Education Drivers

Principal Competencies

Research has consistently shown that principals play a critical role in determining the quality of teaching, and in turn, student learning and achievement. Recent meta-analytic reviews suggest that effective principals are highly competent in the following areas: 1) establishing and conveying the school’s vision, goals and expectations by modeling aspirational practices and promoting data use for continuous improvement; 2) building teachers’ professional capacity by providing targeted and job-embedded professional development, protecting instructional time, and selecting educators who are the “right fit” for the school; 3) creating a supportive organization for learning by sharing and distributing leadership, understanding and building on diversity, and strategically acquiring and allocating resources; 4) facilitating a high-quality student learning experience by developing and monitoring curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and creating learning environments that are personalized, safe, and orderly; and 5) connecting with external partners who can support fulfillment of school goals, and building productive and collaborative relationships with families. While these principal competencies are relevant for a range of school contexts, leaders operating in varying school environments (e.g., high/low poverty, urban/rural) must ultimately determine how best to enact them to optimize teaching and learning.

School Principal Competencies

School Principal Competencies PDF

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Principal Competencies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/principal-competencies-research

Principals exert a strong influence on student learning and achievement through their ability to impact the types of organizational school features necessary for high-quality teaching and learning (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Leithwood, Harris, & Hopkins, 2019; Leithwood, Harris, & Strauss, 2010; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008; Supovitz, Sirinides, & May, 2010). While principals do not directly impact student achievement (Day, Gu, & Sammons, 2016), and leadership effects on student learning are mediated by other conditions that more directly impact achievement (Hallinger & Heck, 2010; Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, & Anderson, 2010), principals do exert influence over factors such as school climate and teacher working conditions, and make human capital (i.e., teacher hiring) and professional development decisions that indirectly influence student learning outcomes (Cannata et al., 2017; Sebastian & Allensworth, 2012).

            The quality of a school’s leadership is highly predictive of teachers’ perceptions of their working environment and their decision to remain in the school from year to year (Boyd et al., 2011; Burkhauser, 2017; Grissom, 2011; Kraft, Marinell, & Yee, 2016; Ladd, 2011; Redding, Booker, Smith, & Desimone, 2019). Principals play a key role in teachers’ capacity to implement and sustain the evidence-based practices needed for school improvement, for example, by removing barriers to new curriculum and instruction (Yoon, 2016). A recent meta-analysis of 51 studies found moderate to large effect sizes for the impact of principal behaviors and competencies on student achievement, teacher well-being, instructional practices, and school organizational health (Liebowitz & Porter, 2019). The principal also plays an integral role in ensuring teacher quality and in creating a school culture focused on learning and high expectations for students (Fusarelli & Militello, 2012). Understanding the competencies that are needed for effective school leadership is paramount to ensure high-quality instruction and positive and equitable student outcomes. This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.

Historical Overview and Theoretical Background

Effective principals are effective leaders. Leadership has been referred to as the process of influencing an organization’s stakeholders and members to identify and achieve the organization’s vision and goals, in part by developing and fostering relationships between and among the organization’s members (teachers, students, parents, community partners) (Leithwood, 2012). Effective school leaders are thought to have a set of competencies, or “constructs manifested by behavior that relates to effective or outstanding performance in a specific job or role” (Hitt, Meyers, Woodruff, & Zhu, 2019, p. 190). Principals’ practices represent their competencies in various leadership areas, and research has attempted to investigate the relationship between these behaviors/practices and student, teacher, and school outcomes.

In the 1980s, the educational standard for principals was considered to be instructional leadership; that is, a focus primarily on instructional supervision activities (e.g., teacher observation, facilitating curriculum and instruction-related professional development, and monitoring student progress) rather than on managerial or other administrative tasks (Blase & Blase, 2004; Hallinger, 1992). As the notion of the need for a strict bureaucratic hierarchy in schools eroded because of the democratic and participative school restructuring movement that called for empowering teachers as professional educators (Marks & Louis, 1997), the concept of instructional leadership evolved into shared instructional leadership, in which the principal and teachers work together to determine the best instructional practices for the school rather than the principal serving as the primary authority on effective practice (Marks & Printy, 2003). Also referred to as distributed or collaborative leadership, this leadership style has been associated with positive outcomes such as teacher satisfaction, skills, and professional efficacy (Hallinger & Heck, 2010; Heck & Hallinger, 2009), and indeed the effectiveness of distributed leadership in terms of student achievement continues to be documented in the recent literature (Leithwood et al., 2019).

Murphy and Hallinger (1988) were among researchers who took a broader view of instructional leadership to argue for the inclusion of the principals’ skill in organizational management, which includes managing budgets, providing a safe learning environment, acquiring and allocating resources strategically, and building collaborative decision-making processes. The importance of organizational management has been validated in research conducted more recently, and has been shown to have a strong influence on student achievement (Grissom & Loeb, 2011; Liebowitz & Porter, 2019). Strong organizational management skills allow principals to align support systems so that teachers can maximize instructional best practices and enhance student achievement.

In the 1990s, researchers began to highlight a shift away from an exclusive focus on the importance of the instructional core toward transformational leadership (Leithwood, 1994), in which principals and other school leaders are change agents who inspire and motivate staff to improve organizational performance collaboratively (Hallinger, 1992). Transformative school leaders connect leaders and teachers within continual improvement processes so that combined efforts result in a collective efficacy and a positive school trajectory, with teachers motivated to look past their individual interests and invest in the success of the school as a whole (Leithwood, 2012). However, a meta-analysis of research addressing the impact of leadership styles showed that transformative leadership had less of an impact on student outcomes than instructional leadership (Robinson et al, 2008).

A series of subsequent meta-analyses further showed a modest correlation between transformational leadership and student achievement, but showed stronger relationships to teacher and school process outcomes (Leithwood & Sun, 2012; Sun & Leithwood, 2012, 2015); individual direction-setting leadership practices such as “developing a shared vision” and “holding high performance expectations” were strongly related to these outcomes. Marks and Printy (2003) found that integrated leadership, which stresses the importance of both instructional and transformational principal competencies, was found in schools with higher teaching quality and achievement. Integrated leadership “acknowledges that a solid, results-focused management approach must be in place before, or at least simultaneously to, expecting teachers to engage in transcendental and transformative work” (Hitt & Tucker, 2016, p. 535[C1] ).

Principal Leadership Competencies Important to School Outcomes

Several recent syntheses and meta-analyses have sought to update and organize the research on principal leadership to identify key practices and behaviors that reflect the competencies necessary to influence positive student and school outcomes (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Leithwood, 2012; Liebowitz & Porter, 2019; Osborne-Lampkin, Folsum Sidler, & Herrington, 2015; Robinson et al., 2008). In a meta-analysis, Robinson et al. calculated effect sizes for 27 studies of the relationship between principal leadership and student outcomes. They identified five dimensions of leadership: (1) establishing goals and expectations; (2) resourcing strategically; (3) planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum; (4) promoting and participating in teacher learning and development; and (5) ensuring an orderly and supportive environment. They reported strong effect sizes for principal competency in promoting teacher professional learning, and moderate effect sizes for goal setting and planning, and coordinating and evaluating curriculum and instruction[C2] .

            Leithwood (2012) reviewed the literature and derived a set of 21 leadership competencies within five domains organized in a leadership framework (the Ontario Leadership Framework, or OLF): (1) setting directions, (2) building relationships and developing people, (3) developing the organization to support desired practices, (4) improving the instructional program, and (5) securing accountability. The importance of these categories of practice for student achievement has been confirmed through several large-scale multiyear investigations (Day et al., 2011; Leithwood & Louis, 2012).

Osborne-Lampkin et al (2015) reviewed qualitative and quantitative research published from 2001 to 2012, and organized 52 studies into five broad domains of principal behaviors defined in 2011 by Grissom and Loeb’s research: (1) instructional management (addressing classroom instruction and curricula); (2) internal relations (developing interpersonal relationships with students, staff, and parents); (3) organizational management (budget management, resources, facilities, school environments); (4) administrative duties (paperwork, schedules, discipline); and (5) external relations (working with stakeholders outside the school). The review found significant evidence that competency in instructional management, organizational management, internal relations, and external relations impacted student achievement, but failed to find consistent evidence for the importance of administrative duties. The researchers noted, however, that only one study provided causal evidence of principal impact; all other research classified evidence as correlational, so these conclusions must be interpreted with caution.

Hitt and Tucker (2016) reviewed 56 studies and three major leadership frameworks in an attempt to synthesize the major findings and frameworks in the field into a unified model of effective leader practices (see Table 1). The three frameworks reviewed were Ontario Leadership Framework, or OLF, cited previously (Leithwood, 2012); Learning-Centered Leadership framework[C3]  (Murphy, Elliot, Goldring, & Porter, 2006); and Essential Supports Framework (Sebring, Allensworth, Bryk, Easton, & Luppescu, 2006). While a discussion of each of these frameworks is beyond the scope of this report, Hitt and Tucker’s analysis provides a useful organizational structure that highlights five key principal competency areas supported by substantial research to positively, though indirectly, impact student achievement. These competencies also are generally consistent with those observed in the other meta-analytic reviews cited previously (Osborne-Lampkin et al., 2015; Robinson et al., 2008). Hitt and Tucker’s Unified Framework is used to organize the discussion of research supporting key principal competencies that follows.

