Education Drivers

Discouraging Inappropriate Behaviors

Teachers place inappropriate conduct at the top of the list of challenges they face. Unacceptable behavior ranges from problematic speech to violence. Evidence supports a continuum of strategies to decrease inappropriate behavior, beginning with the least intrusive and progressing through increasingly restrictive interventions. A simple but effective intervention is explicit student reprimand, a brief correction defining the error and explaining how to improve. Performance feedback is a more formal strategy that uses comments, charts, graphs, and reports to assist students analyze and improve performance by specifying expected behavior, unacceptable performance, and the consequences for each. Basic to reducing inappropriate conduct is planned ignoring (extinction), or withholding attention when misbehavior occurs. A multiform intervention is differential reinforcement. It combines reinforcement for appropriate behavior and ignoring misbehavior in various arrangements by increasing desired behavior to replace or decrease misbehavior. Systems that award points for appropriate behavior and remove points for misbehavior (response cost) are also effective. A more restrictive option for serious disruptive conduct is time out. It is the removal of a student to a less reinforcing environment when undesired behavior occurs.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview

 

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior PDF

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Introduction

Inappropriate classroom behavior includes calling out, disruption, not following directions, aggression, and property destruction. In this overview, the terms “inappropriate behavior,” “disruptive behavior,” “challenging behavior,” and “problem behavior” are used interchangeably to describe the wide variety of behaviors that are undesirable in the classroom. Inappropriate behavior is challenging for teachers; multiple studies have demonstrated the relationship between high levels of disruptive classroom behavior and teacher stress and burnout (e.g., Friedman-Krauss, Raver, Morris, & Jones, 2014; Hastings & Bham, 2003).

Exclusionary practices such as suspension and expulsion are unlikely to decrease inappropriate behavior. Massar, McIntosh, and Eliason (2015) found that more than half of middle school students who were suspended at the beginning of the school year received at least one more suspension during the school year. Further, exclusionary practices can be disproportionally applied to students who belong to minority groups (Sprague, 2018). Examining research on effective methods for decreasing inappropriate behavior is key for establishing a school-wide system that addresses inappropriate behavior consistently to ensure success for all students.

The first step in decreasing disruptive behavior is to increase appropriate behavior (seeSupporting Appropriate Behavior). Responding effectively when disruptive behavior occurs is also critical to decrease disruptive behavior. Incorporating proactive strategies to increase appropriate behavior as well as effective responses to disruptive behavior is characteristic of the universal tier[C1]  of a multitiered system of support (see Multitiered System of[KG2]  Support). For students who engage in persistent disruptive behavior even with universal interventions in place, additional assessment and more individualized intervention are warranted. This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.

 

Negative Consequences for Disruptive Behavior

When disruptive behavior occurs, teachers can respond in a number of ways, including reprimands, time-outs, and response cost. These strategies are negative consequences or procedures to decrease inappropriate behavior in the future.

Reprimand

A reprimand is a statement of disapproval delivered when challenging behavior occurs (e.g., “Don’t do that”). In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, researchers explored the use of reprimands in classrooms. Some studies demonstrated that reprimands decreased disruptive behavior (Hall et al., 1971). In addition, specific characteristics of how the reprimands were delivered increased their effectiveness. Van Houten, Nau, MacKenzie-Keating, Sameoto, and Colavecchia (1982) found that reprimands delivered with eye contact were more effective than those without eye contact, and reprimands made in close proximity (1 meter away) to the student were more effective than those delivered at a distance (7 meters away). O’Leary, Kaufman, Kass, and Drabman (1970) found that reprimands delivered so only the individual student could hear (soft reprimands) were more effective than reprimands delivered so other students could hear (loud reprimands). In contrast, Thomas, Becker, and Armstrong (1968) found that reprimands increased disruptive behavior. These discrepant results could be due to the fact that reprimands are effective for some students but not others.

More recently, multiple studies have sought to increase teachers’ praise-to-reprimand ratio (Caldarella, Larsen, Williams, Wills, & Wehby, 2019; Rathel, Drasgow, Brown, & Marshall, 2014). Although a number of ratios (3:1, 4:1, 5:1) have been recommended, there is limited empirical support for a “magic ratio” of praise to reprimands (Sabey, Charlton, & Charlton, 2019). However, there is strong support for the use of praise (see Supporting Appropriate Behavior) to increase appropriate behavior.

Mild reprimands (e.g., “Be quiet,” “No running”) can be appropriate in the universal tier, but caution is also warranted when considering an intervention involving reprimands. A particular concern is that reprimands can increase disruptive behavior by providing the student with attention, even if the attention is negative. Attention in some form is a common consequence for inappropriate behavior (Thompson & Iwata, 2001, 2007). Therefore, placing an emphasis on providing attention for appropriate behavior is recommended as an alternative to reprimands.

Time-Out

Another negative consequence that can decrease disruptive behavior is a time-out. When challenging behavior occurs, the student loses the opportunity to access positive reinforcement. Time-outs can be nonexclusionary or exclusionary. A nonexclusionary time-out deprives the student of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement without removing the student from the classroom environment; for example, contingent observation or “sit and watch.” The student who engages in challenging behavior is required to sit away from the group and watch others participate, then rejoins the group after a specified period of time. White and Bailey (1990) described how this procedure substantially decreased disruptive behavior in a physical education class.

An exclusionary time-out removes the student from the environment, such as sending the student to sit in the hallway. It should be noted that this form of time-out is considerably more intrusive and difficult to implement (e.g., escorting the student to the time-out location). Therefore, this form of time-out should be considered only in the tertiary tier after other options have been exhausted.

For a time-out to be effective, there must be a contrast between the time-out and the time-in environment. The time-in environment is rich with positive reinforcement, while the time-out environment limits reinforcement. Shriver and Allen (1996) created a time-out grid highlighting this important contrast and provided overall recommendations for effective time-outs:

  1. Enrich the time-in environment. The time-out will not be effective if the environment the student is removed from is not reinforcing.
  2. Separate the student from reinforcement to the degree possible and limit attention.
  3. Keep it short. Make a time-out between 30 seconds and 4 minutes; no research has shown that longer time-outs are more effective.
  4. Release from a time-out can come after a certain amount of time regardless of the student’s behavior, or it can come after a certain amount of time of quiet, appropriate behavior. More recently, researchers found that requiring a period of appropriate behavior before release from a time-out did not have additional benefits over a fixed-duration time-out (Donaldson & Vollmer, 2011).

