedback teachers get from an informal evaluation must be based on performance and observable behaviors that contribute to teacher effectiveness and student success. The focus is on results, mainly that teachers need to understand what they are doing well and to continue those practices. Also, a clear target behavior that teachers can implement to improve their practice is essential, and, positive reinforcement must be in place to maintain target behaviors (e.g., Daniels, 2013). Positive reinforcement could be positive statements about a teacher’s work that connect to student learning (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, n.d.). It could also take the form of self-monitoring. One case study of a teacher used self-monitoring as a tool to increase praise statements in a classroom for students with emotional and behavior disorders (Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007).

 

Why Is Informal Evaluation Important?

Informal evaluation can address some concerns associated with more formal, traditional evaluation. These concerns include the following:

  • Formal observations may provide feedback that is too generic and simplistic (e.g., a rating of satisfactory or outstanding).
  • Formal evaluations may not sufficiently address the needs of individual teachers (e.g., providing veteran teachers less feedback than new teachers).
  • Formal evaluations may not provide enough feedback to improve teacher performance.
  • Formal evaluations can be a top-down process that feels like something that is “done to” teachers (Danielson, 2011).

            In contrast, informal evaluation is a method of job-embedded learning that can provide relevance to teachers’ everyday experiences, and feedback that is built into the process to facilitate the transfer of new skills into practice (Zepeda, 2009).

An effective observation and feedback structure involves five phases (State Government of Victoria, Australia, 2019):

  1. Teachers reflecting on their practice to inform observations
  2. Pre-observation conversation with the person who will be observing them
  3. Observation
  4. Reflection using criteria and focused on student learning
  5. Post-observation conversation to implement new strategies and improve teaching and learning

Within the observation and feedback structure, informal observation increases the number of observations of teachers, thereby increasing the amount of feedback and reinforcement to change teacher behavior (Daniels, 2013; Zepeda, 2009). Put another way, the less formal structure of informal evaluation allows for more feedback and reinforcement to change teacher practice in a positive way.

            Informal evaluation also uses data, collected during the observation process and provided in the post-observation conference (Zepeda, 2009). These data can support teacher development through ongoing discussions about teaching and learning. Teachers can use the data that accumulate when informal classroom observations occur regularly to chronicle changes in their instructional skills (Zepeda, 2009). For example, if a teacher is focusing on strengthening classroom conversation, data about teacher questions and students answers through multiple observations across a year can produce a concrete example of how the teacher improved and the resulting change in student conversation. These data can then inform future classroom practice.

Furthermore, when ongoing support for informal evaluation is provided and time is afforded within the regular school day for teachers to use the data collected for decision making, the practice of transferring skills into practice becomes part of the work of teaching. Informal observation can be a form of job-embedded learning or teacher development incorporated into daily practice and focused on teachers’ specific practices and content and their effect on student learning (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Hirsh, 2009). According to Zepeda (2009) in a guide to job-embedded learning, this practice accomplishes the following:

  • Enhances reflection
  • Promotes collegiality
  • Combats isolation
  • Makes learning more relevant for each teacher
  • Supports ongoing refinement of practice
  • Fosters a common lexicon that facilitates dialogue and improvement[RD3][SC4] 

            Informal evaluation can be provided in the form of coaching. Coaching is a way to build communities of teachers who are focused on improving their craft through professional relationships, including generating a shared language and common understanding around the goal of improving teaching. Evidence shows that coaching is a good way to hone and refine existing practices and skills (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2018a, 2018b). Informal evaluation is a way to provide teachers with more experiences of receiving observation and performance feedback and coaching, outside a formal evaluation structure.

 

Research on Informal Evaluation

What Do We Know?

Informal observations are a way to provide teachers with observational data and feedback on their practice outside formal evaluation procedures and structures. Still, there is no research on informal evaluation as it relates to changing teacher practice or improving student skills.