Table 1

Establishing and Conveying Vision, Goals, and Expectations. Robinson et al. (2008) found a moderate effect size for the impact of the principal’s role in establishing a vision and setting goals, which serve to provide community members with common purpose and a sense of clarity (Latham & Locke, 2006). These competencies are also important components of organizational management, which has been shown to contribute positively to student achievement (Grissom & Loeb, 2011; Liebowitz & Porter, 2019). Hitt and Tucker (2016) confirmed the importance of this principal competency and identified critical practices within this domain, including developing, guiding, and implementing the school’s shared vision, and setting goals and performance expectations.

            Research has shown that high expectations contribute to the closing of the achievement gap (Leithwood, 2012; Marks & Printy, 2003; Murphy et al., 2006; Porter et al., 2008), and effective leaders make these expectations public and transparent to ensure that all staff adopt them within the school’s vision (Knapp, Copland, Honig, Plecki, & Portin, 2010). They also help educators view the vision as personally compelling for their professional growth, and help them see that they have a stake in elevating the growth of their colleagues, with all staff sharing collective responsibility to improve student learning (Hallinger & Murphy, 2013; Lambert, 2002). Leaders in higher performing schools are more likely to communicate the school’s goals and expectations so that they are part of regular, everyday conversations among school staff, and to recognize and inform the entire school community of academic success (Leithwood, 2012; Leithwood et al., 2019; Robinson et al., 2008).

            Additionally, effective principals demonstrate the school’s vision and expectations for all students’ success in their own behavior[C5]  (Lucas & Valentine, 2002; Marks & Printy, 2003; Murphy, 2007). Modeling expected behaviors clarifies how teachers and students should act, and can also empower teachers in their practice and informal leadership roles (Lucas & Valentine, 2002). Principals can model behaviors that contribute to a positive school culture and academic success, for example, by personally enforcing discipline with students; this leads to a true sense of shared responsibility and a genuine feeling of support for teachers (Murphy, 2007).

Effective principals engage staff in using multiple data sources to diagnose and illustrate problems and progress toward goals, as well as to understand the underlying causes of identified problems or failure to make progress (Louis et al., 2010; Murphy et al., 2006). These leaders further link formative and summative assessments to goals, to both monitor progress and hold stakeholders accountable (Leithwood, 2012)[C6] . Competent principals monitor and provide regular formative feedback to teachers to help them move toward fulfilling goals, signaling to teachers where they are excelling and what they may need to improve while simultaneously providing the necessary supports to help them get there. In addition, principals expect and encourage teachers to examine data within many contexts, such as departmental meetings, instructional teams, and individual interactions (Murphy et al., 2006). Principals also strive to translate the external pressures and expectations confronting teachers into goals for organizational improvement that everyone working to improve student learning can internalize (Robinson, Hohepa, & Lloyd, 2009). They take care to monitor teachers’ motivational levels and cynicism about accountability pressures, and find ways to keep everyone engaged in achieving the school’s vision and goals (Leithwood, Steinbach, & Jantzi, 2002).

Building Professional Capacity by Leading Teacher Learning and Development. A well-established empirical base has confirmed the importance of quality teaching for student learning (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockoff, 2014; Hanushek & Rivken, 2006; Lee, 2018); by extension, principals’ capacity to provide appropriate and targeted professional development is crucial for student achievement (Odden, 2011). A recent meta-analysis of the empirical literature documented a strong relationship between principals’ focus on instruction-specific support (including behaviors related to planning and providing professional development) and teaching effectiveness, student achievement, and school organizational health (Liebowitz & Porter, 2019).

            Effective principals also engage in side-by-side professional learning with their faculty as they learn about curricular and instructional improvements (Robinson et al., 2008); this action strengthens principals’ knowledge and capacity to be a resource and support to teachers, and enhances their credibility and legitimacy as instructional leaders in schools (Murphy et al., 2006). Competent principals are capable of identifying the professional learning needed to develop the skills and knowledge of the entire faculty, as well as opportunities targeted to smaller groups of teachers such as grade-level or subject-level groups (Leithwood, 2012). They approach professional development at the individual teacher level as well, to address each teachers’ needs and strengths; for example, arranging for mentoring relationships can provide an individualized experience for both mentor and mentee (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011).

Principals demonstrate their respect for faculty’s competence and expertise, and signal that they care about individual teachers and their lives beyond the school (Murphy et al., 2006). The degree to which the principal creates trusting relationships with teachers influences their willingness to improve their practice, and, in fact, trust in the principal is related to both teacher professionalism (Tschannen-Moran, 2009; Tschannen-Moran & Gareis, 2015) and effective instructional behaviors (Wahlstrom & Louis, 2008). Principals can also demonstrate this trust by supporting and buffering individual teachers from the competing expectations that external accountability processes present, and by protecting teachers’ time and energy from any distractions that may derail the school’s vision and goals (Hitt & Tucker, 2016).

A competent principal recognizes and celebrates highly effective teaching and improvements, and links these events to incentives and rewards (Leithwood, 2012; Murphy et al., 2006). Research shows that these positive outcomes are more likely when principals develop communities of practice to structure professional learning, and ensure that the schedule allows for regular job-embedded learning (Murphy et al., 2006; Robinson et al., 2008). Finally, principals also improve teaching by recruiting and selecting effective educators who will fit in the school context, and by counseling out those who perform poorly and fail to respond to professional development (Grissom & Loeb, 2011).

Creating a Supportive Organization for Learning. Just as principals play a key role in building educators’ professional capacity, they also cultivate the well-being of educators by ensuring they have the resources to be successful and by addressing their emotional needs; these are ingredients of both individual and collective professional efficacy (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Leithwood et al., 2019). A supportive organization for learning exists “when people sense that they are recognized and supported as valuable individuals by leaders” (Hitt & Tucker, 2016, p. 552). To this end, effective school leaders exert a dual focus, demonstrating simultaneously a focus on the task at hand and their relationships with staff; these two areas are mutually reinforcing as work accomplishments strengthen relationships and relationship building strengthens the quality of work accomplished (Robinson et al., 2008). In their meta-analysis, Liebowitz and Porter (2019) found that principal behaviors involving “organizational management” and “internal relations,” which reflect this dual focus, are significantly and positively related to student achievement, organizational health, and teacher well-being.

Supportive learning organizations usually involve collaborative shared leadership structures. Research suggests that strong principals cultivate leadership in others in part by building inclusive and collaborative decision-making processes so that multiple perspectives inform the school’s work to optimize student learning (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Easton, & Luppescu, 2010; Leithwood et al., 2019; Louis et al., 2010; Simon & Johnson, 2015; Supovitz et al., 2010). For example, distributive leadership, in which principals enable leaders and teachers[C7]  to make collaborative decisions focused on educational improvement, and emphasize empowerment of staff and students within school governance, has been shown to enhance schools’ academic capacity and student achievement overall (Leithwood & Mascall, 2008; Sun & Leithwood, 2012) as well as achievement in math (Heck & Hallinger, 2009) and reading (Hallinger & Heck, 2010).

These leaders[C8]  reconceptualize leadership away from bureaucratic and hierarchical decision making toward collective processes that meet both the personal and professional needs of teachers and encourage their commitment to fulfill the organization’s goals. For example, by creating formal shared leadership structures, such as a leadership team, staff members will grow and develop in their roles, and the principal will be able to share leadership tasks with them (Hallinger & Murphy, 2013). Effective principals share or distribute leadership to those teachers with content area expertise which they may lack, and partner with the leadership team to oversee their work (Hallinger & Murphy, 2013).

Leaders[C9]  who improve student achievement also create supportive organizations for learning by understanding the school’s context to maximize organizational functioning (Hitt & Tucker, 2016). Flexibility to consider the school’s context or situation allows leaders[C10]  to not only understand an issue, but also adapt solutions accordingly to optimize outcomes (Daly, 2009; Leithwood, 2012; Marks & Printy, 2003; Murphy et al., 2006; Sebring et al., 2006). Strengthening and optimizing the school culture also occur through processes such as demonstrating an understanding of and commitment to the benefits of diversity, and communicating and collaborating with diverse stakeholder groups to achieve the school’s mission and vision (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Murphy et al., 2006; Sebring et al., 2006).

Effective principals encourage open and transparent communication, successfully resolve conflicts, and build trust with and among staff (Tschannen-Moran, 2009)[C11] , all of which serve to address teachers’ affective[C12]  needs and help them maintain organizational commitment. The school culture is further optimized by leaders who hold high teacher performance expectations and standards (Leithwood, 2012; Leithwood et al., 2019; Marks & Printy, 2003; Murphy et al., 2006). These leaders[C13]  incorporate formative and summative assessments that measure progress in constructive ways to support instructional improvement while also holding teachers accountable for improvement. Consistent and clearly defined performance standards and expectations are necessary so that performance monitoring does not demoralize teachers and reduce motivation (Leithwood, 2012).

Principals influence how school resources are acquired, managed, and aligned to ensure optimal program delivery (Li, Hallinger, & Ko, 2016; Hitt & Tucker, 2016). Effective principals strategically acquire and allocate resources to support the school’s vision, goals, and instructional purpose (Leithwood et al., 2019); the impact of principal decision-making on student outcomes in this area is small and indirect (Robinson et al., 2008). Research has established clear relationships between setting academically specific and rigorous goals, while matching resources to attain these goals, and positive student outcomes (Murphy et al., 2006; Timperley, 2011). This competency of principals includes managing human resources by hiring teachers who fit with and complement existing faculty and who are capable of fulfilling the school’s goals, while strategically targeting remaining resources to further address the school’s goals (e.g., professional development, student support programs) (Leithwood, 2012; Murphy et al., 2006).