 

Time-Out

 

Time-out grid adapted from Shriver and Allen (1996)

Although a nonexclusionary time-out could be considered a universal intervention, caution is still recommended. Another important consideration in using a time-out is the function of the disruptive behavior that results in the time-out (see “Determining the Function of Behavior,” below). If the behavior occurs because the student wants to escape work or the classroom environment, a time-out may increase disruptive behavior. Taylor and Miller (1997) determined that two students were engaging in disruptive behavior to escape work. They found that time-outs increased disruptive behavior while working through (prompting the student to complete work) decreased disruptive behavior.

Response Cost

Response cost involves removing a specific amount of positive reinforcement when disruptive behavior occurs. For example, Nolan and Filter (2012) provided music to a student with ADHD noncontingently and removed the music when self-stimulatory behavior occurred, resulting in a decrease in this behavior. Another example is the response cost lottery or raffle: The teacher places a fixed number of tickets on the students’ desks at the beginning of the lesson and removes tickets when challenging behavior occurs. At the end of the lesson, students enter any remaining tickets into a raffle for prizes (Proctor & Morgan, 1991; Witt & Elliot, 1982).

Response cost is practical and easy to add to an existing reinforcement system. It is important to note, however, that the reinforcement system alone may be effective without response cost (e.g., Jurbergs, Palcic, & Kelley, 2007; McGoey & DuPaul, 2000). Therefore, reinforcement procedures without response cost should be tried first, and response cost considered only if reinforcement alone is not effective. Moreover, Tanol, Johnson, McComas, and Cote (2010) directly compared the Good Behavior Game implemented with reinforcement versus response cost. The Good Behavior Game involves dividing the class into two or more teams, providing points to the teams based on appropriate behavior, and the team with the most points earning a reward (see Supporting Appropriate Behavior for a more thorough description of the Good Behavior Game). In Tanol et al.’s study, the reinforcement variation involved students starting the day with no stars and earning stars for appropriate behavior; the response cost variation involved students starting the day with four stars and losing stars for inappropriate behavior. Both versions had similar effects, including reducing disruptive behavior and increasing appropriate behavior, but teachers reported they preferred the reinforcement variation.

Ultimately, if reinforcement and response cost procedures produce similar effects, reinforcement procedures are more consistent with a model of positive behavioral supports. Therefore, reinforcement procedures are preferable to response cost as a primary intervention. Response cost can be incorporated as a tier 2 or tier 3 intervention if reinforcement procedures alone are not effective.

 

Function-Based Interventions

Strategies for increasing appropriate behavior and decreasing inappropriate behavior should be incorporated into the universal tier of a multitiered system of support. Students who continue to engage in disruptive behavior even when universal strategies are in place may require additional support in the form of more individualized interventions. The first step in developing an individualized intervention is determining why the behavior is occurring.

Inappropriate Behavior Happens for a Reason

Inappropriate behavior occurs to get individuals something they want or need. In other words, every behavior serves a function (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Common functions of behavior include attention, escape, items/activities, and sensory.

Attention. Attention can come from a variety of sources (teachers, peers) and can take a variety of forms (praise, assistance). Even negative attention (e.g., “Don’t do that”) can be reinforcing for some students.

Escape. Escape from something the student does not like is another common function of challenging behavior. The student may seek to escape from work or tasks, from attention (i.e., to be left alone), or from an undesirable environment (e.g., a noisy classroom).

Items/Activities. Students can also engage in disruptive behavior to access physical items that they want or need, such as food or toys. This function also encompasses access to movement (e.g., the freedom to move around the room instead of sitting at a desk) or specific activities.

Sensory. Disruptive behavior sometimes occurs because the behavior itself feels good. Everyone engages in sensory behavior to some degree; examples include humming, foot tapping, and nail biting. Students with developmental or intellectual disabilities may engage in stereotypy (e.g., hand flapping, rocking, noncontextual vocalizations), which is most often reported to be sensory in nature (DiGennaro Reed, Hirst, & Hyman, 2012). This function also can involve the removal of unpleasant sensory stimulation (e.g., scratching an itch, covering ears to muffle loud noise).

Combinations of Reasons for Inappropriate Behavior

Attention, escape, items/activities, and sensory can be considered the four basic functions of behavior but, in the real world, each rarely appears in isolation. Challenging behavior can arise from a combination of functions. For example, a student makes an inappropriate comment during a math lesson. The other students in the class laugh, and the teacher sends the student to sit in the hall. The reason the student made the inappropriate comment could be for peer attention, to escape the math lesson, or a combination of the two.

How the behavior looks does not necessarily suggest why it is happening, and the same behavior can serve different functions for different students. For example, Broussard and Northup (1995) conducted functional assessments of three students who engaged in disruptive classroom behavior. They found that although the behaviors looked similar across the three students, the functions of the behavior varied: teacher attention for one student, peer attention for another student, and escape from work for the third student. Therefore, additional information beyond the form of the behavior is needed to determine the function of behavior.

Determining the Function of Behavior

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) refers to a variety of assessment strategies that involve observing the environment in which the challenging behavior occurs to identify potential reasons for the behavior (Anderson, Rodriguez, & Campbell, 2015; Cooper et al., 2007). In some cases, conducting an FBA may be legally required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; see Collins & Zirkel, 2017, for a discussion of the legal and professional requirements surrounding FBAs).

Conducting an FBA requires specialized training, and attempting to identify the function of an inappropriate behavior may be challenging for teachers. Youngbloom and Filter (2013) found considerable variability in the skills of pre-service teachers in identifying behavior function based on video vignettes. However, because teachers often have the most knowledge of the circumstances under which disruptive behavior occurs, their role in the FBA process is essential. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of coaching teachers to conduct FBAs as part of an interdisciplinary team (e.g., Pence, St. Peter, & Giles, 2014; Rispoli et al., 2015).

FBAs may be conducted as part of the intensive tier of a multitiered system of support. For example, Trussell, Lewis, and Raynor (2016) evaluated the effects of universal teacher practices (including providing instructions, allowing a wait time of 3 seconds for students to respond, providing prompts, and maintaining a 4:1 ratio of praise to negative feedback) and FBA-based interventions on the challenging behavior of three elementary school students. The universal practices resulted in moderate decreases in disruptive behavior by the three students. However, because these decreases were not considered socially significant, FBAs were conducted and function-based interventions developed. These individualized interventions resulted in greater, socially significant decreases in disruptive behavior.

Function-Based Interventions

Function-based interventions involve choosing how to respond to challenging behavior based on why it is happening. Multiple studies have demonstrated that function-based interventions result in greater improvements than non-function-based interventions (Ellingson, Miltenberger, Stricker, Galensky, & Garlinghouse, 2000; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005). Iwata, Pace, Cowdery, & Miltenberger (1994) highlighted the necessity of determining function when utilizing interventions based on extinction (see discussion below). If the function is not accurately identified, the intervention may be counterproductive. For example, a student yells to access teacher attention. In a non-function-based intervention, the teacher pulls the student aside and explains that yelling is disruptive to the other students. This intervention provides the student with attention for yelling, which will likely increase the behavior. Alternatively, a function-based intervention ignores yelling and provides attention for appropriate behavior. Yelling will likely decrease because it does not get the student what he or she wants whereas appropriate behavior does.