            Informal observation may be combined with other researched aspects of teacher development, such as coaching, or providing teachers with ongoing observation and feedback through the relationship with a “coach” (e.g., trained instructional coach). The research on coaching can inform our understanding of informal evaluation. Coaching[SC5] has resulted in changes in student learning. In one study, Ross (1992) found that student achievement in seventh and eighth grade history classes improved when teachers had more interaction with coaches around their implementation of a program. In studies that addressed coaching in Head Start centers, teachers were shown to have improved classroom environment components (e.g., quality of writing centers) without changing their interactions with students (e.g., quality of language interactions) (Neuman & Wright, 2010; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). This indicates that teachers may be able to change lower level behaviors (e.g., how teachers choose books for classroom libraries) much faster than higher level or behaviors[RD6] [SC7] (e.g., the language used with students).

What Don’t We Know Yet?

There is much we do not know about informal evaluation. There is no research specifically on the practice, so questions about how the practice is implemented in schools, how it can be implemented most effectively, and what outcomes can be produced for teachers and students remain. Questions for research include:

  • How is informal evaluation implemented in schools? Who is implementing informal evaluation? What tools are being used? What school-level structures are in place?
  • How does informal evaluation influence teacher practice and student outcomes?
  • What practices of informal evaluation produce the greatest impact?
  • What are necessary elements for informal evaluation to impact teacher practice and student performance?
  • What infrastructure is necessary for carrying out systematic informal evaluation?
  • What skills do teachers and school leaders need to be effective informal evaluators?

Implementation Considerations

School leaders who are implementing the practice of informal evaluation in their schools should adhere to what is known about teacher evaluation. For example, a study of the Chicago Public Schools Excellence in Teaching Project that used the Danielson Framework for Teaching (Danielson, 2013) as a model for teacher evaluation with coaching conversations identified the following best practices:  

  • Consistent definition of good teaching established for principals and teachers
  • Meaningful conversations about practice during pre- and post-observation conferences
  • Focused conversations about what matters and instruction (Danielson, 2011).

            The following are some factors to consider when establishing routines around informal evaluation:

  • Finding effective observers and mentors: When and how will observations be conducted? And by whom? Informal evaluations are often conducted by peers or outside the formal evaluation setting, so schools may have coaches or teacher mentors rather than administrators in the coaching role.
  • Data collection: What type of observation data will be collected? How will it be shared with teachers?
  • Conversation prompts and questions: How will teachers be engaged in conversation about their practice and what was observed?
  • Tracking progress: How will changes in teacher practice and student progress be measured?

 

Cost Considerations

The cost of informal evaluation depends on available staff and school size. Some cost considerations include:

  • The time it takes to train staff
  • The time it takes staff to provide observations and engage in follow-up conversations
  • Evaluation systems used to collect and monitor data

 

Conclusion

Informal evaluation is the process of observing a teacher’s practice and using data from the observation to shape teacher practice and improve student outcomes. Given that teacher practices influence student outcomes, how teachers are provided with professional development including informal evaluation demands consideration. Currently, there is no research on informal evaluation; however, research on formal evaluation and coaching indicate that the cycle of observation and feedback is beneficial for teacher development and should be a part of teacher development.

 

Citations

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2018a). Summative assessment.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2018b). Teacher coaching overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in education: On whom and for what. In: Performance feedback using data to improve educator performance, 3(pp. 77–95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Danielson, C. (2011). Evaluations that help teachers learn. Educational Leadership, 68(4), 35–39.

Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition. Retrieved from http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/teachers-leaders/practicerubrics/Docs/danielson-teacher-rubric-2013-instructionally-focused.pdf

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.

Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K. (2004). The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA). P. L. 114-95 § 114 stat. 1177 (2015–2016). Retrieved from https://congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf

Fennell, M. (2016). What educators need to know about ESSA. Educational Leadership, 73, 62–65.

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation? Teacher Education and Special Education, 20(3),265–275.

Hattie, J., (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure, 51(3), 20–27.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform. Retrieved from https://www.edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/A_Nation_At_Risk_1983.pdf

National Institute for Excellence in Teaching. (n.d.) Conducting observations and providing meaningful feedback. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from http://www.doe.mass.edu/edprep/cap/Workshop-Handouts.pdf

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 111,63–86.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Nye, N., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257.

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299–312.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 396–407.

