Education Drivers

Ensuring an Orderly and Safe Environment

Staff performance and student learning require a school environment that is orderly, safe, and supportive of student engagement (attendance, participation) and instruction (social, behavioral, academic). Policies, programs, practices, systems, and curriculum are aligned, proactive rather than reactive, and in place schoolwide as well as in the classroom. Students, educators, and parents work together to adopt, implement, and sustain a shared school vision and culture. Students have clear rules, expectations, and contingencies that support identified behavioral and educational goals. Teachers feel they are part of a professional community that is supportive and responsive to their needs and those of the students. Professional learning is ongoing, targeted, participatory, and an effective process utilizing feedback and coaching. External pressures and interruptions are reduced both inside and outside the classrooms to protect teacher time for teaching, learning, and problem solving. There are strong parent-school ties that facilitate communication, coordination, and cooperation between major stakeholders. The school physical environment is well maintained to support engagement and learning. 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Principal Competencies

This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Principal Competencies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/principal-competencies-research

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools?
This analysis examines how teacher and principal perception of school working conditions differ.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools? Retrieved from how-differently-do-principals.
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What makes an effective principal?
This is an analysis of two meta-analyses of principals, one looking at leadership style and the second examines what school principals activities have the greatest impact on student outcomes.
States, J. (2010). What makes an effective principal? Retrieved from what-makes-effective-principal.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement?
This meta-analysis examines 26 studies on school leadership to identify the magnitude of direct and indirect effects of leadership on teacher and student performance.
States, J. (2012). What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from what-roles-do-principal's.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Distraction, privacy, and classroom design

Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored. 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior16(4), 437-454.

Where it all comes together: How partnerships connect communities and schools.

This article outlines how far the community schools movement has come since the AFT made community schools a priority in 2008. It explains why the movement has grown, clarifies what exactly makes a community school different from other schools, lays out how community schools work, and shows the positive results that community schools are attaining.

Blank, M. J., & Villarreal, L. (2015). Where It All Comes Together: How Partnerships Connect Communities and Schools. American Educator39(3), 4.

Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning

The updated and expanded second edition of this classic text provides new research and insights into how principals can encourage the teacher development that enhances student learning.

Blasé, J., & Blase, J. (2003). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning. Corwin Press.

Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems

The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics130(5), e1136-e1145.

How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?

Using 4 years of panel data constructed from the North Carolina Teacher Working Condition Survey, this study uses value-added modeling approaches to explore the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of four measures of their working conditions and their principal.

Burkhauser, S. (2017). How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis39(1), 126-145.

Handbook of response to intervention (RTI) in early childhood

Handbook of Response to Intervention in Early Childhood represents an ambitious undertaking: namely, to gather within a single volume all of the knowledge that exists on a topic that has attracted much attention in recent years.

Buysse, V., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of response to intervention in early childhood. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

The California School Safety Toolkit First Edition

The overarching purpose of the School Safety Toolkit is to establish an outcome-based framework and methods for assessing any school or district’s safety system with respect to student outcomes, safety, and cost-effectiveness.

Campie, P., Tanyu, M., & Osher, D. (2016). The California School Safety Toolkit. First Edition. Zellerbach Family Foundation. San Francisco.

Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring

This paper examines how the hiring process is changing as a result of teacher evaluation reforms.

Cannata, M., Rubin, M., Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Neumerski, C. M., Drake, T. A., & Schuermann, P. (2017). Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring. Educational Administration Quarterly53(2), 180-222.

Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.

The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures. 

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.

Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust.

This study hypothesizes the following: Trust and leadership dimensions that support empowerment and involvement will predict an educational organization’s ability to minimize a threat–rigid response and flexibly negotiate new demands.

Daly, A. J. (2009). Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly45(2), 168-216.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference.

This article illustrates how successful leaders combine the too often dichotomized practices of transformational and instructional leadership in different ways across different phases of their schools' development in order to progressively shape and “layer” the improvement culture in improving students' outcomes.

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly52(2), 221-258.

Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement

This book examines the nature of successful school leadership: what it is, what it looks like in practice & what are the consequences for schools & pupils.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Leithwood, K., Harris, A., Hopkins, D., Gu, Q., … Ahtaridou, E. (2011). Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement. London: Open University Press.