A study by Trussell et al. (2016) highlighted how interventions can be individualized for each student based on the function of the challenging behavior. For two participants whose behaviors were maintained by attention, the intervention called for providing immediate attention for appropriate behavior and withholding attention for inappropriate behavior. One participant’s behavior was maintained by escape from work; the intervention provided opportunities to take breaks when work was completed appropriately. Notably, the intervention for each student was customized based on the students’ motivation, and involved strategies to decrease challenging behavior as well as reinforcement for appropriate behavior. 

Noncontingent reinforcement

One type of function-based intervention is noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). It involves identifying why the challenging behavior is occurring, then periodically providing what the student wants, regardless of the student’s behavior (Coy & Kostewicz, 2018). For example, if a student engages in calling out for attention, NCR has the teacher provide attention to the student regularly throughout the day.

Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of NCR. Austin and Soeda (2008) determined that the off-task behavior of two third graders was maintained by access to teacher attention. The intervention consisted of teachers providing attention every 4 minutes; the researchers used a MotivAider (a small electronic device worn by the teacher that provides vibratory cues) to remind teachers to do this. To deal with disruptive behavior maintained by access to peer attention, a study by Jones, Drew, and Weber (2000) called for a peer to provide attention noncontingently, which reduced disruptive behavior.

NCR can also be implemented for behaviors that occur to escape work. Waller and Higbee (2010) provided participants with noncontingent breaks, which reduced disruptive behavior and increased appropriate academic behavior. In addition, after the initial success of NCR, the researchers gradually decreased the number and duration of the breaks, so the students accessed more academic time while maintaining low levels of disruptive behavior.

Extinction-Based Interventions

Another type of function-based intervention is extinction, which is employed after identifying why the behavior is happening. Extinction involves changing the environment so the inappropriate behavior no longer produces the desired result. If applied consistently, extinction results in a decrease in the challenging behavior over time. It is extremely important to withhold the reinforcer every time the behavior occurs. If extinction is not implemented consistently, it is unlikely to be effective and may even make the behavior worse (Cooper et al., 2007).

Planned Ignoring. The teacher withholds attention (talking to, looking at the student) when challenging behavior occurs. Therefore, the challenging behavior no longer produces the result of attention.

         It is crucial that teachers ignore the specific disruptive behavior of students, not the students themselves. As soon as a student engages in appropriate behavior, the teacher should provide attention (Hester, Hendrickson, & Gable, 2009).

Planned ignoring should be used in combination with other strategies to increase appropriate alternative behavior. For example, Schumate and Wills (2010) determined that the disruptive behavior of three elementary school students occurred to access teacher attention. The intervention called for the teacher to provide attention periodically when disruptive behavior was not occurring, provide attention when students raised their hands, and withhold attention when disruptive behavior occurred.

Planned ignoring, when combined with providing attention for appropriate behavior, can be utilized as a universal strategy (tier 1 intervention), as well as part of an intervention package in tier 2 or 3 supports.

Escape Extinction. Escape extinction is an intervention to address challenging behavior related to escape from work or other undesirable environments. When challenging behavior occurs, the teacher does not remove the task.

Guided compliance or tell-show-help is an effective strategy to increase following directions. The teacher tells the student to complete the task (e.g., “Open your book”). If the student does not follow the direction, the teacher shows the student how to complete the task (e.g., “Open your book like this”—the teacher models opening a book). If the student still does not follow the direction, the teacher helps the student complete the task (e.g., the teacher guides the student’s hands to open the book). The effectiveness of guided compliance has been demonstrated with young children (Cote, Thompson, & McKerchar, 2005; Wilder & Atwell, 2006) and has been found to enhance the effectiveness of other interventions, such as providing reinforcement for compliance (Wilder, Myers, Nicholson, Allison, & Fischerti, 2012).

         It is important to note that guided compliance is only practical to implement with younger students and with instructions that can be prompted by physically moving the students’ hands. Guided compliance would likely be used in tier 3 as it requires considerable individualization and one-on-one implementation.

Escape extinction can also be implemented without hand-over-hand guidance. In a study by Wright-Gallo, Higbee, Reagon, and Davey (2006), FBAs revealed that the two participants engaged in disruptive behavior to access attention and escape from work. The intervention involved teaching the students to appropriately request attention or a break from work. If disruptive behavior occurred, the teacher provided a brief instruction to “get back on task,” but did not provide further attention or a break from work.

Escape extinction is an intensive intervention that is challenging to implement. It also can produce a number of undesirable side effects (see the next section). Therefore, escape extinction should be considered only in the intensive tier in a multitiered system of support after other options have been explored.

Side Effects of Extinction-Based Interventions

 Extinction-based interventions can produce the following undesirable side effects (Cooper et al., 2007):

  • Getting worse before getting better. The inappropriate behavior may increase in frequency or intensity (e.g., louder yelling) when extinction is first implemented.
  • Trying something different. Students may engage in new forms of inappropriate behavior because their original behavior is not working to get what they want.
  • Emotional behavior. Students may cry or engage in other emotional responses.

 

Important Considerations for Behavior Reduction Procedures

  • Beware of undesirable side effects. Negative consequences can potentially harm the teacher-student relationship. The student may become withdrawn or begin to avoid the teacher delivering the negative consequence. Also, the teacher may be inclined to overuse negative consequences if they result in an immediate cessation of inappropriate behavior (Cooper et al., 2007). For example, if a teacher shouts “Be quiet!” and talking immediately stops, the teacher is more likely to shout the same command in the future. Negative consequences may involve modeling undesirable behavior for students (Cooper et al., 2007). For example, if a teacher yells, the students may attempt to imitate the teacher, leading to additional inappropriate behavior.

         Extinction-based interventions, in particular, can be difficult to implement and produce a number of side effects such as an initial increase in disruptive behavior, emergence of new disruptive behavior, and emotional behavior.

  • Try positive strategies first. Using strategies based on reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior first before considering additional behavior reduction strategies is consistent with a multitiered system of support. Further, some reinforcement-based interventions may be just as effective if not more effective than interventions incorporating negative consequences or extinction (e.g., Jurbergs et al., 2007; McGoey & DuPaul, 2000; Tanol et al., 2010).
  • Increase an appropriate alternative. Behavior reduction strategies should never be implemented in isolation. When decreasing an inappropriate behavior, always identify an appropriate replacement behavior to increase; this teaches the student what to do in addition to what not to do. A replacement behavior should serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior. For example, if yelling functions to access teacher attention, the replacement behavior (e.g., appropriate requesting, tapping on the shoulder) should also access teacher attention.