Facilitating a High-Quality Learning Experience for Students. A principal’s competency in providing a quality learning environment is critical to a variety of student and teacher outcomes, including student achievement and teacher retention (Burkhauser, 2017; Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Johnson, Kraft, & Papay, 2012; Ladd, 2011). Effective school leaders[C14] maintain a clear focus and commitment to the curriculum, instruction, and assessment, or technical core, of the school, and provide organizational conditions, such as a safe and orderly learning environment, that enable student learning (Hitt & Tucker, 2016). Instructional leadership involves a principal’s active involvement in planning, coordinating, and assessing curriculum and teaching through activities such as discussions about and influence over vertical/horizontal curriculum alignment[C15] , and observation of and feedback on classroom teaching (Murphy et al., 2006; Robinson et al., 2008). Instructional leadership has been shown to have moderate to large effect sizes on student achievement (Liebowitz & Porter, 2019; Robinson et al., 2008), as well as on teacher well-being, teaching practices, and school organizational health (Liebowitz & Porter, 2019)[C16] . While some have suggested that more principal time be allocated to instructional leadership, given the research that suggests principals devote relatively little time to these practices (Grissom, Loeb, & Master, 2013), in their meta-analysis Liebowitz and Porter (2019) found that other types of leadership behaviors (e.g., organizational management) were as important as instructional leadership. They and others (Grissom & Loeb, 2011; Leithwood, 2012; Robinson et al., 2008) have argued that principals must be capable of balancing organizational leadership and instructional leadership in mutually supportive ways.

To facilitate a high-quality learning experience, competent principals develop and continuously monitor curriculum, instruction, and assessment, while requiring rigor and holding high expectations for all students, including those with special programs status and English language learners (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Leithwood, 2012; Murphy et al., 2006; Robinson et al., 2008). Principals are instructional leaders who protect instructional time during the school day, limit disruptions, and encourage teacher and student attendance[C17]  (Hitt & Tucker, 2016). They view assessment as pivotal to evaluating student progress and making adjustments based on regularly collected formative and summative data; they also ensure that this data is disaggregated by indicators important for tracking progress toward school improvement goals, such as by ethnicity, special education status, and socioeconomic status (Murphy et al., 2006). Assessment data further inform the vision and mission-building process, with effective principals skillfully using these data to define future improvement efforts, such as the collective and individual teacher professional learning needed to meet goals (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Robinson et al., 2008).

Principals who positively influence student achievement also incorporate students’ backgrounds into the instructional program and create personalized and culturally responsive learning environments (Hitt & Tucker, 2008; Leithwood, 2012; Murphy et al., 2006; Sebring et al., 2006). These leaders “ensure instructional practice that is intellectually challenging, authentic to student experiences, recognizes student strengths, and is differentiated and personalized” (National Policy Board for Educational Administration, 2015, p. 12). Activities may include implementing mentoring and advisory programs, and providing opportunities for students to develop leadership and personal responsibility (Murphy et al., 2006).

Safety and security are fundamental needs that must be in place for optimization of higher level needs, such as learning (Maslow, 1943); orderly and safe environments allow teachers to focus on instruction and students to focus on learning (Robinson et al., 2008; Steinberg, Allensworth, & Johnson, 2011). In their study of Chicago schools, Bryk et al. (2010) found that the schools in which students made substantial learning gains were more than twice as likely to have safe and orderly environments than schools unable to produce these gains; similar results were obtained in a study of New York City middle schools (Kraft et al., 2016). School leaders[C18]  are charged with ensuring a hospitable learning environment for students and staff (Wallace Foundation, 2013), and the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (2015) identifies “maintaining a safe and healthy school environment” as a key competency within its professional standards for school leaders. Effective school leaders[C19]  consistently maintain and enforce fair and racially equitable codes of conduct (Khalifa, Gooden, & Davis, 2016), which are agreed to by all school community members[C20] (Robinson et al., 2008; Sebring et al., 2006), setting the tone for how these members interact with one another. Psychological and physical safety is coupled with ensuring that the campus facilities are attractive and well maintained (Leithwood, 2012; Murphy et al., 2006).

Connecting with External Partners. Competent principals engage with school stakeholders by establishing connections to encourage broad participation of parents, families, and others beyond the school building who can contribute to a positive student learning experience (Grissom & Loeb, 2011; Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Liebowitz & Porter, 2019). Sebring et al. (2006) concluded from their research that leaders who are able to maximize the contributions of families and community partners are more likely to make gains in student achievement. Effective principals build these connections by developing productive and collaborative relationships and partnerships with families and communities, and connecting the school to its wider environment (Hitt & Tucker, 2016; Leithwood et al., 2019).

Research has demonstrated that schools can improve student learning by engaging parents in ways that directly relate to their children’s academic progress, maintaining a consistent message of what is expected of parents, and reaching parents directly, personally, and with a trusting approach (Epstein, 1995; Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Patrikakou, Weissberg, Redding, & Walberg, 2005; Redding, 2000; Redding, Langdon, Meyer, & Sheley, 2004). Effective leaders[C21] work to create a school environment that is welcoming and inclusive, and ensure that faculty both understand and commit to active parent and community involvement, and appreciate[C22]  their students’ cultural backgrounds (Leithwood, 2012; Sebring et al., 2006). These leaders[C23]  also view families as partners who have a voice in school affairs, including decisions about budgets, school programs and personnel, changes in curriculum and instruction, and student behavior (Henderson, Mapp, Johnson, & Davies, 2007; Sebring et al., 2006).

Trusting school–community partnerships contribute to improved student learning, achievement, behavior, and attendance (Bryan & Henry, 2012; Durlak, Weissburg, & Pachan, 2010; Epstein, 2011; Henderson & Mapp, 2002); educator efficacy (Haines, McCart, & Turnbull, 2013; Lawson, 2003); and enhanced connections among community members (Hill & Taylor, 2004). Principals can serve as connectors for families and students by linking their needs to appropriate and helpful community agencies (Leithwood, 2012). Many schools alone cannot provide all the educational and developmental experiences their students need; they frequently require organized support systems within their community to help students graduate and succeed in life (Blank & Villarreal, 2015). A meta-analysis revealed that community schools providing integrated support systems had increased attendance, math achievement, and GPAs, and reduced grade retention and dropout rates (Moore, 2014). While educational researchers have long described the benefits of these partnerships (e.g., Auerbach, 2010), increasingly principals are expected to build these partnerships as part of their instructional leadership portfolio (Hauseman, Pollock, & Wang, 2017).

Summary and Conclusions

The research cited in this report suggests that principals must possess competencies and expertise within multiple domains if they are to foster high-quality teaching and learning experiences. While earlier research emphasized the importance of a knowledge base of effective instruction and instructional leadership, it is clear that principals also need skills in organizational management to “unleash the potential of… teachers… through the removal of barriers and creation and refinement of conditions that influence school culture” (Hitt & Tucker, 2016, p. 561). Effective principals develop and convey the school’s vision and goals, hold expectations for student success and model these expectations in their own behavior, and use data to monitor performance for continual improvement. They build teachers’ professional capacity by identifying and targeting job-embedded professional development while also protecting their instructional time, build trusting relationships, and select the right teachers to fit the school’s context and needs.

            These principals create a supportive learning organization by simultaneously focusing on organizational tasks and strengthening relationships. They strategically acquire and allocate resources while also sharing and distributing leadership among staff, consider the school context to optimize outcomes, and understand and build on the concept of diversity as a strength within the school. In addition, they are capable of developing and monitoring curriculum, instruction, and assessment while also encouraging personalized, safe, and orderly learning environments so that all students receive a high-quality learning experience.

            Finally, principals are expected to demonstrate competence in building productive and collaborative relationships with families, and connecting the school to supportive community partners who can help meet the wide variety of student needs at the school. As noted by Liebowitz and Porter (2019), principals must be capable of effectively engaging in all these behaviors “with little opportunity for relative efficiencies gained by focusing on only some” (p. 814). As principals typically report average work weeks of almost 60 hours (U.S. Department of Education, 2017), allocating these behaviors across more educators is likely[C24]  desirable (Liebowitz & Porter, 2019).

Finally, a further note about the importance of context for determining the principal competencies needed to be an effective leader. In their meta-analysis, Liebowitz and Porter (2019) found substantial variability in the direction and magnitude of relationships between principal behaviors and student, school, and organizational outcomes, and suggest that “principals’ actions [likely] matter in different ways in different contexts” (p. 815). Hallinger (2018) highlighted the institutional, community, sociocultural, political, economic, and school improvement contexts that shape the practice of school leadership. Although the key principal competencies that have been identified apply across a broad variety of contexts, the way in which these competencies are enacted will likely need to be adjusted to optimize outcomes. For example, “building a shared school vision” is a principal action that is useful and effective in most contexts, but enacting this practice in schools serving mostly economically disadvantaged and diverse families and students may necessitate greater parent communication and engagement (Leithwood et al., 2019).