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

The issue of sexual harassment has been front page news this past year. What does the research tell us about school interventions designed to reduce sexual harassment? This meta-analysis examines research on the topic and provides insight into how effective current efforts are at stemming incidents of this serious problem. This review provides a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools designed to prevent or reduce incidents of dating violence. This meta-analysis of 23 studies indicates school-based programs having no significant impact on dating violence perpetration and victimization; however, they can have a positive influence on dating violence knowledge and student attitudes.

De La Rue, L., Polanin, J. R., Espelage, D. L., & Pigott, T. D. (2017). A meta-analysis of school-based interventions aimed to prevent or reduce violence in teen dating relationships. Review of Educational Research87(1), 7-34.

 

Principal Competencies

This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Principal Competencies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/principal-competencies-research

A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents.

A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta‐analysis of after‐school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology45(3-4), 294-309.

School Discipline Reform and Disorder: Evidence from New York City Public Schools, 2012-16

While school climate is impossible to measure in most districts, it can be measured in New York City. This report analyzes data covering the five-year period of 2011-12 to 2015-16, which includes the years that the two reforms were enacted as well as "bookend" comparison years.

Eden, M. (2017). School discipline reform and disorder: Evidence from new York City public schools, 2012-16. The Education Digest83(1), 22.

California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged

The opinion article discuss about anti-vaxxers activist grow more aggressive while more study and evidence show how vaccination is important. The author suggest that the Lawmakers must stand up to the anti-vaccination crowd, a very small minority according to every poll. 

Elias, T.D, (2019). California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.dailynews.com/2019/04/19/californias-anti-vaxxers-grow-more-aggressive-as-theyre-challenged/

School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share.

When schools form partnerships with families and the community, the children benefit. These guidelines for building partnerships can make it happen.

Epstein, J. L. (2010). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan92(3), 81-96.

Racing to the top with leaders in rural high poverty schools

This article describes an innovative approach, developed by North Carolina State University,
to prepare leaders specifically for work in rural schools in high poverty districts. 

Fusarelli, B. C., & Militello, M. (2012). Racing to the Top with Leaders in Rural High Poverty Schools. Planning and Changing43, 46-56.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support. 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders.

Examines trends in the evolution of the principalship in the United States from the 1960s to the present.

Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration30(3).

Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership

This paper explores several types of school contexts (institutional, community, socio-cultural, political, economic, school improvement) and what we have learned about how they shape school leadership practice.

Hallinger, P. (2018). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership46(1), 5-24.

Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?

This longitudinal study examines the effects of collaborative leadership on school improvement and student reading achievement in 192 elementary schools in one state in the USA over a 4-year period

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership38(6), 654-678.

Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning.

This article reviews the evolution of instructional leadership as a model for principal practice, examines barriers to its successful enactment, and proposes strategies

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. F. (2013). Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning. NASSP Bulletin97(1), 5-21.

Teacher Quality

This chapter of Handbook of The Economics of Education reviews research on teacher labor markets, the importance of teacher quality in the determination of student achievement, and the extent to which specific observable characteristics often related to hiring decisions and salary explain the variation in the quality of instruction.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.

The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning

This Wallace paper summarizes a decade of the foundation’s research in school leadership to identify five critical roles for school principals to be effective.

Harvey, J., et al. (2013). The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning. The Wallace Foundation.

Inconvenient, but essential: Impact and influence of school–community involvement on principals’ work and workload.

Using findings generated from a large-scale survey of 1,400 Ontario principals, this paper reports on the influence of opportunities for school–community involvement on the work principals do on a daily basis and details how involvement in such activities influences and impacts their workloads.

Hauseman, D. C., Pollock, K., & Wang, F. (2017). Inconvenient, but Essential: Impact and Influence of School-Community Involvement on Principals' Work and Workload. School Community Journal27(1), 83-105.

Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement

This longitudinal study examines the effects of distributed leadership on school improvement and growth in student math achievement in 195 elementary schools in one state over a 4-year period.

Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2009). Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement. American educational research journal46(3), 659-689.

A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement.

Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.

Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.

Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships

This updated and substantially expanded edition reveals how to build strong collaborative relationships and offers practical advice for improving interactions between parents and teachers, from insuring that PTA groups are constructive and inclusive to navigating the complex issues surrounding diversity in the classroom.

Henderson, A. T., Mapp, K. L., & Johnson, V. R. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships. The New Press.

Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues

The authors outline some of the mechanisms through which parental school involvement affects achievement and identify how patterns and amounts of involvement vary across cultural, economic, and community contexts and across developmental levels. Then propose the next steps for research. 

Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current directions in psychological science13(4), 161-164.

Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework.

The specific purposes of this article are to identify and synthesize the empirical research on how leadership influences student achievement and to provide evidence on how school leaders should direct their efforts.

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of Educational Research86(2), 531-569.

Investigating the relationship between turnaround principal competencies and student achievement.

The authors conducted correlational analyses to examine the strength of the relationship between each of the seven competencies and found that the model appears to reflect the internal states of principals who orchestrate school turnaround. 

Hitt, D. H., Meyers, C. V., Woodruff, D., & Zhu, G. (2019). Investigating the Relationship Between Turnaround Principal Competencies and Student Achievement. NASSP Bulletin103(3), 189-208.

Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention

The purpose of this study was to examine the workplace factors that positively and negatively impact Black K12 teacher retention. This study utilized a mixed-method approach to examine the qualitative and quantitative data.

Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research

This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs—collectively known as induction—for beginning teachers.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research81(2), 201-233.

Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.

This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement. 

Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf

How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement.

the authors build on this body of work by further examining how working conditions predict both teachers‘ job satisfaction and their career plans.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record114(10), 1-39.

Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature.

This comprehensive review provides a framework for the expanding body of literature that seeks to make not only teaching, but rather the entire school environment, responsive to the schooling needs of minoritized students

 

Khalifa, M. A., Gooden, M. A., & Davis, J. E. (2016). Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature. Review of Educational Research86(4), 1272-1311.

Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems.

The study explored the following overarching question: What does it take for leaders to promote and support powerful, equitable learning in a school and in the district and state system that serves the school? The study pursued this question through a set of coordinated investigations,

Knapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Honig, M. I., Plecki, M. L., & Portin, B. S. (2010). Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy–University of Washington.

School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data

This study is among the first to address the empirical limitations of prior studies on organizational contexts by leveraging one of the largest survey administration efforts ever conducted in the United States outside of the decennial population census.

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Shen-Wei Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal53(5), 1411-1449.

Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?

This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis33(2), 235-261.

Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?

This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis33(2), 235-261.

A framework for shared leadership.

Instead of looking at the principal alone for instructional leadership, we need to develop leadership capacity among all members of the school communities.

Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Beyond Instructional Leadership59(8), 37–40. Retrieved from http://johnwgardnertestsite.pbworks.com/f/S4%20Readings%20-%20Lambert%20Article.doc

School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement.

This study addressed teachers' and parents' perceptions of the meanings and functions of parent involvement. 

Lawson, M. A. (2003). School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban education38(1), 77-133.

Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing,

This study examines the relationship between two dominant measures of teacher quality, teacher qualification and teacher effectiveness (measured by value-added modeling), in terms of their influence on students’ short-term academic growth and long-term educational success (measured by bachelor’s degree attainment).

Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis40(3), 359–381.

Leadership for school restructuring

This article describes a 4-year program of research about transformational forms of leadership in schools
responding to a variety of restructuring initiatives.

Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational administration quarterly30(4), 498-518.

Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations.

For aspiring leaders, this framework provides important insights about what they will need to learn to be successful.

Leithwood, K. (2012). Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Education Leadership, OISE. Retrieved from https://www.education-leadership-ontario.ca/application/files/2514/9452/5287/The_Ontario_Leadership_Framework_2012_-_with_a_Discussion_of_the_Research_Foundations.pdf

Linking Leadership to Learning.

The purpose of this paper is to provide one perspective on this question, focusing in particular on findings that may be applicable in the Nordic context.

Leithwood, K., & Louis, K. S. (2012). Linking leadership to learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Collective leadership effects on student achievement.

This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. 

Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational administration quarterly44(4), 529-561.

