Education Drivers

Ensuring an Orderly and Safe Environment

Staff performance and student learning require a school environment that is orderly, safe, and supportive of student engagement (attendance, participation) and instruction (social, behavioral, academic). Policies, programs, practices, systems, and curriculum are aligned, proactive rather than reactive, and in place schoolwide as well as in the classroom. Students, educators, and parents work together to adopt, implement, and sustain a shared school vision and culture. Students have clear rules, expectations, and contingencies that support identified behavioral and educational goals. Teachers feel they are part of a professional community that is supportive and responsive to their needs and those of the students. Professional learning is ongoing, targeted, participatory, and an effective process utilizing feedback and coaching. External pressures and interruptions are reduced both inside and outside the classrooms to protect teacher time for teaching, learning, and problem solving. There are strong parent-school ties that facilitate communication, coordination, and cooperation between major stakeholders. The school physical environment is well maintained to support engagement and learning. 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools?
This analysis examines how teacher and principal perception of school working conditions differ.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools? Retrieved from how-differently-do-principals.
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What makes an effective principal?
This is an analysis of two meta-analyses of principals, one looking at leadership style and the second examines what school principals activities have the greatest impact on student outcomes.
States, J. (2010). What makes an effective principal? Retrieved from what-makes-effective-principal.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement?
This meta-analysis examines 26 studies on school leadership to identify the magnitude of direct and indirect effects of leadership on teacher and student performance.
States, J. (2012). What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from what-roles-do-principal's.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Distraction, privacy, and classroom design

Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored. 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior16(4), 437-454.

Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems

The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics130(5), e1136-e1145.

The California School Safety Toolkit First Edition

The overarching purpose of the School Safety Toolkit is to establish an outcome-based framework and methods for assessing any school or district’s safety system with respect to student outcomes, safety, and cost-effectiveness.

Campie, P., Tanyu, M., & Osher, D. (2016). The California School Safety Toolkit. First Edition. Zellerbach Family Foundation. San Francisco.

Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.

The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures. 

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

The issue of sexual harassment has been front page news this past year. What does the research tell us about school interventions designed to reduce sexual harassment? This meta-analysis examines research on the topic and provides insight into how effective current efforts are at stemming incidents of this serious problem. This review provides a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools designed to prevent or reduce incidents of dating violence. This meta-analysis of 23 studies indicates school-based programs having no significant impact on dating violence perpetration and victimization; however, they can have a positive influence on dating violence knowledge and student attitudes.

De La Rue, L., Polanin, J. R., Espelage, D. L., & Pigott, T. D. (2017). A meta-analysis of school-based interventions aimed to prevent or reduce violence in teen dating relationships. Review of Educational Research87(1), 7-34.

 

School Discipline Reform and Disorder: Evidence from New York City Public Schools, 2012-16

While school climate is impossible to measure in most districts, it can be measured in New York City. This report analyzes data covering the five-year period of 2011-12 to 2015-16, which includes the years that the two reforms were enacted as well as "bookend" comparison years.

Eden, M. (2017). School discipline reform and disorder: Evidence from new York City public schools, 2012-16. The Education Digest83(1), 22.

California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged

The opinion article discuss about anti-vaxxers activist grow more aggressive while more study and evidence show how vaccination is important. The author suggest that the Lawmakers must stand up to the anti-vaccination crowd, a very small minority according to every poll. 

Elias, T.D, (2019). California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.dailynews.com/2019/04/19/californias-anti-vaxxers-grow-more-aggressive-as-theyre-challenged/

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention

The purpose of this study was to examine the workplace factors that positively and negatively impact Black K12 teacher retention. This study utilized a mixed-method approach to examine the qualitative and quantitative data.

Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.

This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement. 

Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf

The American Teacher, 1993. Violence in America's Public Schools. Metropolitan Life Survey.

As part of a series of studies on the concerns and aspirations of American teachers, this report illustrates the concerns of teachers, students, and law enforcement officers about the increasing violence and fears of violence in U.S. schools.

Leitman, R., & Binns, K. (1993). The American teacher 1993: Violence in America’s schools (Survey conducted for Metropolitan Life Insurance). New York: Louis Harris and Associates.

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability is a letter written by United States Department of Education. This letter was meant to call people attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin (This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI). This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic.

Lhamon, C. E. (2014). Dear colleague letter: Resource comparability. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www2. ed. gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410. pdf.

Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive
description ever compiled of charter school discipline.

Losen, D. J., Keith, M. A., Hodson, C. L., & Martinez, T. E. (2016). Charter schools, civil rights and school discipline: A comprehensive review.

School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools

This REL Northwest guide is designed to help educators use data to reduce disproportionate rates of suspension and expulsion based on race or ethnicity. It provides examples of selecting and analyzing data to determine whether racial disproportionality exists in a school or district’s discipline practices. 

Nishioka, V. (with Shigeoka, S., & Lolich, E.). (2017). School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools (REL 2017–240). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest. Retrieved from http:// ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.

Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence

this article traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe. 

Noguera, P. (1995). Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review65(2), 189-213.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices

The purpose of this article is to describe how effective practices are incorporated into an approach termed schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 62-83.

School Climate Research Summary: August 2012.

This review address five essential areas of focus: 1. Safety; 2. Relationships; 3. Teaching and Learning; 4. Institutional Environment, and; 5.School climate, the Processes of School Improvement. 

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Higgins-D'Alessandro, A., & Guffey, S. (2012). School Climate Research Summary: August 2012. School Climate Brief, Number 3. National School Climate Center.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2018

This report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, principals, and postsecondary institutions.

Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B. A. (2019). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2018. NCES 2019-047/NCJ 252571. National Center for Education Statistics.

Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation
This article intends to help school psychologists understand high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes results, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of practices to improve student performance.
Braden, J. P. (2007). Using data from high-stakes testing in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(2), 129-150.
From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services
The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality services and outcomes for youth.
Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(2), 329-349.
Why Data Don't Matter
This paper discusses reasons why educators fail to embrace the collection and use of data.
Landrum, T. J. (1997). Why data don't matter. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(2), 123-129.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report looks at the implementation of student data systems and the use of data for improving student performance.
Means, B., Padilla, C., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement. US Department of Education.
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning
This policy brief addresses why using data represents a significant shift for most teachers on how they perform their jobs and details the infrastructure necessary to encourage teachers' use of data.
Miller, M. (2009). Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief. Alliance for Excellent Education.
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Putting Data into Practice: Lessons From New York City
This report looks at New York City's efforts to create an evidence-based and collaborative teaching culture.
Tucker, B. (2010). Putting data into practice: Lessons from New York City. Education Sector Reports.
Software Enabling School Improvement Through Analysis of Student Data
This paper considers issues surrounding the use data and data based decision-making in schools. It describes the state of the field and possible future directions in school based technology.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Sam Stringfield, and Mary Yakimowski. "Software enabling school improvement through analysis of student data." (2004).
The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District, 2007
This is an analysis of a district-wide evaluation of data uses and procedures for data-based decision-making.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Vincent Cho, and Mary T. Johnston. "The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District." (2007).

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