As Leithwood and colleagues (2019) noted, “the role of research is to identify forms of leadership that will be helpful across many different contexts and…the prime role of school leaders is to figure out how best to use that information as they craft their responses to their own unique contexts” (p. 6). While a full discussion of the contextual variables that influence principal leadership is beyond the scope of this report, these variables are important considerations in interpreting the literature cited here.

Citations

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Durlak, J. A., Weissburg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3–4), 294–309.

Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(9), 701–712.

Epstein, J. (2011). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Fusarelli, B. C. & Militello, M. (2012). Racing to the top with leaders in rural high poverty schools. Planning and Changing, 43(1–2), 46–56.

Grissom, J. A. (2011). Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments. Teachers College Record, 113(11), 2552–2585.

Grissom, J. A., & Loeb, S. (2011). Triangulating principal effectiveness: How perspectives of parents, teachers, and assistant principals identify the central importance of managerial skills. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1091–1123.

Grissom, J., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective instructional time use for school leaders: Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. Educational Researcher, 42(8), 433–444.

Haines, S. J., McCart, A., & Turnbull, A. P. (2013). Family engagement within early childhood response to intervention. In V. Buysse & E. Peisner-Feinberg (Eds.), Handbook on response to intervention (RTI) in early childhood (pp. 313–324). New York, NY: Paul H. Brookes.

Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(3), 35–48.

Hallinger, P. (2018). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management, Administration, and Leadership, 46(1), 5–24.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 38(6), 654–678.

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (2013). Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning. NASSP Bulletin, 97(1), 5–21. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0192636512469288[C28] 

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.

Hauseman, D. C., Pollock, K., & Wang, F. (2017). Inconvenient, but essential: Impact and influence of school–community involvement on principals’ work and workload. School Community Journal, 27(1), 83–105.

Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2009). Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 46(3), 659–689.

Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Retrieved from https://www.sedl.org/connections/resources/introduction.pdf

Henderson, A. T., Mapp, K. L., Johnson, V. R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships. New York, NY: New Press.

Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4), 161–164.

Hitt, D. H., Meyers, C. V., Woodruff, D., & Zhu, G. (2019). Investigating the relationship between turnaround principal competencies and student achievement. NASSP Bulletin, 103(3), 189–208.

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of Educational Research, 86(2), 531–569.

Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201–233.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), 1–39.

Khalifa, M. A., Gooden, M. A., & Davis, J. E. (2016). Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 1272–1311.

Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Honig, M.I., Plecki, M.L., & Portin, B.S. (2010). Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Retrieved from https://www.education.uw.edu/ctp/sites/default/files/ctpmail/PDFs/LeadershipStudySynthesis-08-2010-NovCoverFix.pdf [C29] 

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal, 53(5), 1411–1449.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), 235–261.

Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Beyond Instructional Leadership, 59(8), 37–40. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may02/vol59/num08/A-Framework-for-Shared-Leadership.aspx

Lawson, M. A. (2003). School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban Education, 38(1), 77–133.

Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(3), 359–381.

Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(4), 498–518.

Leithwood, K. (2012). Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Education Leadership, OISE. Retrieved from https://www.education-leadership-ontario.ca/application/files/2514/9452/5287/The_Ontario_Leadership_Framework_2012_-_with_a_Discussion_of_the_Research_Foundations.pdf

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership and Management. Advance online publication. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332530133_Seven_strong_claims_about_successful_school_leadership_revisited

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful school leaders transform low performing schools. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Leithwood, K., & Louis, K. S. (2012). Linking leadership to learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Leithwood, K., Louis, K. S., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation[C30] .

Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 529–561.

Leithwood, K., Steinbach, R., & Jantzi, D. (2002). School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(1), 94–119.

Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 387–423.

Li, L., Hallinger, P., & Ko, J. (2016). Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 76–100. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Philip_Hallinger/publication/281461481_Principal_leadership_and_school_capacity_effects_on_teacher_learning_in_Hong_Kong/links/568f927708aef987e56a22c7.pdf

Liebowitz, D. D., & Porter, L. (2019). The effect of principal behaviors on student, teacher, and school outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 785–827.

Locke, G. P., & Latham, E. A. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265–268.

Louis, K.S., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K.L., & Anderson, S.E. (2010). Investigating the links to improved student learning. New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Investigating-the-Links-to-Improved-Student-Learning.pdf

Lucas, S., & Valentine, J. (2002). Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture.American Educational Research Association annual convention, New Orleans. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED468519.pdf

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 245–275.

Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 370–397.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370– 396.

Moore, K. (2014). Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/2014-07ISSPaper2.pdf

Murphy, J. (2007). Restructuring through learning-focused leadership. In H. J. Walberg (Ed.), Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement, pp. 71–83. Lincoln, IL: Center on Innovation and Improvement[C31] . Retrieved from http://www.adi.org/downloads/Restructuring%20Handbook.pdf

Murphy, J., Elliot, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2006). Learning-centered leadership: A conceptual foundation. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation[C32] .

 Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. Journal of Educational Research, 81(3), 176–181[C33] .

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Odden, A. (2011). Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instruction and student learning in schools. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Osborne-Lampkin, L., Folsom J. S., & Herrington, C. D. (2015). A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement (REL 2016-091). Washington, DC: Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED561940.pdf

Patrikakou, E. N., Weissberg, R. P. Redding, S., & Walberg, H. J. (2005). School-family partnerships for children’s success. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Porter, A.C., Murphy, J., Goldring, E., Elliott, S.N., Polikoff, M.S., & May, H. (2008). Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education. Technical manual, version 1.0. New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation[C34] . Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Vanderbilt-Assessment-of-Leadership-in-Education-Technical-Manual-1.pdf

Redding, C., Booker, L. N., Smith, T. M., & Desimone, L. M. (2019). School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover. Journal of Educational Administration, 57(6), 708–730.

Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning. Geneva, Switzerland: UNESCO Publications[C35] . Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/Publications/educationalpracticesseriespdf/prac02e.pdf[C36] 

Redding, S., Langdon., J., Meyer, K., & Sheley, P. (2004). The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Paper presented at annual convention, American Educational Research Association, San Diego. Retrieved from http://hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/the-effects-of-comprehensive-parent-engagement-on-student-learning-outcomes[C37] 

Robinson, V., Hohepa, M., & Lloyd, C. (2009). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why. Best evidence synthesis iteration. Auckland, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/60180/BES-Leadership-Web-updated-foreword-2015.pdf

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635–674.

Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The influence of principal leadership on classroom instruction and student learning: A study of mediated pathways to learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(4), 626–663.

Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Bryk, A. S., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2006). The essential supports for school improvement. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago.

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117(3), 1–36.

Steinberg, M. P., Allensworth, E., Johnson, D. W. (2011). Student and teacher safety in Chicago Public Schools: The roles of community context and school social organization. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519414.pdf

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2012). Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 11(4), 418–451.

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2015). Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytic review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 26(4), 499–523.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 31–56.

Timperley, H. (2011). Knowledge and the leadership for learning. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 10(2), 145–170.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 217–247.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(1), 66–92. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Christopher_Gareis/publication/273308550_Faculty_trust_in_the_principal_An_essential_ingredient_in_high-performing_schools/links/550872fc0cf2d7a28129783c.pdf

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), Public School Principal Data File, 2015-16 and Principal Follow-Up Survey. Washington, DC: Author.

Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008). How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 458–495.

Wallace Foundation. (2013). The school principal as leader: Guiding schools to better teaching and learning. New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/The-School-Principal-as-Leader-Guiding-Schools-to-Better-Teaching-and-Learning-2nd-Ed.pdf

Yoon, S. Y. (2016). Principals’ data-driven practice and its influences on teacher buy-in and student achievement in comprehensive school reform models. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(4), 500–523.

 

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A Research-Informed Design for Preparing Principals: What We Could Do Differently and Why It Might Work

This paper explores an alternative principal development program that combines the development of shared leadership and individual leaders as schools pursue their learning-improvement agendas.

Bellamy, T. (2015). A Research-Informed Design for Preparing Principals: What We Could Do Differently and Why It Might Work Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2015WingSummitTB.pdf.

Principal Competencies

This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Principal Competencies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/principal-competencies-research

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What is the experience level of school principals, in the role of principal?

The purpose of this analysis is to examine data from the National Schools and Staffing Survey on principal years of experience on the job.

Keyworth, R. (2014). What is the experience level of school principals, in the role of principal? Retrieved from what-is-experience-level834.