The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research

Using meta-analytic review techniques, this study synthesized the results of 79
unpublished studies about the nature of transformational school leadership (TSL) and its
impact on the school organization, teachers, and students.

Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly48(3), 387-423.

Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited

In 2008 the authors published an article in this journal entitled Seven Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership (Leithwood, Harris, and Hopkins 2008). This article revisits each of the seven claims, summarising what was said about each in the original publications, weighing each of the claims considering recent empirical evidence, and proposing revisions or refinements as warranted.

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management, 1-18.

Leading school turnaround: How successful school leaders transform low performing schools

The authors begin with eight basic understandings, assumptions, or starting points for our subsequent account of how to lead the successful turnaround of underperforming school. 

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful leaders transform low-performing schools. John Wiley & Sons.

How Leadership Influences Student Learning.

This report by researchers from the Universities of Minnesota and Toronto examines the available evidence and offers educators, policymakers and all citizens interested in promoting successfulschools, some answers to these vitally important questions

Leithwood, K., Seashore, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of research: How leadership influences student learning.

School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies.

Guided by a synthesis of theory on human motivation and evidence about teachers’motivation to implement school reform, this study aimed to better understand the responses of teachers and school administrators to government accountability initiatives and to assess the extent to which leadership practices had a bearing on those responses

Leithwood, K., Steinbach, R., & Jantzi, D. (2002). School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies. Educational Administration Quarterly38(1), 94-119.

The American Teacher, 1993. Violence in America's Public Schools. Metropolitan Life Survey.

As part of a series of studies on the concerns and aspirations of American teachers, this report illustrates the concerns of teachers, students, and law enforcement officers about the increasing violence and fears of violence in U.S. schools.

Leitman, R., & Binns, K. (1993). The American teacher 1993: Violence in America’s schools (Survey conducted for Metropolitan Life Insurance). New York: Louis Harris and Associates.

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability is a letter written by United States Department of Education. This letter was meant to call people attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin (This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI). This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic.

Lhamon, C. E. (2014). Dear colleague letter: Resource comparability. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www2. ed. gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410. pdf.

Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between principal leadership, dimensions of school capacity, and teacher professional learning in 32 Hong Kong primary schools.

Li, L., Hallinger, P., & Ko, J. (2016). Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management30(1), 76-100.

The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature.

This meta-analysis finds a positive relationship between school principals spending time on five commonly assigned roles and student achievement. 

Liebowitz, D. D., & Porter, L. (2019). The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher, and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research89(5), 785-827.

New directions in goal-setting theory.

Recent studies concerned with goal choice and the factors that influence it, the function of learning goals, the effect of goal framing, goals and affect (well-being), group goal setting, goals and traits, macrolevel goal setting, and conscious versus subconscious goals are described.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science15(5), 265-268.

Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive
description ever compiled of charter school discipline.

Losen, D. J., Keith, M. A., Hodson, C. L., & Martinez, T. E. (2016). Charter schools, civil rights and school discipline: A comprehensive review.

Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships among principal transformational leadership, school leadership-team transformational leadership, and school culture.

Lucas, S., & Valentine, J. (2002). Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture.American Educational Research Association annual convention, New Orleans. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED468519.pd

Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance

This study investigates teacher empowerment in schools that have at least four years of experience with some form of decentralized or school-based management. 

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational evaluation and policy analysis19(3), 245-275.

Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership.

Focusing on school leadership relations between principals and teachers, this study examines the potential of their active collaboration around instructional matters to enhance the quality of teaching and student performance

Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational administration quarterly39(3), 370-397.

A theory of human motivation.

The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental. It derives most directly, however, from clinical experience. 

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review50(4), 370.

Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends.

This report examines the evidence about the emerging approach, Integrated student supports (ISS), from multiple perspectives. 

Moore, K. (2014). Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/2014-07ISSPaper2.pdf

Professional standards for educational leaders

This book introduces the foundations of the recently revised professional educational leadership standards and provides an in-depth explanation and application of each one.

Murphy, J. F. (2016). Professional standards for educational leaders: The empirical, moral, and experiential foundations. Corwin Press.

Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education.

This paper presents the research base and conceptual framework for a new principal leadership assessment tool: the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED™).