         Teaching appropriate replacement behavior can also help to mitigate the side effects associated with these interventions. Lerman, Iwata, and Wallace (1999) found that side effects of extinction (e.g., increase in disruptive behavior, new forms of disruptive behavior) were less likely to occur when interventions also included reinforcement for appropriate behavior than when extinction was applied alone.

 

Conclusions and Implications

Decreasing inappropriate behavior is vital to creating a positive school environment where all students can learn. The first step in decreasing inappropriate behavior is supporting appropriate behavior (see Supporting Appropriate Behavior). However, responding effectively when challenging behavior occurs is another critical component of interventions to decrease the behavior. Applying negative consequences such as reprimands, time-outs, or response cost can reduce the occurrence of challenging behavior in the future.

For students who continue to engage in disruptive behavior with universal strategies in place (i.e., a combination of reinforcement for appropriate behavior and negative consequences for challenging behavior), additional support may be needed. Determining the function, or why the behavior is happening, prior to implementing an intervention allows for the selection of the most effective intervention. Disruptive behavior can occur for a number of reasons and the same behavior may function differently for different students (Broussard & Northup, 1995; Iwata et al., 1994; Trussell et al., 2016). Strategies based on the function of the student’s behavior are more effective than non-function-based interventions (Ellingson et al., 2000; Ingram et al., 2005; Taylor & Miller, 1997)

Function-based interventions to decrease challenging behavior include NCR and extinction-based interventions. NCR involves providing the student with what they want (e.g., attention, escape from work) periodically throughout the day regardless of the student’s behavior. Extinction-based interventions involve identifying why the behavior is happening, then changing the environment so the behavior no longer produces that result, and include planned ignoring and guided compliance or working through.

Side effects such as an initial increase in inappropriate behavior, new forms of disruptive behavior, or emotional behavior can occur with extinction-based interventions. Negative consequences can also produce side effects, such as student withdrawal, teacher overuse, and undesirable modeling. Combining behavior reduction procedures with reinforcement for appropriate behavior mitigates these side effects, teaches students what to do in addition to what not to do, and aligns with a system of positive behavioral support.

 

Citations

Anderson, C. M., Rodriguez, B. J., & Campbell, A. (2015). Functional behavior assessment in schools: Current status and future directions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 24(3), 338–371. doi: 10.1007/s10864-015-9226-z

Austin, J. L., & Soeda, J. M. (2008). Fixed-time teacher attention to decrease off-task behaviors of typically developing third graders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 279–283. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2008.41-279

Broussard, C. D., & Northup, J. (1995). An approach to functional assessment and analysis of disruptive behavior in regular education classrooms. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 151–164. doi: 10.1037/h0088301

Caldarella, P., Larsen, R. A. A., Williams, L., Wills, H. P., & Wehby, J. H. (2019). Teacher praise-to-reprimand ratios: Behavioral response of students at risk for EBD compared with typically developing peers. Education and Treatment of Children, 42(4), 447–468.

Collins, L. W., & Zirkel, P. A. (2017). Functional behavior assessments and behavior intervention plans: Legal requirements and professional recommendations. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 19(3), 180–190. doi: 10.1177/1098300716682201

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Cote, C. A., Thompson, R. H., & McKerchar, P. M. (2005). The effects of antecedent interventions and extinction on toddlers’ compliance during transitions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 235–238. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2005.143-04

Coy, J. N., & Kostewicz, D. E. (2018). Noncontingent reinforcement: Enriching the classroom environment to reduce problem behaviors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 50(5), 301–309.

DiGennaro Reed, F. D., Hirst, J. M., & Hyman, S. R. (2012). Assessment and treatment of stereotypic behavior in children with autism and other developmental disabilities: A thirty year review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 422–430. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.07.003

Donaldson, J. M., & Vollmer, T. R. (2011). An evaluation and comparison of time-out procedures with and without release contingencies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(4), 693–705. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2011.44-693

Ellingson, S. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Stricker, J., Galensky, T. L., & Garlinghouse, M. (2000). Functional assessment and intervention for challenging behaviors in the classroom by general classroom teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(2), 85–97. doi: 10.1177/109830070000200202

Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Raver, C. C., Morris, P. A., & Jones, S. M. (2014). The role of classroom-level child behavior problems in predicting preschool teacher stress and classroom emotional climate. Early Education and Development, 25(4), 530–552.

Hall, R., Axelrod, S., Foundopoulos, M., Shellman, J., Campbell, R., & Cranston, S. (1971). The effective use of punishment to modify behavior in the classroom. Educational Technology, 11(4), 24–26.

Hastings, R. P., & Bham, M. S. (2003). The relationship between student behaviour patterns and teacher burnout. School Psychology International, 24(1), 115–127.

Hester, P. P., Hendrickson, J. M., & Gable, R. A. (2009). Forty years later: The value of praise, ignoring, and rules for preschoolers at risk for behavior disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 32(4), 513–535. doi: 10.1353/etc.0.0067

Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T. & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA function-based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224–236. doi: 10.1177/10983007050070040401

Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Cowdery, G. E., & Miltenberger, R. G. (1994). What makes extinction work: An analysis of procedural form and function. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(1), 131–144. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1994.27–131

Jones, K. M., Drew, H. A., & Weber, N. L. (2000). Noncontingent peer attention as treatment for disruptive classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 343–346.

Jurbergs, N., Palcic, J., & Kelley, M. L. (2007). School-home notes with and without response cost: Increasing attention and academic performance in low-income children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(3), 358–379. doi: 10.1037/1045-3830.22.3.358

Lerman, D. C., Iwata, B. A., & Wallace, M. D. (1999). Side effects of extinction: Prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1999.32-1

Massar, M. M., McIntosh, K., & Eliason, B. M. (2015). Do out-of-school suspensions prevent further exclusionary discipline? PBIS evaluation brief. Eugene, OR: OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

McGoey, K. E., & DuPaul, G. J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(3), 330–343. doi: 10.1037/h0088790

Nolan, J. D., & Filter, K. J. (2012). A function-based classroom behavior intervention using non-contingent reinforcement plus response cost. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(3), 419–430.

O’Leary, K. D., Kaufman, K. F., Kass, R. E., & Drabman, R. S. (1970). The effects of loud and soft reprimands on the behavior of disruptive students. Exceptional Children, 37(2), 145–155.

Pence, S. T., St. Peter, C. C., & Giles, A. F. (2014). Teacher acquisition of functional analysis methods using pyramidal training. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 132–149. doi: 10.1007/s10864-013-9182-4

Proctor, M. A., & Morgan, D. (1991). Effectiveness of a response cost raffle procedure on the disruptive classroom behavior of adolescents with behavior problems. School Psychology Review, 20(1), 97.