How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools?
This analysis examines how teacher and principal perception of school working conditions differ.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools? Retrieved from how-differently-do-principals.
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
How much teaching experience do school principals have prior to becoming principals?
This analysis examines data from the National Schools and Staffing Survey on principal teaching experience prior to being hired as a principal.
Keyworth, R. (2014). How much teaching experience do school principals have prior to becoming principals? Retrieved from how-much-teaching-experience.
What makes an effective principal?
This is an analysis of two meta-analyses of principals, one looking at leadership style and the second examines what school principals activities have the greatest impact on student outcomes.
States, J. (2010). What makes an effective principal? Retrieved from what-makes-effective-principal.
What Distinguishes Effective Supervisors From Marginal Supervisors?
This inquiry looks at research on the impact of supervisors and the activities they engage in that most improve staff performance.
States, J. (2011). What Distinguishes Effective Supervisors From Marginal Supervisors? Retrieved from what-distinguishes-effective-supervisors.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
What are the key factors that influence student achievement?
This is an analysis of a meta-analysis by Marzano, Waters, and McNulty undertaken to ascertain crticial factors that lead to higher student achievement.
States, J. (2012). What are the key factors that influence student achievement? Retrieved from what-are-key-factors.
What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement?
This meta-analysis examines 26 studies on school leadership to identify the magnitude of direct and indirect effects of leadership on teacher and student performance.
States, J. (2012). What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from what-roles-do-principal's.
How Do Principals Compare With Teachers in Improving Student Outcomes?
This analysis compares meta-analyses on the impact of school principals and teachers on student outcomes.
States, J. (2014). How Do Principals Compare With Teachers in Improving Student Outcomes? Retrieved from how-do-principals-compare.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This analysis is based on data from New York City public schools that linking working conditions to teacher career trajectories and retention with a focus on administrative support.
States, J. (2014). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals833.
What areas do principals express as needing additional support?
This analysis examines principal's need for additional support and training based upon the North Carolina Working Conditions Survey.
States, J. (2014). What areas do principals express as needing additional support? Retrieved from what-areas-do-principals.
Can teacher performance pay improve student achievement?
This literature review examines the use of performance compensation as a tool for improving teacher and student performance.
States, J. (2015). Can teacher performance pay improve student achievement? Retrieved from can-teacher-performance-pay.
Do student achievement and poverty have an impact on principal turnover?
This analysis examines the impact of student achievement and poverty on school principal turnover.
States, J. (2015). Do student achievement and poverty have an impact on principal turnover? Retrieved from do-student-achievement-and.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A Research-Informed Design for Preparing Principals: What We Could Do Differently and Why It Might Work
This paper explores an alternative principal development program that combines the development of shared leadership and individual leaders as schools pursue their learning-improvement agendas.
Bellamy, T. (2015). A Research-Informed Design for Preparing Principals: What We Could Do Differently and Why It Might Work [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-tom-bellamy.
Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role
This paper describes the development, content and delivery of a professional development course for Principals regarding their role in multi-tiered systems of school-wide positive behavior supports.
Eber, L. (2015). Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-lucille-eber.
Principal Leadership and Why It Matters
This paper outlines what we know from both the research and the field in terms of principal leadership. It addresses the research and implementation challenges of developing effective principals.
McNulty, B. (2015). Principal Leadership and Why It Matters [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-brian-mcnulty.
Principals as Agents of Change
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of principals in building quality schools. The presentation analyzes those critical skills required of an effective principal.
States, J. (2012). Principals as Agents of Change [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance incentives for school administrators.

Districts usually implement principal performance pay systems at the urging of state policymakers or as part of grant-funded efforts. This briefing summarizes research about the efficacy of district approaches, describes state laws in place and offers three considerations for state policymaking.

Baxter, A. (n.d.). Performance incentives for school administrators. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved from https://www.ncleg.gov/documentsites/committees/BCCI-6680/Nov 28/2bb_sreb_performance_incentives_handout.pdf

 

Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork.

This well-written book on assertiveness clearly describes the non assertive, assertive, and aggressive styles of supervision. Each chapter provides numerous examples, practice exercises, and self-tests. The author identifies feelings and beliefs that support aggressiveness, non aggressiveness, or non assertiveness which help the reader "look beyond the words themselves."

Black, M. K. (1991). Assertive Supervision-Building Involved Teamwork. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing22(5), 224-224.

Where it all comes together: How partnerships connect communities and schools.

This article outlines how far the community schools movement has come since the AFT made community schools a priority in 2008. It explains why the movement has grown, clarifies what exactly makes a community school different from other schools, lays out how community schools work, and shows the positive results that community schools are attaining.

Blank, M. J., & Villarreal, L. (2015). Where It All Comes Together: How Partnerships Connect Communities and Schools. American Educator39(3), 4.

Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning

The updated and expanded second edition of this classic text provides new research and insights into how principals can encourage the teacher development that enhances student learning.

Blasé, J., & Blase, J. (2003). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning. Corwin Press.

The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions

This article explores the relationship between school contextual factors and teacher retention decisions in New York City and finds that school administration by far has the greatest influence on teacher retention.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 303-333.

How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?

Using 4 years of panel data constructed from the North Carolina Teacher Working Condition Survey, this study uses value-added modeling approaches to explore the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of four measures of their working conditions and their principal.

Burkhauser, S. (2017). How much do school principals matter when it comes to teacher working conditions?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis39(1), 126-145.

Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring

This paper examines how the hiring process is changing as a result of teacher evaluation reforms.

Cannata, M., Rubin, M., Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Neumerski, C. M., Drake, T. A., & Schuermann, P. (2017). Using teacher effectiveness data for information-rich hiring. Educational Administration Quarterly53(2), 180-222.

Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams

A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate-related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. 

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology92(2), 331–346.

 

Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust.

This study hypothesizes the following: Trust and leadership dimensions that support empowerment and involvement will predict an educational organization’s ability to minimize a threat–rigid response and flexibly negotiate new demands.

Daly, A. J. (2009). Rigid response in an age of accountability: The potential of leadership and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly45(2), 168-216.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs

Few studies have examined factors relating to ineffective school leadership. Such knowledge can help principals refine leadership behaviors and enhance job security. This study used experiences and perceptions from 99 California public school superintendents to examine the reasons why some principals lose their jobs. 

Davis, S. H. (1998). Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs. Educational Administration Quarterly34(1), 58–90.

The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference.

This article illustrates how successful leaders combine the too often dichotomized practices of transformational and instructional leadership in different ways across different phases of their schools' development in order to progressively shape and “layer” the improvement culture in improving students' outcomes.

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly52(2), 221-258.

Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement

This book examines the nature of successful school leadership: what it is, what it looks like in practice & what are the consequences for schools & pupils.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Leithwood, K., Harris, A., Hopkins, D., Gu, Q., … Ahtaridou, E. (2011). Successful school leadership: Linking with learning and achievement. London: Open University Press.

How important are school principals in the production of student achievement?

As school leaders, principals can influence student achievement in a number of ways, such as: hiring and firing of teachers, monitoring instruction, and maintaining student discipline, among many others. We measure the effect of individual principals on gains in math and reading achievement between grades 4 and 7 using a value-added framework

Dhuey, E., & Smith, J. (2014). How important are school principals in the production of student achievement? Canadian Journal of Economics, 47(2), 634–663.

Principal Competencies

This report highlights the key research literature that addresses the principal competencies important for positive student and school outcomes.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Principal Competencies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/principal-competencies-research

School Improvement Grants: Implementation and Effectiveness

The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) recently released a summary report of the impact of School Improvement Grants (SIG). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided states and school districts with $3 Billion for SIG. By accepting SIG grants states agreed to implement one of four interventions to improve the lowest performing schools: transformation, turnaround, restart, or closure. The goals of SIG were to improve practices in four main areas: (1) adopting comprehensive instructional reform strategies, (2) developing and increasing teacher and principal effectiveness, (3) increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools, and (4) having operational flexibility and receiving support. The report finds minimal positive effects from the grants and no evidence that SIG had significant impacts on math and reading scores, graduation rates, or increased college enrollment.

 

Dragoset, L., Thomas, J., Herrmann, M., Deke, J., James-Burdumy, S., Graczewski, C., … & Giffin, J. (2017). School Improvement Grants: Implementation and Effectiveness (No. 76bce3f4bb0944f29a481fae0dbc7cdb). Mathematica Policy Research.

 

A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents.

A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta‐analysis of after‐school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology45(3-4), 294-309.

School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share.

When schools form partnerships with families and the community, the children benefit. These guidelines for building partnerships can make it happen.

Epstein, J. L. (2010). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan92(3), 81-96.

Exploring the Nature of Implementation of Principal Professional Development Programs: What are Mechanisms for School Change?

This paper explores the implementation of a professional development program (PDP) for school principals. Two methods for measuring fidelity of implementation of the PDP are examined

exploring the nature of implementatiion

Racing to the top with leaders in rural high poverty schools

This article describes an innovative approach, developed by North Carolina State University,
to prepare leaders specifically for work in rural schools in high poverty districts. 

Fusarelli, B. C., & Militello, M. (2012). Racing to the Top with Leaders in Rural High Poverty Schools. Planning and Changing43, 46-56.

Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.

Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.

What Districts Know--and Need to Know--about Their Principals

This paper highlights the limitations of district-level data on principals encountered during data collection for a study on principal preparation programs. 

George W. Bush Institute & Education Reform Initiative. (2016). What Districts Know--and Need to Know--about Their Principals. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED570674

A practical application of time management

This chapter progresses four specific components of “a practical application of time management”.

George, D. (2012). A practical application of time management.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221928054_A_Practical_Application_of_Time_Management

Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.

This paper provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on the authors own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. This paper also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.

Gibert, A., Tozer, W. C., & Westoby, M. (2017). Teamwork, soft skills, and research training. Trends in ecology & evolution32(2), 81-84.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Chock Full of Data: How School Districts Are Building Leader Tracking Systems to Support Principal Pipelines. Stories from the Field

This Story From the Field examines how Denver and five other school districts have constructed and are using these systems as they seek to better train, hire and support school principals.