Murphy, J. F., Goldring, E. B., Cravens, X. C., Elliott, S. N., & Porter, A. C. (2007). The Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education: Measuring learning-centered leadership. Journal of East China Normal University29(1), 1-10.

Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts.

This article presents findings from the authors' exploratory study of 12 instructionally effective
school districts (IESD) in California. 

Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. The Journal of educational research81(3), 175-181.

Learning-centered leadership: A conceptual foundation

The purpose of this analysis is to describe the research base that undergirds the emerging
concept of learning-centered leadership.

Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2006). Learning-Centered Leadership: A Conceptual Foundation. Learning Sciences Institute, Vanderbilt University (NJ1).

School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools

This REL Northwest guide is designed to help educators use data to reduce disproportionate rates of suspension and expulsion based on race or ethnicity. It provides examples of selecting and analyzing data to determine whether racial disproportionality exists in a school or district’s discipline practices. 

Nishioka, V. (with Shigeoka, S., & Lolich, E.). (2017). School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools (REL 2017–240). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest. Retrieved from http:// ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.

Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence

this article traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe. 

Noguera, P. (1995). Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review65(2), 189-213.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instruction and student learning in schools.

This book offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital."

Odden, A. R. (2011). Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instructional practice and student learning in schools. Routledge.

A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement

This report reviews studies that have investigated the relationships between principal characteristics (including precursors, behaviors, and leadership styles) and student achievement.

Osborne-Lampkin, L. T., Sidler Folsom, J., & Herrington, C. D. (2015). A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement.

School-family partnerships for children’s success.

This book provides essential information to better understand and improve the nature and quality of school and family partnerships for the benefit of all children

Patrikakou, E. N., & Anderson, A. R. (Eds.). (2005). School-family partnerships for children's success. Teachers College Press.

School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover.

Administrator support has been identified as a key factor in deterring teacher turnover. Yet, the specific ways school principals directly or indirectly influence teacher retention remain underexamined. The paper aims to discuss this issue. 

Redding, C., Booker, L. N., Smith, T. M., & Desimone, L. M. (2019). School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover. Journal of Educational Administration.

Parents and Learning

This booklet focuses on parents—the child’s first and most powerful teachers.

Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning (Vol. 2). International Academy of Education.

The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes.

This study examined the school-level effects on tested student achievement in 129 high poverty elementary schools that implemented a common set of comprehensive parent engagement strategies over a 2-year period. 

Redding, S., Langdon, J., Meyer, J., & Sheley, P. (2004). The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes. American Educational.

School Leadership And Student Outcomes: Identifying What Works and Why

This paper is a synthesis of the evidence-base on school leadership and its impact on student performance.

Robinson, V. M. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why (Vol. 41). Winmalee, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Leaders.

The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students' academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly44(5), 635–674.

The influence of principal leadership on classroom instruction and student learning: A study of mediated pathways to learning.

This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent–community ties, and the school’s learning climate.

Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and.

The essential supports for school improvement.

This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning.

Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Bryk, A. S., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2006). The Essential Supports for School Improvement. Research Report. Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Teacher Turnover in High-Poverty Schools: What We Know and Can Do

This paper reviews evidence from six recent studies, which collectively suggest that teachers who leave high-poverty schools are not fleeing their students, but rather the poor working conditions that make it difficult for them to teach and their students to learn. They include school leadership, collegial relationships, and elements of school culture.

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117, 1-36

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Student and teacher safety in Chicago Public Schools: The roles of community context and school social organization

The report examines the internal and external conditions that matter for students’ and teachers’ feelings of safety.

Steinberg, M. P., Allensworth, E., & Johnson, D. W. (2011). Student and Teacher Safety in Chicago Public Schools: The Roles of Community Context and School Social Organization. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement.

Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. 

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2012). Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools11(4), 418-451.

Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytic review of evidence about their influence.

This study reviews evidence about the overall influence of direction-setting leadership practices (DSLPs), 1 of 4 major categories of practices included in a widely known conception of effective leadership (e.g., Leithwood & Louis, 2011) and a focus of many other such conceptions, as well.

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2015). Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytical review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement26(4), 499-523.

How principals and peers influence teaching and learning

This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly46(1), 31-56.

School Climate Research Summary: August 2012.