Rathel, J. M., Drasgow, E., Brown, W. H., & Marshall, K. J. (2014). Increasing induction-level teachers’ positive-to-negative communication ratio and use of behavior-specific praise through e-mailed performance feedback and its effect on students’ task engagement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(4), 219–233. doi:10.1177/1098300713492856

Rispoli, M., Burke, M. D., Hatton, H., Ninci, J., Zaini, S., & Sanchez, L. (2015). Training Head Start teachers to conduct trial-based functional analysis of challenging behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(4), 235–244. doi: 10.1177/1098300715577428

Sabey, C. V., Charlton, C., & Charlton, S. R. (2019). The “magic” positive-to-negative interaction ratio: Benefits, applications, cautions, and recommendations. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 27(3), 154-164. doi: 10.1177/1063426618763106

Schumate, E. D., & Wills, H. P. (2010). Classroom-based functional analysis and intervention for disruptive and off-task behaviors. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(1), 23–48.

Shriver, M. D., & Allen, K. D. (1996). The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(1), 67–74.

Sprague, J. R. (2018). Closing in on discipline disproportionality: We need more theoretical, methodological, and procedural clarity. School Psychology Review, 47(2), 196–198. doi: 10.17105/SPR-2018-0017.V47-2

Tanol, G., Johnson, L., McComas, J., & Cote, E. (2010). Responding to rule violations or rule following: A comparison of two versions of the Good Behavior Game with kindergarten students. Journal of School Psychology, 48(5), 337–355. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2010.06.001

Taylor, J., & Miller, M. (1997). When timeout works some of the time: The importance of treatment integrity and functional assessment. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 4–22.

Thomas, D. R., Becker, W. C., & Armstrong, M. (1968). Production and elimination of disruptive classroom behavior by systematically varying teacher’s behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(1), 35–45. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1968.1-35

Thompson, R. H., & Iwata, B. A. (2001). A descriptive analysis of social consequences following problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(2), 169–178. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2001.34-169

Thompson, R. H., & Iwata, B. A. (2007). A comparison of outcomes from descriptive and functional analyses of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 333–338. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.56-06

Trussell, R. P., Lewis, T. J., & Raynor, C. (2016). The impact of universal teacher practices and function-based behavior interventions on the rates of problem behavior among at-risk students. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(3), 261–282.

Van Houten, R., Nau, P. A., MacKenzie-Keating, S. E., Sameoto, D., & Colavecchia, B. (1982). An analysis of some variables influencing the effectiveness of reprimands. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(1), 65–83. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1982.15-65

Waller, R. D., & Higbee, T. S. (2010). The effects of fixed-time escape on inappropriate and appropriate classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(1), 149–153. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2010.43-149

White, A. G., & Bailey, J. S. (1990). Reducing disruptive behaviors of elementary physical education students with sit and watch. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 353–359. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1990.23-353

Wilder, D. A., & Atwell, J. (2006). Evaluation of a guided compliance procedure to reduce noncompliance among preschool children. Behavioral Interventions, 21(4), 265–272. doi: 10.1002/bin.222

Wilder, D. A., Myers, K., Nicholson, K., Allison, J., & Fischerti, A. T. (2012). The effects of rationales, differential reinforcement, and a guided compliance procedure to increase compliance among preschool children. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(1), 111–122. doi: 10.1353/etc.2012.0005

Witt, J. C., & Elliott, S. N. (1982). The response cost lottery: A time efficient and effective classroom intervention. Journal of School Psychology, 20(2), 155–161.

Wright-Gallo, G. L., Higbee, T. S., Reagon, K. A., & Davey, B. J. (2006). Classroom-based functional analysis and intervention for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(3). 421–436.

Youngbloom, R. & Filter, K. J. (2013). Pre-service teacher knowledge of behavior function: Implications within the classroom. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(3), 631–648. doi: 10.14204/ejrep.31.13063

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Rules and Procedures Overview

This overview summarizes research about the effects of rules on appropriate and inappropriate behavior in school settings and provides recommendations for incorporating rules effectively into a behavior management program.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Rules and Procedures. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-rules-procedures.

Structured Environment Overview

This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments.

 

Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties
This paper discusses methods for making valid data-based decisions for student social behavior.
Gresham, F. (2009). Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-frank-gresham.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention.

Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., Witt, J. C., et al. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

 

Extrinsic Reinforcement in the Classroom: Bribery or Best Practice

The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature. 

Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review33(3), 344-362.

Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior.

A multiple baseline design across participants was used to determine how teacher greetings affected on‐task behavior of 3 middle school students with problem behaviors.

Allday, R. A., & Pakurar, K. (2007). Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.86-06

Applying Positive Behavior Support and Functional Behavioral Assessments in Schools

The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA.

applying positive behavior support

Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom.

The present study investigated the effects of a classroom behavior management technique based on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other than teacher attention.

Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis2(2), 119-124.

Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training.

Functional communication training incorporates a comprehensive assessment of the communicative functions of maladaptive behavior with procedures to teach alternative and incompatible responses.

Bird, F., Dores, P. A., Moniz, D., & Robinson, J. (1989). Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94(1), 37-48.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Book Five: Life Skills Training

This volume describes research aimed at identifying 10 model programs proven effective for violence prevention; describes the 10 programs selected from the more than 400 reviewed; and details the goals, targeted risk and protective factors, design, and other aspects of Life Skills Training, one of the model programs selected.

Botvin, G. J., Mihalic, S. F., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1998). Blueprints for violence prevention: Book five: Life skills training. Boulder, CO: Center for Study and Prevention of Violence.

Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on The Good Behavior Game across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. 

Bowman-Perrott, L., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Zhang, N., & Vannest, K. (2016). Promoting positive behavior using the Good Behavior Game: A meta-analysis of single-case research. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(3), 180-190.

A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative

This paper summarizes an approach to prevention partnerships developed over a decade and centered on the three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) model.

Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Bloom, J., Barrett, S., Hershfeldt, P., Alexander, A., ... & Leaf, P. J. (2012). A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: The PBIS Maryland initiative. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research39(4), 225-237.

Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Child Behavior Problems

The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics130(5), e1136-e1145.

Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior

Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed. 

Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities15(2), 99-118.

A randomized trial of case management for youths with serious emotional disturbance

Reports on a randomized trial of case management carried out in conjunction with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Mental Health Services Program for Youth in North Carolina (RWJ MHSPY). 

Burns, B. J., Farmer, E. M., Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Behar, L. (1996). A randomized trial of case management for youths with serious emotional disturbance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology25(4), 476-486.

Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: The Myth Continues

The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations.

Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst24(1), 1-44.

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction

The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task. 

Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis16(1), 101-109.

Reducing Behavior Problem Through Functional Communication

It is generally agreed that serious misbehavior in children should be replaced with socially appropriate behaviors, but few guidelines exist with respect to choosing replacement behaviors. The authors address this issue in two experiments.

Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of applied behavior analysis18(2), 111-126.

Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science

This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.

Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions4(1), 4-16.

Comprehensive Multisituational Intervention for Problem Behavior in the Community: Long-Term Maintenance and Social Validation

Assessment and intervention approach for dealing with problem behavior need to be extended so that they can be effectively and comprehensively applied within the community. To meet assessment needs, the authors developed a three-component strategy: description, categorization, and verification.

Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., Smith, C. E., & McLaughlin, D. M. (1999). Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long-term maintenance and social validation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions1(1), 5-25.

Performance Feedback and Teachers' Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature

This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).

Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.

Comparison of Two Community Alternatives to Incarceration for Chronic Juvenile Offenders.

The relative effectiveness of group care (GC) and multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) was compared in terms of their impact on criminal offending, incarceration rates, and program completion outcomes for 79 male adolescents who had histories of chronic and serious juvenile delinquency. 

Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology66(4), 624.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Effects of Classwide Positive Peer “Tootling” to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.

Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education18(4), 267.

Use of Self-Modeling Static-Picture Prompts via a Handheld Computer to Facilitate Self-Monitoring in the General Education Classroom

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms

Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.

Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a national summit on zero tolerance.

This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. 

Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction.

Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(4), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508417737516

 
Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school.

Investigated the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of pre-correction and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students in major transition settings.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., & Lee, Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344–363. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0088967

Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy

The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation of the Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy to improve middle school students’ classroom behavior. 

 

Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., Thayer, A. J., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831

 
Using Parents as a Therapist to Evaluate Appropriate Behavior of Their Children: Application to a Tertiary Diagnostic Clinic

The authors conducted a preliminary analysis of maintaining variables for children with conduct disorders in an outpatient clinic. The assessment focused on appropriate child behavior and was conducted to formulate hypotheses regarding maintaining contingencies. 

Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., & Donn, L. K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children: Application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(3), 285-296.

Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions. 

Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review43(4), 367-384.

A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

The issue of sexual harassment has been front page news this past year. What does the research tell us about school interventions designed to reduce sexual harassment? This meta-analysis examines research on the topic and provides insight into how effective current efforts are at stemming incidents of this serious problem. This review provides a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools designed to prevent or reduce incidents of dating violence. This meta-analysis of 23 studies indicates school-based programs having no significant impact on dating violence perpetration and victimization; however, they can have a positive influence on dating violence knowledge and student attitudes.

De La Rue, L., Polanin, J. R., Espelage, D. L., & Pigott, T. D. (2017). A meta-analysis of school-based interventions aimed to prevent or reduce violence in teen dating relationships. Review of Educational Research87(1), 7-34.

 

A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation

A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin125(6), 627.

Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation

The author's objective is to assess treatment effectiveness for problem behaviours of individuals who have mental retardation.

Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. AJMR-American Journal on Mental Retardation101(4), 387-399.

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior. 

Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review48(1).

Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis A Familial Alliance

The purpose of this article is to address some of the key points of confusion, identify areas of overlap and distinction, and facilitate a constructive and collegial dialog between proponents of the PBS and ABA perspectives.

Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Zarcone, J. R., & Schwartz, I. (2008). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification32(5), 682-698.

Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges

Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. 

Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis27(3), 505-518.

Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Maintenance and Application in New Settings

The authors evaluated the initial effectiveness, maintenance, and transferability of the results of functional communication training as an intervention for the challenging behaviors exhibited by 3 students.

Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1991). Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: Maintenance and application in new settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis24(2), 251-264.

The Good Behavior Game: A Best Practice Candidate as a Universal Behavioral Vaccine

Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution

Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review5(4), 273-297.

Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families : programs and evaluation best practices

Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services. 

Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide20(8), 12-22.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.

The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools25(2), 154-163.

Effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students.

This study used a single-subject alternating treatment design, with a baseline phase, to explore the relationship between the presence (or absence) of prompting and off-task behavior of two male middle school students in general education.

Faul, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). Effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702

Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.

The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. 

Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction17(1), 2-15.

Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research84(4), 546-571.

The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground.

The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive student behavior and teacher supervision on the playground in an urban elementary school

Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(3), 150-161.

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

This paper summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem-solving.

Friman, P. C., & Poling, A. (1995). Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(4), 583-590.

Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited

Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations.  The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic44(4), 195-205.

A Review of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports as a Framework for Reducing Disciplinary Exclusions

The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic meta-analysis of RCTs on SWPBIS. Ninety schools, including both elementary and high schools, met criteria to be included in this study. A statistically significant large treatment effect (g = −.86) was found for reducing school suspension. No treatment effect was found for office discipline referrals.

Gage, N.A., Whitford, D.K. and Katsiyannis, A., 2018. A review of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports as a framework for reducing disciplinary exclusions. The Journal of Special Education, p.0022466918767847.

Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).

 

When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.

This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.

Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives25(4), 191-210.

Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior

Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.

Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education16(1), 101-110.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support. 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Rules and Procedures Overview

This overview summarizes research about the effects of rules on appropriate and inappropriate behavior in school settings and provides recommendations for incorporating rules effectively into a behavior management program.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Rules and Procedures. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-rules-procedures.

Structured Environment Overview

This overview summarizes research on the effects of the physical classroom environment on student behavior.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Structured Environment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-structured-environments.

 

Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Effectiveness of Functional Communication Training With and Without Extinction and Punishment: A Summary of 21 Inpatient Cases

The main purposes of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of FCT for treating severe problem behavior in a relatively large sample of individuals with mental retardation (N = 21) and to determine the contribution of extinction and punishment components to FCT treatment packages.

Hagopian, L. P., Fisher, W. W., Sullivan, M. T., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of applied behavior analysis31(2), 211-235.

Modification of Behavioral Problems in the Home with a Parent as Observer and Experimenter

Four parents enrolled in a Responsive Teaching class carried out experiments using procedures they had devised for alleviating their children's problem behaviors. The techniques used involved different types of reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.

Hall, R. V., Axelrod, S., Tyler, L., Grief, E., Jones, F. C., & Robertson, R. (1972). MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN THE HOME WITH A PARENT AS OBSERVER AND EXPERIMENTER 1. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis5(1), 53-64.

Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training

The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(1), 17-38.

Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood

To examine the long-term effects of an intervention combining teacher training, parent education, and social competence training for children during the elementary grades on adolescent health-risk behaviors at age 18 years. 

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, K. G. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine153(3), 226-234.

Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior.

This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting.

Haydon, T. & Kroeger, S. D. (2016). Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.977213

Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.

Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior20(2).

Multisystemic Therapy for Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents

This book explains the principles of MST and provides clear guidelines for clinical assessment and intervention with delinquent youth and their families.

Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Guilford Press.

Community Treatment for Youth: Evidence-Based Interventions for Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.

Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.

A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children's mental health

This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.

Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.

A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. 

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth60(4), 1-8.

School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative

In this issue of JPBI, the forum is dedicated to comments from administrators, teachers, parents, students, and specialists who are participating in efforts to establish school-wide behavior support. 

Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions2(4), 231.

The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes

Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session. 

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology60(3), 255-265.

Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity

This evaluation used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. 

Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A. W., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., & Boland, J. B. (2006). Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(1), 10-23.

Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.

This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement. 

Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf

Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of active supervision on the hallway behavior (i.e., tardies) of students in a rural high school using a multiple baseline across instructional periods

Johnson-Gros, K. N., Lyons, E. A., & Griffin, J. R. (2008). Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0012

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). 

Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3), 154-167.supp

Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach

Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.

Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

History of Behavior Modification

This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right. 

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.

Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Management Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Behavioral, Psychiatric, and Social Outcomes

The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.

Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence95, S5-S28.

Positive Behavioral Support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community

Each of the 4 sections ends with a discussion that establishes a framework within which to reflect on the contributions of the selected chapters. 

Koegel, L. K. E., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. E. (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Paul H Brookes Publishing.

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. 

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly29(2), 138.

A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get 'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors

This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools49(2), 163-175.

Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.

The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.

Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(2), 88-99.

Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders

The bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and then discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized offenders. 

Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Self‐recording of attention versus productivity

The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis22(3), 315-32

The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders

The authors examined the effects of pullout small-group and teacher-directed classroom-based social skills instruction on the social behaviors of five third- and fourth-grade students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders.

Lo, Y. Y., Loe, S. A., & Cartledge, G. (2002). The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders27(4), 371-385.

Effectiveness of the coping power program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up

This study examines key substance use, delinquency, and school-based aggressive behavior outcomes at a 1-year follow-up for a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to aggressive children and their parents at the time of these children's transition to middle school. 

Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy34(4), 493-515.

Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior.

 The purpose of this study was to provide an example of a group contingency classwide intervention called Anchor the Boat that operationally defined behavioral expectations, taught those expectations using teacher-directed instruction and role playing, and reinforced students when they met the behavioral criteria. 

Lohrmann, S. & Talerico, J. (2004). Anchor the boat: A classwide intervention to reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 6(2), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007040060020601

 
Are we closing the school discipline gap?

This report examines data on out of school suspension rates in every school district in the country. 

Losen, D. J., Hodson, C. L., Keith, I. I., Michael, A., Morrison, K., & Belway, S. (2015). Are we closing the school discipline gap?.

Tootling with a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Class-wide Behavior.

This paper examines the practice of “tootling.” Tootling is a peer-mediated classroom management practice designed to have students identify and then report on peer prosocial behavior. Students are taught to be on the look-out for peer behavior that met the criterion for being reinforced. When they witness prosocial behavior, they write it down on a piece of paper and turn it into the teacher. At the end of the class, three “tootles” are drawn from the lot and read out to the classroom. The results suggest that peer reinforcement had a positive impact on increasing appropriate student behavior, reducing disruptive conduct, and student engagement

Lum, J. D., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., Olmi, D. J., & Wright, S. J. (2019). Tootling With a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Classwide Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions21(2), 93-105.

Social expectations and behavioral indicators in school-wide positive behavioral supports: A national study of behavioral matrices.

This study examined the types and frequency of schools’ social expectations and behavioral indicators as they were written into their behavior matrices

Lynass, L., Tsai, S. F., Richman, T. D., & Cheney, D. (2012). Social expectations and behavioral indicators in school-wide positive behavioral supports: A national study of behavioral matrices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(3), 153–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711412076

 
Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy

This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.

Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International24(4), 369-377.

Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control.

This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.

Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.

Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter?

This study extended prior research into teacher-student relationships by exploring the relative balance of negative and positive teacher-student relationships in high school students' academic lives (in each of English,
mathematics, science, history, and geography subjects). 

Martin, A. J., & Collie, R. J. (2019). Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 861–876. 

Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School

Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9

McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(4), 243-255.

The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes.

The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on‐task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported. 

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology56(2), 209-215.

Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success.

This article describes a step-by-step process for using active supervision, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article we offer lessons from the field featuring the perspectives of practitioners who have used active supervision in classrooms that include students with challenging behavior.

Menzies, H. M., Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Ruth, K., Cantwell, E. D., & Smith-Menzies, L. (2018). Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success. Beyond Behavior, 27(3), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074295618799343

 
Providing Teachers with Performance Feedback on Praise to Reduce Student Problem Behavior

This study examined the effect of a visual performance feedback intervention (i.e., a simple, computer-generated line graph) on teachers' rate of praise for students' academic and behavioral performance and subsequent changes in students' rates of problem behavior.

Mesa, J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Reinke, W. (2005). Providing Teachers with Performance Feedback on Praise to Reduce Student Problem Behavior. Beyond Behavior15(1), 3-7.

Blueprints for violence prevention

This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.

Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Combining Noncontingent Escape and Functional Communication Training as a Treatment for Negatively Reinforced Disruptive Behavior

In this study, FCT was superimposed on an existing NCE schedule in an attempt to maintain the advantages of each procedure while removing known limitations.

Mildon, R. L., Moore, D. W., & Dixon, R. S. (2004). Combining noncontingent escape and functional communication training as a treatment for negatively reinforced disruptive behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions6(2), 92-102.

Effects of Curricular and Materials Modifications on Academic Performance and Task Engagement of Three Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

Effects of two curricular and materials modifications on the on-task behavior and correct academic responding of three elementary-aged students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) were evaluated in two separate studies. 

Miller, K. A., Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Hummel, J., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Effects of curricular and materials modifications on academic performance and task engagement of three students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders28(2), 130-149.

Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom

A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology21(3), 255-265.

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of a brief prompting intervention (verbal and visual reminder of classroom rules) to improve classroom behavior for an elementary student during small-group reading instruction in a special education classroom (Study 1) and for three high school students with mild disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom (Study 2).

Moore, T. C., Alpers, A. J., Rhyne, R., Coleman, M. B., Gordon, J. R., Daniels, S., … Park, Y. (2019). Brief prompting to improve classroom behavior: A first-pass intervention option. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300718774881

 
Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems

This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author. 

Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence

this article traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe. 

Noguera, P. (1995). Preventing and producing violence: A critical analysis of responses to school violence. Harvard Educational Review65(2), 189-213.