Gill, J. (2016). Chock Full of Data: How School Districts Are Building Leader Tracking Systems to Support Principal Pipelines. Stories from the Field. Wallace Foundation.

Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers.

The article presents an overview of these tenets drawn from opinion positions, practical experiences, and empirical research studies. There is clear evidence that additional empirical research would be beneficial.

Gillard, S. (2009). Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers. Issues in informing science & information technology6.

When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.

This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.

Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives25(4), 191-210.

Making time for instructional leadership, Vol. 1: The evolution of the SAM process.

This report describes the ongoing development and implementation of the SAM® process, which has the goal of increasing the capacity of principals to use time in instructionally focused ways while decreasing time on management tasks. 

Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Neumerski, C. M., Murphy, J., Blissett, R., & Porter, A. (2015). Making time for instructional leadership, Vol. 1: The evolution of the SAM process. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Making-Time-for-Instructional-Leadership-Executive-Summary.pdf

Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools

An analysis by The New York Times of the city’s signature report-card system shows that schools run by graduates of the celebrated New York City Leadership Academy — which the mayor created and helped raise more than $80 million for — have not done as well as those led by experienced principals or new principals who came through traditional routes.

Gootman, E., Gebeloff, R. (2009). Principals Younger and Freer, but Raise Doubts in the Schools. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/26/nyregion/26principals.html

Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments.

This study hypothesizes that school working conditions help explain both teacher satisfaction and turnover. In particular, it focuses on the role of effective principals in retaining teachers, particularly in disadvantaged schools with the greatest staffing challenges. 

Grissom, J. A. (2011). Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments. Teachers College Record113(11), 2552-2585.

Strategic retention: Principal effectiveness and teacher turnover in multiple-measure teacher evaluation systems

Using multiple measures of teacher and principal effectiveness, the authors document that indeed more effective principals see lower rates of teacher turnover, on average

Grissom, J. A., & Bartanen, B. (2019). Strategic retention: Principal effectiveness and teacher turnover in multiple-measure teacher evaluation systems. American Educational Research Journal56(2), 514–555.

Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

This study draws on data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers and parents with administrative data to identify which principal skills matter most for school outcomes.

Grissom, J. A., & Loeb, S. (2011). Triangulating Principal Effectiveness How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1091-1123.

What is Effective Instructional Leadership? Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals

This study draws on in-person observations of principals collected over full school days over two different school years in a large, urban district to investigate how principals allocate their time across different instructional leadership tasks, and how instructional time use is associated with school effectiveness.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2012, November). What is effective instructional leadership? Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. In Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management annual meeting, November.

Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide.

This principal's guide to implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) for elementary and middle school reading emphasizes the critical role administrators play in ensuring RTI success in their schools. The author makes recommendations for putting the RTI process in motion and helps school leaders:

Hall, S. L. (Ed.). (2007). Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders.

Examines trends in the evolution of the principalship in the United States from the 1960s to the present.

Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration30(3).

Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership

This paper explores several types of school contexts (institutional, community, socio-cultural, political, economic, school improvement) and what we have learned about how they shape school leadership practice.

Hallinger, P. (2018). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership46(1), 5-24.

Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?

This longitudinal study examines the effects of collaborative leadership on school improvement and student reading achievement in 192 elementary schools in one state in the USA over a 4-year period

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Leadership for learning: Does collaborative leadership make a difference in school improvement?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership38(6), 654-678.

Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning.

This article reviews the evolution of instructional leadership as a model for principal practice, examines barriers to its successful enactment, and proposes strategies

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. F. (2013). Running on empty? Finding the time and capacity to lead learning. NASSP Bulletin97(1), 5-21.

Assessing the measurement properties of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A meta-analysis of reliability studies

This article seeks to provide a comprehensive and detailed picture of reliability results. More specifically, the authors present a meta-analysis of reliability results derived from 52 data sets derived from 43 independent empirical studies in which the PIMRS had been employed for data collection.

Hallinger, P., Wang, W.-C., & Chen, C.-W. (2013). Assessing the measurement properties of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A meta-analysis of reliability studies. Educational Administration Quarterly49(2), 272–309.

Teacher Quality

This chapter of Handbook of The Economics of Education reviews research on teacher labor markets, the importance of teacher quality in the determination of student achievement, and the extent to which specific observable characteristics often related to hiring decisions and salary explain the variation in the quality of instruction.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.

The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning

This Wallace paper summarizes a decade of the foundation’s research in school leadership to identify five critical roles for school principals to be effective.

Harvey, J., et al. (2013). The School Principal As Leader: Guiding Schools To Better Teaching And Learning. The Wallace Foundation.

Inconvenient, but essential: Impact and influence of school–community involvement on principals’ work and workload.

Using findings generated from a large-scale survey of 1,400 Ontario principals, this paper reports on the influence of opportunities for school–community involvement on the work principals do on a daily basis and details how involvement in such activities influences and impacts their workloads.

Hauseman, D. C., Pollock, K., & Wang, F. (2017). Inconvenient, but Essential: Impact and Influence of School-Community Involvement on Principals' Work and Workload. School Community Journal27(1), 83-105.

Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement

This longitudinal study examines the effects of distributed leadership on school improvement and growth in student math achievement in 195 elementary schools in one state over a 4-year period.

Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2009). Assessing the contribution of distributed leadership to school improvement and growth in math achievement. American educational research journal46(3), 659-689.

A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement.

Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.

Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.

Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships

This updated and substantially expanded edition reveals how to build strong collaborative relationships and offers practical advice for improving interactions between parents and teachers, from insuring that PTA groups are constructive and inclusive to navigating the complex issues surrounding diversity in the classroom.

Henderson, A. T., Mapp, K. L., & Johnson, V. R. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships. The New Press.

Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues

The authors outline some of the mechanisms through which parental school involvement affects achievement and identify how patterns and amounts of involvement vary across cultural, economic, and community contexts and across developmental levels. Then propose the next steps for research. 

Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current directions in psychological science13(4), 161-164.

Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework.

The specific purposes of this article are to identify and synthesize the empirical research on how leadership influences student achievement and to provide evidence on how school leaders should direct their efforts.

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of Educational Research86(2), 531-569.

Investigating the relationship between turnaround principal competencies and student achievement.

The authors conducted correlational analyses to examine the strength of the relationship between each of the seven competencies and found that the model appears to reflect the internal states of principals who orchestrate school turnaround. 

Hitt, D. H., Meyers, C. V., Woodruff, D., & Zhu, G. (2019). Investigating the Relationship Between Turnaround Principal Competencies and Student Achievement. NASSP Bulletin103(3), 189-208.

Principal’s time use and school effectiveness.

This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.

Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American journal of education116(4), 491-523.

How Principals in Public and Private Schools Use Their Time: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-054.

This brief examines the mean (average) percentage of time that principals reported spending on these activities in the 2011–12 school year, both overall and by selected school, staffing, and principal characteristics.

Hoyer, K. M., & Sparks, D. (2017). How Principals in Public and Private Schools Use Their Time: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-054. National Center for Education Statistics.

The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research

This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs—collectively known as induction—for beginning teachers.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research81(2), 201-233.

How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement.

the authors build on this body of work by further examining how working conditions predict both teachers‘ job satisfaction and their career plans.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record114(10), 1-39.

Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature.

This comprehensive review provides a framework for the expanding body of literature that seeks to make not only teaching, but rather the entire school environment, responsive to the schooling needs of minoritized students

 

Khalifa, M. A., Gooden, M. A., & Davis, J. E. (2016). Culturally responsive school leadership: A synthesis of the literature. Review of Educational Research86(4), 1272-1311.

Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems.

The study explored the following overarching question: What does it take for leaders to promote and support powerful, equitable learning in a school and in the district and state system that serves the school? The study pursued this question through a set of coordinated investigations,

Knapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Honig, M. I., Plecki, M. L., & Portin, B. S. (2010). Learning-focused leadership and leadership support: Meaning and practice in urban systems. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy–University of Washington.

School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data

This study is among the first to address the empirical limitations of prior studies on organizational contexts by leveraging one of the largest survey administration efforts ever conducted in the United States outside of the decennial population census.

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Shen-Wei Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal53(5), 1411-1449.

Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?

This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis33(2), 235-261.

A framework for shared leadership.

Instead of looking at the principal alone for instructional leadership, we need to develop leadership capacity among all members of the school communities.

Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Beyond Instructional Leadership59(8), 37–40. Retrieved from http://johnwgardnertestsite.pbworks.com/f/S4%20Readings%20-%20Lambert%20Article.doc

School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement.

This study addressed teachers' and parents' perceptions of the meanings and functions of parent involvement. 

Lawson, M. A. (2003). School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban education38(1), 77-133.

Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing,

This study examines the relationship between two dominant measures of teacher quality, teacher qualification and teacher effectiveness (measured by value-added modeling), in terms of their influence on students’ short-term academic growth and long-term educational success (measured by bachelor’s degree attainment).

Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis40(3), 359–381.

Leadership for school restructuring

This article describes a 4-year program of research about transformational forms of leadership in schools
responding to a variety of restructuring initiatives.

Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational administration quarterly30(4), 498-518.

Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations.

For aspiring leaders, this framework provides important insights about what they will need to learn to be successful.