This review address five essential areas of focus: 1. Safety; 2. Relationships; 3. Teaching and Learning; 4. Institutional Environment, and; 5.School climate, the Processes of School Improvement. 

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Higgins-D'Alessandro, A., & Guffey, S. (2012). School Climate Research Summary: August 2012. School Climate Brief, Number 3. National School Climate Center.

Knowledge and the Leadership for Learning.

This empirical study of the practice of five elementary school principals whose student achievement gains were three times the expected rate of progress redefines some capabilities identified in the literature as central to leadership for learning.

Timperley, H. (2011). Knowledge and the leadership of learning. Leadership and policy in schools10(2), 145-170.

Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust.

The hypothesis that guided this study was that the degree of teacher professionalism in a school would be related to (a) the professional orientation of principals in their exercise of administrative authority—especially, the extending of adaptive discretion to teachers in the conduct of their work—and (b) the trust evident among various actors in the school community.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly45(2), 217-247.

Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among faculty trust in the principal, principal leadership behaviors, school climate, and student achievement.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration53(1), 66-92.

Putting Data into Practice: Lessons From New York City

This report looks at New York City's efforts to create an evidence-based and collaborative teaching culture.

Tucker, B. (2010). Putting data into practice: Lessons from New York City. Education Sector Reports.

How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility

The purpose of this study was to examine various factors that are often present in principal–teacher interactions and teacher–teacher relationships to see how those may have an impact on teachers’ classroom instructional practices.

Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008). How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility. Educational administration quarterly44(4), 458-495.

Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning

The purpose of this paper is to discuss findings from Learning from Leadership. This study was designed to identify and describe successful educational leadership and to explain how such leadership can yield improvements in student learning.

Wahlstrom, K. L., Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. E. (2010). Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning. The Informed Educator Series. Educational Research Service.

Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement,

The purpose of this Handbook on Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement is to provide principles for restructuring and substantially improving schools.

Walberg, H. J. (2007). Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement. IAP.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Examining racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline in the context of student-reported behavior infractions.

This paper looks at the disproportionality of consequences for disciplinary infractions between these groups of students. 

Wegmann, K. M., & Smith, B. (2019). Examining racial/ethnic disparities in school discipline in the context of student-reported behavior infractions. Children and Youth Services Review103, 18-27.

Principals’ data-driven practice and its influences on teacher buy-in and student achievement in comprehensive school reform models.

This study investigates: (1) how principals’ data-driven practices may vary by principals’ and school backgrounds and how that changes over time; (2) how principals’ data-driven practices influence teacher buy-in; and (3) how principals’ data-driven practices and teachers’ buy-in influence student outcomes.

Yoon, S. Y. (2016). Principals’ data-driven practice and its influences on teacher buy-in and student achievement in comprehensive school reform models. Leadership and Policy in Schools15(4), 500-523.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2018

This report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, principals, and postsecondary institutions.

Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B. A. (2019). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2018. NCES 2019-047/NCJ 252571. National Center for Education Statistics.

Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation
This article intends to help school psychologists understand high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes results, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of practices to improve student performance.
Braden, J. P. (2007). Using data from high-stakes testing in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(2), 129-150.
From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services
The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality services and outcomes for youth.
Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(2), 329-349.
Why Data Don't Matter
This paper discusses reasons why educators fail to embrace the collection and use of data.
Landrum, T. J. (1997). Why data don't matter. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(2), 123-129.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report looks at the implementation of student data systems and the use of data for improving student performance.
Means, B., Padilla, C., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement. US Department of Education.
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning
This policy brief addresses why using data represents a significant shift for most teachers on how they perform their jobs and details the infrastructure necessary to encourage teachers' use of data.
Miller, M. (2009). Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief. Alliance for Excellent Education.
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Software Enabling School Improvement Through Analysis of Student Data
This paper considers issues surrounding the use data and data based decision-making in schools. It describes the state of the field and possible future directions in school based technology.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Sam Stringfield, and Mary Yakimowski. "Software enabling school improvement through analysis of student data." (2004).
The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District, 2007
This is an analysis of a district-wide evaluation of data uses and procedures for data-based decision-making.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Vincent Cho, and Mary T. Johnston. "The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District." (2007).

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