Stake, R. E. (1967). The countenance of educational evaluation. Teachers College Record, 68, 523–540.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.543.5561&rep=rep1&type=pdf

State Government of Victoria, Australia. (2019). Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection.Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/classrooms/Pages/approachesppnpeerobstip.aspx

Weisburg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., & Keeling, D. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge differences in teacher effectiveness.New York, NY: TNTP. Retrieved from https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TheWidgetEffect_2nd_ed.pdf

Wise, A. E., Darling-Hammond, L., McLaughlin, M. W., & Bernstein, H. T. (1985). Teacher evaluation: A study of effective practices. The Elementary School Journal, 86(1), 60–121.

Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations.New York, NY: Routledge.

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

 

Informal Teacher Evaluation

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Informal Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.

Performance Feedback in Education: On Who and For What

This paper reviews the importance of feedback in education reviewed the scientific model of behavior change (antecedent, behavior, consequences).

Daniels, A. (2013). Feedback in Education: On Whom and for What. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 77-95). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction?
This analysis examines principal sources of information on teacher instructional competency and the amount of time spent assessing teacher's instructional skills.
States, J. (2015). What evidence do principals rely on in assessing the quality of a teacher’s instruction? Retrieved from what-evidence-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers
This paper offers an alternative to evaluating teachers based on student performance on annual high stakes tests.
Detrich, R. (2011). Using Student Data as a Basis for Feedback to Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
A Systems Approach to Feedback: What You Need to Know and Who Needs
This paper looks at feedback as a powerful systems approach to improving the performance of both student and school faculty.
States, J. (2011). A Systems Approach to Feedback: What You Need to Know and Who Needs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-calaba-presentation-jack-states.
Feedback as Education Reform: What We Know
This paper examines the power of feedback as a strategy for improving student performance. Types of feeback are explored building from student and teacher performance that can be aggregated to create a systems wide feedback tool.
States, J. (2011). Feedback as Education Reform: What We Know [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal112(1), 107-131.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Informal Teacher Evaluation

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Informal Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.

An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report

The study compares the effectiveness of different routes to teaching. It finds there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of teachers who were traditionally trained when compared to teachers who obtained training through alternative credential programs.

Constantine, J., D. Player, T. Silva, K. Hallgren, M. Grider, and J. Deke, 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report (NCEE 2009- 4043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Evaluations that help teachers learn.

This article addresses the topics of staff assessment, teacher supervision, and professional development.

Danielson, C. (2011). Evaluations that help teachers learn. Educational leadership68(4), 35-39.

The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition

The Framework for Teaching identifies those aspects of a teacher's responsibilities that have
been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting
improved student learning.

Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition. Retrieved from http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/teachers-leaders/practicerubrics/Docs/danielson-teacher-rubric-2013-instructionally-focused.pdf

Policies that support professional development in an era of reform.

In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.

The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time

The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through offers a practical, time-saving alternative that impacts student achievement by cultivating self-reliant teachers who are continuously improving their practice.

Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K. (2004). The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

What educators need to know about ESSA.

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) returns decision making for our nation’s education back where it belongs – in the hands of local educators, families, and communities – while keeping the focus on students most in need.

Fennell, M. (2016). What educators need to know about ESSA. Educational Leadership, 73, 62–65.

Developing principals as instructional leaders

This paper describes a continuous learning model of principal and superintendent support. The model places a premium on engagement at all levels of the system on shaping a focused culture of instruction within their schools.

Fink, E., & Resnick, L. B. (2001). Developing principals as instructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(8), 598-610.

Leading for Instructional Improvement: How Successful Leaders Develop Teaching and Learning Expertise

This book shows how principals and other school leaders can develop the skills necessary for teachers to deliver high quality instruction by introducing principals to a five-part model of effective instruction.

Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?

This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning. 

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education20(3), 265-275.

What is Effective Instructional Leadership? Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals

This study draws on in-person observations of principals collected over full school days over two different school years in a large, urban district to investigate how principals allocate their time across different instructional leadership tasks, and how instructional time use is associated with school effectiveness.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2012, November). What is effective instructional leadership? Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. In Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management annual meeting, November.

Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence From Observations of Principals

This study examines the associations between leadership behaviors and student achievement gains using a unique data source: in-person, full-day observations of principals collected over three school years. The study finds that principals’ time spent broadly on instructional functions does not predict student achievement growth. Time spent on informal classroom walkthroughs negatively predicts student growth, particularly in high schools.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective instructional time use for school leaders longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. Educational Researcher, 0013189X13510020.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

A New Definition

NSDC opens the door to professional learning that ensures great teaching for every student every day

Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement

The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.

L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2

The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning

This study analyzed three urban districts' efforts to improve the instructional quality and performance of their schools. The study also assessed the efforts made in four: (1) promoting the instructional leadership of principals; (2) supporting the professional learning of teachers, in particular through school-based coaching models; (3) specifying curriculum; (4) and promoting data-based decision making for planning and instructional improvement.

Marsh, J. A., Kerr, K. A., Ikemoto, G. S., Darilek, H., Suttorp, M., Zimmer, R. W., & Barney, H. (2005). The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning. RAND Corporation.

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Formative classroom walkthroughs: How principals and teachers collaborate to raise student achievement

This book examines principal leadership with the focus on formative assessment. The book looks at efforts to improve student performance through Formative Classroom Walkthoughs.

Moss, C. M., & Brookhart, S. M. (2015). Formative classroom walkthroughs: How principals and teachers collaborate to raise student achievement. ASCD.

A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform.

This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform. Retrieved from https://www.edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/A_Nation_At_Risk_1983.pdf

 

 
Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Promoting Language and Literacy Development for Early Childhood Educators: A Mixed-Methods Study of Coursework and Coaching

The goal of the study was to examine the effects of coaching or professional development coursework on teacher knowledge and teacher practice.

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 111,63–86.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization

No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)

How large are teacher effects?

This research use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement.

Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3),237–257.

Every Student Succeeds Act

The Every Student Succeeds Act: Explained.

Plans, A. (2015). The every student succeeds act: Explained. Education Week.

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Teacher Efficacy and the Effects of Coaching on Student Achievement 1

This research considers relationships between student achievement (knowledge and cognitive skill), teacher efficacy (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), and interactions with assigned coaches (self-report measures) in a sample of 18 grade 7 and 8 history teachers in 36 classes implementing a specific innovation with the help of 6 coaches.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review.

This paper reviews the empirical research on the effectiveness of performance feedback as a means of influencing teacher implementation of interventions.

Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review. Teacher Education & Special Education, 27(4).

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

The countenance of educational evaluation

In his 1964 paper, "Course Improvement through Evaluation, " Lee Cronbach urged another step: a most generous inclusion of behavioral - science variables in order to examine the possible causes and effects of quality teaching He proposed that the main objective for evaluation is to uncover durable relationships -those appropriate for guiding future educational programs.

 

Stake, R. E. (1967). The countenance of educational evaluation. Teachers College Record68, 523–540.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.543.5561&rep=rep1&type=pdf

 

Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection

Peer observation aims to support the sharing of practice, and builds self-awareness about the impact of one's teaching practice in order to affect change.

State Government of Victoria, Australia. (2019). Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection.Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/classrooms/Pages/approachesppnpeerobstip.aspx

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Evaluation of the school administration manager project

This study examines the School Administration Manager (SAM) project, that focused on changing the conditions in schools that prevent principals from devoting more time to instructional leadership.

Turnbull, B. J., Haslam, M. B., Arcaira, E. R., Riley, D. L., Sinclair, B., & Coleman, S. (2009). Evaluation of the school administration manager project. Policy Studies Associates, Inc.

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness.

This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers. 

Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Teacher Evaluation: A Study of Effective Practices

A preliminary survey of 32 school districts identified as having highly developed teacher evaluation systems was followed by the selection of 4 case study districts.

Wise, A. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Tyson-Bernstein, H, & McLaughlin, M. W. (1984). Teacher evaluation: A study of effective practices. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246559.pdf

 

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations

This second edition includes an expanded set of classroom observation tools, moving from 23 to 40 and more linkages to the job-embedded nature of the informal classroom observations.

Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations.New York, NY: Routledge.

No items found.

Back to Top