Leithwood, K. (2012). Ontario Leadership Framework with a discussion of the leadership foundations. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Education Leadership, OISE. Retrieved from https://www.education-leadership-ontario.ca/application/files/2514/9452/5287/The_Ontario_Leadership_Framework_2012_-_with_a_Discussion_of_the_Research_Foundations.pdf

Linking Leadership to Learning.

The purpose of this paper is to provide one perspective on this question, focusing in particular on findings that may be applicable in the Nordic context.

Leithwood, K., & Louis, K. S. (2012). Linking leadership to learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Collective leadership effects on student achievement.

This study aimed to estimate the impact of collective, or shared, leadership on key teacher variables and on student achievement. 

Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational administration quarterly44(4), 529-561.

The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research

Using meta-analytic review techniques, this study synthesized the results of 79
unpublished studies about the nature of transformational school leadership (TSL) and its
impact on the school organization, teachers, and students.

Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2012). The nature and effects of transformational school leadership: A meta-analytic review of unpublished research. Educational Administration Quarterly48(3), 387-423.

Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited

In 2008 the authors published an article in this journal entitled Seven Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership (Leithwood, Harris, and Hopkins 2008). This article revisits each of the seven claims, summarising what was said about each in the original publications, weighing each of the claims considering recent empirical evidence, and proposing revisions or refinements as warranted.

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management, 1-18.

Leading school turnaround: How successful school leaders transform low performing schools

The authors begin with eight basic understandings, assumptions, or starting points for our subsequent account of how to lead the successful turnaround of underperforming school. 

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading school turnaround: How successful leaders transform low-performing schools. John Wiley & Sons.

How Leadership Influences Student Learning.

This report by researchers from the Universities of Minnesota and Toronto examines the available evidence and offers educators, policymakers and all citizens interested in promoting successfulschools, some answers to these vitally important questions

Leithwood, K., Seashore, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of research: How leadership influences student learning.

School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies.

Guided by a synthesis of theory on human motivation and evidence about teachers’motivation to implement school reform, this study aimed to better understand the responses of teachers and school administrators to government accountability initiatives and to assess the extent to which leadership practices had a bearing on those responses

Leithwood, K., Steinbach, R., & Jantzi, D. (2002). School leadership and teachers’ motivation to implement accountability policies. Educational Administration Quarterly38(1), 94-119.

Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships between principal leadership, dimensions of school capacity, and teacher professional learning in 32 Hong Kong primary schools.

Li, L., Hallinger, P., & Ko, J. (2016). Principal leadership and school capacity effects on teacher learning in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management30(1), 76-100.

The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature.

This meta-analysis finds a positive relationship between school principals spending time on five commonly assigned roles and student achievement. 

Liebowitz, D. D., & Porter, L. (2019). The Effect of Principal Behaviors on Student, Teacher, and School Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research89(5), 785-827.

New directions in goal-setting theory.

Recent studies concerned with goal choice and the factors that influence it, the function of learning goals, the effect of goal framing, goals and affect (well-being), group goal setting, goals and traits, macrolevel goal setting, and conscious versus subconscious goals are described.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science15(5), 265-268.

Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships among principal transformational leadership, school leadership-team transformational leadership, and school culture.

Lucas, S., & Valentine, J. (2002). Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture.American Educational Research Association annual convention, New Orleans. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED468519.pd

Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance

This study investigates teacher empowerment in schools that have at least four years of experience with some form of decentralized or school-based management. 

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational evaluation and policy analysis19(3), 245-275.

Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership.

Focusing on school leadership relations between principals and teachers, this study examines the potential of their active collaboration around instructional matters to enhance the quality of teaching and student performance

Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational administration quarterly39(3), 370-397.

Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching

The authors show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops. 

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Ascd.

A theory of human motivation.

The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental. It derives most directly, however, from clinical experience. 

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review50(4), 370.

The principal as Human Capital Manager: Lessons from the Private Sector

This research suggests that the effectiveness of principals in managing the recruitment and advancement of teachers will contribute to improvements in student learning. One of the key ways these managers influence performance is through human capital management: the attraction, development and retention of the employee talent the organization needs.

Milanowski, A., & Kimball, S. (2010). The principal as human capital manager: Lessons from the private sector. Teaching talent: A visionary framework for human capital in education, 69-90.

Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends.

This report examines the evidence about the emerging approach, Integrated student supports (ISS), from multiple perspectives. 

Moore, K. (2014). Making the grade: Assessing the evidence for integrated student supports. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/2014-07ISSPaper2.pdf

Professional standards for educational leaders

This book introduces the foundations of the recently revised professional educational leadership standards and provides an in-depth explanation and application of each one.

Murphy, J. F. (2016). Professional standards for educational leaders: The empirical, moral, and experiential foundations. Corwin Press.

Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education.

This paper presents the research base and conceptual framework for a new principal leadership assessment tool: the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED™).

Murphy, J. F., Goldring, E. B., Cravens, X. C., Elliott, S. N., & Porter, A. C. (2007). The Vanderbilt assessment of leadership in education: Measuring learning-centered leadership. Journal of East China Normal University29(1), 1-10.

Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts.

This article presents findings from the authors' exploratory study of 12 instructionally effective
school districts (IESD) in California. 

Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. The Journal of educational research81(3), 175-181.

Learning-centered leadership: A conceptual foundation

The purpose of this analysis is to describe the research base that undergirds the emerging
concept of learning-centered leadership.

Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2006). Learning-Centered Leadership: A Conceptual Foundation. Learning Sciences Institute, Vanderbilt University (NJ1).

Professional Standards for Educational Leaders 2015

This document updates a set of voluntary school leadership standards first developed in 1996, then revised in 2008 and long known by the initials of the creator of the original document, ISLLC. The 2015 document differs from its predecessors by focusing more strongly and clearly on students and student learning. 

National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (2015). Professional standards for educational leaders 2015.

Principal Effectiveness: A New Principalship to Drive Student Achievement, Teacher Effectiveness and School Turnarounds with Key Insights from the Urban Excellence Framework

This report uses findings from individual school across the country and principals to inform a new definition of principal effectiveness. It makes recommendations for school leadership policies geared toward dramatically increasing the number of successful principals. 

New Leaders for New Schools. (2009). Principal Effectiveness: A New Principalship to Drive Student Achievement, Teacher Effectiveness and School Turnarounds with Key Insights from the Urban Excellence Framework [TM]. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.

Pre-Service Preparation: Building a Strong Supply of Effective Future Leaders

There are a number of vehicles federal policymakers can use to create or encourage effective leadership policies. Throughout this series we will describe an ideal policy and then suggest potential vehicles policymakers could use to pursue that policy.

New Leaders. (2014). Pre-Service Preparation: Building a Strong Supply of Effective Future Leaders. Retrieved from http://www.nysed.gov/common/nysed/files/file-8-pre-service-prep-2016.pdf

Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instruction and student learning in schools.

This book offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital."

Odden, A. R. (2011). Strategic management of human capital in education: Improving instructional practice and student learning in schools. Routledge.

A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement

This report reviews studies that have investigated the relationships between principal characteristics (including precursors, behaviors, and leadership styles) and student achievement.

Osborne-Lampkin, L. T., Sidler Folsom, J., & Herrington, C. D. (2015). A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement.

School-family partnerships for children’s success.

This book provides essential information to better understand and improve the nature and quality of school and family partnerships for the benefit of all children

Patrikakou, E. N., & Anderson, A. R. (Eds.). (2005). School-family partnerships for children's success. Teachers College Press.

School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover.

Administrator support has been identified as a key factor in deterring teacher turnover. Yet, the specific ways school principals directly or indirectly influence teacher retention remain underexamined. The paper aims to discuss this issue. 

Redding, C., Booker, L. N., Smith, T. M., & Desimone, L. M. (2019). School administrators’ direct and indirect influences on middle school math teachers’ turnover. Journal of Educational Administration.

Parents and Learning

This booklet focuses on parents—the child’s first and most powerful teachers.

Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning (Vol. 2). International Academy of Education.

The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes.

This study examined the school-level effects on tested student achievement in 129 high poverty elementary schools that implemented a common set of comprehensive parent engagement strategies over a 2-year period. 

Redding, S., Langdon, J., Meyer, J., & Sheley, P. (2004). The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes. American Educational.

The Principal's Role in Creating Inclusive Schools for Diverse Students: A Review of Normative, Empirical, and Critical Literature on the Practice of Educational Administration

Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities. 

Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research70(1), 55-81.

School Leadership And Student Outcomes: Identifying What Works and Why

This paper is a synthesis of the evidence-base on school leadership and its impact on student performance.

Robinson, V. M. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why (Vol. 41). Winmalee, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Leaders.

The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students' academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly44(5), 635–674.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Principal Professional Development: New Opportunities for a Renewed State Focus

This brief describes: (1) The need for more and better principal professional development to improve principal effectiveness, decrease principal turnover, and more equitably distribute successful principals across all schools; (2) The research on the importance of principals and how professional development can improve principals' effectiveness; and (3) Options and examples for leveraging current policies to revisit and refocus efforts concerning principal professional development.

Rowland, C. (2017). Principal Professional Development: New Opportunities for a Renewed State Focus. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.

The influence of principal leadership on classroom instruction and student learning: A study of mediated pathways to learning.

This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent–community ties, and the school’s learning climate.

Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and.

The essential supports for school improvement.

This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning.

Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Bryk, A. S., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2006). The Essential Supports for School Improvement. Research Report. Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Understanding validity and reliability in classroom, school-wide, or district-wide assessments to be used in teacher/principal evaluations

The goal of this paper is to provide a general understanding for teachers and administrators of the concepts of validity and reliability; thereby, giving them the confidence to develop their own assessments with clarity of these terms.

Shillingburg. W. (2016). Understanding validity and reliability in classroom, school-wide, or district-wide assessments to be used in teacher/principal evaluations. Retrieved from https://cms.azed.gov/home/GetDocumentFile?id=57f6d9b3aadebf0a04b2691a

Teacher Turnover in High-Poverty Schools: What We Know and Can Do

This paper reviews evidence from six recent studies, which collectively suggest that teachers who leave high-poverty schools are not fleeing their students, but rather the poor working conditions that make it difficult for them to teach and their students to learn. They include school leadership, collegial relationships, and elements of school culture.

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117, 1-36

Teacher expectations.

The purpose of this paper is to integrate statistically the results of the literature on teacher expectations. 

Smith, M. L. (1980). Teacher expectations. Evaluation in Education4, 53-55.

Principals Work 60-Hours Weeks, Study Finds

This articles describe details about principal's long work hour. 

Sparks, S.D. (2016). Principals Work 60-Hours Weeks, Study finds.  Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2016/11/02/principals-work-60-hour-weeks-study-finds.html

Student and teacher safety in Chicago Public Schools: The roles of community context and school social organization

The report examines the internal and external conditions that matter for students’ and teachers’ feelings of safety.

Steinberg, M. P., Allensworth, E., & Johnson, D. W. (2011). Student and Teacher Safety in Chicago Public Schools: The Roles of Community Context and School Social Organization. Consortium on Chicago School Research. 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.

Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement.

Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. 

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2012). Transformational school leadership effects on student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools11(4), 418-451.

Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytic review of evidence about their influence.

This study reviews evidence about the overall influence of direction-setting leadership practices (DSLPs), 1 of 4 major categories of practices included in a widely known conception of effective leadership (e.g., Leithwood & Louis, 2011) and a focus of many other such conceptions, as well.

Sun, J., & Leithwood, K. (2015). Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytical review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement26(4), 499-523.

First-Ever Professional Standards for Principal Supervisors Released

The first-ever standards meant to clarify what principal supervisors should know and be able to do to help principals improve teaching and learning in schools were released on Monday.

Superville, D.R. (2015). First-Ever Professional Standards for Principal Supervisors Released. Eduaction Week. Retrieved from https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/2015/12/first-ever_professional_standa.html

Principals' Test Not Predictive of Success on the Job: Exam results show racial disparities

New research has found essentially no positive correlation between how would-be principals perform on a widely used licensure exam and their success as school leaders.

Superville. D.S. (2017). Principals' Test Not Predictive of Success on the Job: Exam results show racial disparities. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2017/04/05/principals-test-not-predictive-of-success-on.html

How principals and peers influence teaching and learning

This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly46(1), 31-56.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA Regulations of 2006: Implications for Educators, Administrators, and Teacher Trainers

This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).

Knowledge and the Leadership for Learning.

This empirical study of the practice of five elementary school principals whose student achievement gains were three times the expected rate of progress redefines some capabilities identified in the literature as central to leadership for learning.

Timperley, H. (2011). Knowledge and the leadership of learning. Leadership and policy in schools10(2), 145-170.

Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust.

The hypothesis that guided this study was that the degree of teacher professionalism in a school would be related to (a) the professional orientation of principals in their exercise of administrative authority—especially, the extending of adaptive discretion to teachers in the conduct of their work—and (b) the trust evident among various actors in the school community.

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly45(2), 217-247.

Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among faculty trust in the principal, principal leadership behaviors, school climate, and student achievement.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2015). Faculty trust in the principal: An essential ingredient in high-performing schools. Journal of Educational Administration53(1), 66-92.

Putting Data into Practice: Lessons From New York City

This report looks at New York City's efforts to create an evidence-based and collaborative teaching culture.

Tucker, B. (2010). Putting data into practice: Lessons from New York City. Education Sector Reports.

The Principal Pipeline Initiative in Action

This is the fifth report from an evaluation of the Principal Pipeline Initiative (PPI), in which six large urban school districts have received support for strengthening novice principals' capabilities through specific strategies. The report details the implementation approaches, accomplishments, and challenges of participating districts; identifies factors that helped or impeded their progress; highlights lessons learned; and presents implications for policymakers and other districts. 

Turnbull, B. J., Anderson, L. M., Riley, D. L., MacFarlane, J. R., & Aladjem, D. K. (2016). The Principal Pipeline Initiative in Action. Building a Stronger Principalship: Volume 5. Policy Studies Associates, Inc.

How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility

The purpose of this study was to examine various factors that are often present in principal–teacher interactions and teacher–teacher relationships to see how those may have an impact on teachers’ classroom instructional practices.

Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008). How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility. Educational administration quarterly44(4), 458-495.

Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning

The purpose of this paper is to discuss findings from Learning from Leadership. This study was designed to identify and describe successful educational leadership and to explain how such leadership can yield improvements in student learning.

Wahlstrom, K. L., Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. E. (2010). Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning. The Informed Educator Series. Educational Research Service.

Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement,

The purpose of this Handbook on Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement is to provide principles for restructuring and substantially improving schools.

Walberg, H. J. (2007). Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement. IAP.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Principals’ data-driven practice and its influences on teacher buy-in and student achievement in comprehensive school reform models.

This study investigates: (1) how principals’ data-driven practices may vary by principals’ and school backgrounds and how that changes over time; (2) how principals’ data-driven practices influence teacher buy-in; and (3) how principals’ data-driven practices and teachers’ buy-in influence student outcomes.

Yoon, S. Y. (2016). Principals’ data-driven practice and its influences on teacher buy-in and student achievement in comprehensive school reform models. Leadership and Policy in Schools15(4), 500-523.

Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation
This article intends to help school psychologists understand high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes results, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of practices to improve student performance.
Braden, J. P. (2007). Using data from high-stakes testing in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(2), 129-150.
Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals
This paper looks at key elements effective school principal leadership and the impact of principal mobility on student achievement.
Branch, G. F., Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2012). Estimating the effect of leaders on public sector productivity: The case of school principals (No. w17803). National Bureau of Economic Research.
From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services
The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality services and outcomes for youth.
Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(2), 329-349.
Principal's Time Use And School Effectiveness
This paper conducts a time-use analysis of data gathered from observing high school principals in Miami-Dade County Public Schools.
Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American Journal of Education, 116(4), 491-523.
Why Data Don't Matter
This paper discusses reasons why educators fail to embrace the collection and use of data.
Landrum, T. J. (1997). Why data don't matter. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(2), 123-129.
Principal Time-Use and School Effectiveness
This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.
Loeb, S. (2010). Principal Time-Use and School Effectiveness.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report looks at the implementation of student data systems and the use of data for improving student performance.
Means, B., Padilla, C., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement. US Department of Education.
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning
This policy brief addresses why using data represents a significant shift for most teachers on how they perform their jobs and details the infrastructure necessary to encourage teachers' use of data.
Miller, M. (2009). Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief. Alliance for Excellent Education.
MAKING SENSE OF LEADING SCHOOLS A Study of the School Principalship
The purpose of this paper is to identify common roles played by principals, how these roles differ across types of schools, and finally, how effectively are preparation programs training principals in these roles.
Portin, B., Schneider, P., DeArmond, M., & Gundlach, L. (2003). Making sense of leading schools. A National Study of the Principalship. Center of Reinventing Public Education. Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs. University of Washington. Seattle, WA.
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Balanced Leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement
This paper provides a review and quantitative analysis of 30 years of research into the impact of leadership on schooling.
Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement (pp. 1-19). Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Australian Society for Evidence Based Teaching

This web site provides evidence-based resources for free to teachers, principals, and parents.

Center for Creative Leadership
The Center for Creative Leadership provides research, training, consultation, and support for schools to improve their leadership capacity.
Center for Educational Leadership
The Center for Educational Leadership provides research and training in teaching effectiveness and school leadership.
Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)
CPRE looks at issues of teacher compensation, school finance, and principal evaluation for PK20.
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
CCSSO is a nonpartisan, nationwide, nonprofit organization of public officials who head departments of elementary and secondary education in the states, provides leadership, advocacy, and technical assistance on major educational issues.
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP)
NAESP is a professional organization serving elementary and middle school principals and other education leaders throughout the United States, Canada, and overseas.
National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP)
NASSP is a professional organization serving secondary school principals and other education leaders throughout the United States, Canada, and overseas.
National Center for the Evaluation of Educational Leadership Preparation and Practice
The purpose of this center is to make available valid and reliable evaluation research tools, methods and training materials and strategies for leadership preparation programs.
New Leaders
New Leaders is a national nonprofit that develops transformational school leaders and designs effective leadership policies and practices for school systems across the country.
Rainwater Leadership Alliance (RLA)
RLA exists to share data, provide exemplars, and promote and scale effective methods to develop and support PK-12 school leaders.
School Leaders Network
School Leaders Network provides the structure for public school principals to work together in SLN Networks to solve real problems, across whole campuses, as opposed to teacher-by-teacher.
Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)
The SASS is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education and policymakers a variety of statistics on the condition of education in the United States.
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