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International35(2), 191-205.

Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.

The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 335-338.syste

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1-55.

Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement.

This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS).

Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Stormont, M. (2013). Classroom-level positive behavior supports in schools implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying areas for enhancement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1),39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300712459079

 

Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.

This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study. 

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review43(3).

The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach.

A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) and students’ school engagement and achievement.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4)493–592. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793

 

Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.

The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders11(4), 239-248.

Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.

The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders11(4), 239-248.

Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior.

Observed 8 Ss in each of 2 5th-grade, 2 5th–6th grade, and 2 6th-grade classrooms, using a time-sampling method, to determine the effect of desk arrangements.

Rosenfield, P., Lambert, N. M., & Black, A. (1985). Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 101–108.

A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance

The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education40(2), 112-128.

Using implementation planning to increase teachers’ adherence to quality behavior support plans

This study evaluates the effect of implementation planning, a treatment integrity promotion strategy that includes detailed logistical planning and barrier identification adapted from an adult behavior change theory from heath psychology (i.e., the Health Action Process Approach).

Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers’ adherence to quality behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879–895. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21787

 
Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education

This study examined the effects of active supervision on the moderate to vigorous physical
activity (MVPA) levels of middle school students during fitness instruction.

Schuldheisz, J. M., & van der Mars, H. (2001). Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(1)75–90.

Using Staff and Student Time Engaged in Disciplinary Procedures to Evaluate the Impact of School-Wide PBS

This article presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support (PBS). 

Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions6(1), 21-27.

The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behaviors of urban elementary school students.

This study evaluated the effects of an elementary physical education curriculum in which development of positive social skills, including leadership and conflict‐resolution behaviors, was the primary focus

Sharpe, T., Brown, M., & Crider, K. (1995). The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behaviors of urban elementary school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 401-416.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1279847/pdf/jaba00006-0016.pdf

 
Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches

As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.

Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.

In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.

SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.

A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers.

In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. 

Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The Elementary School Journal110(4), 567-584.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers

The present research seeks to extend the previous studies to an even younger age group and focus on proximal colorfulness. With a sample of 15 pre-schoolers (3–4 years old) we examined whether a colorful play surface compared to a non-colorful (white) play surface would affect engagement in developmentally appropriate structured play. 

Stern-Ellran, K., Zilcha-Mano, S., Sebba, R., & Binnun, N. L. (2016). Disruptive effects of colorful vs. non-colorful play area on structured play: A pilot study with preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01661

 
Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches.

The purpose of this special issue is to address current issues, challenges, and promising approaches for providing Tier 2 behavioral interventions in school settings. Articles solicited for this issue address gaps in the literature and implementation needs and challenges specifically for Tier 2.

Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology29(2), 121-125.

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Suppor

This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review35(2), 245.

Effect on varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD.

This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.

Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders8(1), 2-8.

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right

Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education7(1), 99-112.

Developing stimulus control of preschooler mands: An analysis of schedule-correlated and contingency-specifying stimuli.

The present study replicates and extends previous research on stimulus control by arranging teacher attention for preschooler's mands into a multiple schedule and conducting a component analysis of the effects of schedule‐correlated stimuli and contingency‐specifying stimuli (rules) on the development of discriminated manding.

Tiger, J. H., & Hanley, G. P. (2004). Developing stimulus control of preschooler mands: An analysis of schedule-correlated and contingency-specifying stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(4), 517–521. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-517

 
Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.

This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning. 

Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..

Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.

This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction

Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education16(4), 355-367.

The good behavior game: 1969–2002.

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. 

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969–2002. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 225–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503261165

 
The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

What Works in Reducing Adolescent Violence

This paper discusses four types of violence then briefly review the risk literature in order to highlight promising targets for intervention. Then the authors organize their review of the efficacy of specific approaches by the specific level targeted. 

Tolan, P., & Guerra, N. (1994). What works in reducing adolescent violence. An empirical review of the field boulde.-CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.

Teaching stimulus control via class-wide multiple schedules of reinforcement in public elementary school classrooms

 The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a class-wide multiple schedule on differentiated rates of student recruitment of teacher attention in two public elementary classrooms.

Torelli, J. N., Lloyd, B. P., Diekman, C. A., & Wehby, J. H. (2017). Teaching stimulus control via class-wide multiple schedules of reinforcement in public elementary school classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300716632878

 
Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli

 
Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General

This report, the first Surgeon General's report on youth violence in the United States, summarizes an extensive body of research and seeks to clarify seemingly contradictory trends, such as the discrepancies noted above between official records of youth violence and young people's self-reports of violent behaviors.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Service; and National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.

Addressing individual perspectives in the development of schoolwide rules: A data-informed process

To address situations where consensus is difficult to achieve, this article outlines a process that assesses and summarizes the views of all school-based staff and then facilitates discussions based on the aggregated data. 

Valenti, M. W., & Kerr, M. M. (2015). Addressing individual perspectives in the development of schoolwide rules: A data-informed process. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(4), 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300714544405

 
Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education

The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.

Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education8(2), 162-169.

The Measurement of Behavior: Behavior Modification

practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version

Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.

The effects of explicit timing on math performance.

The present experiment examined the effects on math performance of explicitly timing student for short intervals

Van Houten, R., & Thompson, C. (1976). The effects of explicit timing on math performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 227–230. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-227

 

The effects of a multiple schedule plus rules on hand raising during circle time in preschool classrooms.

The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a multiple schedule plus rules indicative of the availability of attention for hand raises during circle time in typical preschool classrooms

Vargo, K. K., Heal, N. A., Epperley, K., & Kooistra, E. (2014). The effects of a multiple schedule plus rules on hand raising during circle time in preschool classrooms. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(3)326–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-014-9199-3

 
A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems

This research evaluated the separate treatment components of a functional communication training program for 3 severely handicapped persons who each displayed different topographies of aberrant behavior.

Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., NoRThUP, J. O. H. N., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., ... & DoNN, L. I. S. A. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(4), 417-429.

Integrated Approaches to Preventing Antisocial Behavior Patterns Among School-Age Children and Youth

This article provides a reconceptualization of the role of schools in preventing antisocial behavior problems among children and youth.

Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders4(4), 194-209.

Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time.

A major goal of this article (and of our much larger book) is to communicate and adapt this knowledge base for effective use by educators in coping with the rising tide of antisocial students populating today's schools.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2003). Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time. American Educator26(4), 6-45.

Antisocial Behavior in School: Evidence-based Practices

This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2004). Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence based practices. Belmont, CA: Thomson.

The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students

This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. 

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children32(4), 551-571.

Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes

Children were observed daily in four two week phases: seated around tables, then in rows, again around tables, and finally again in rows. Percentage on‐task behaviour was recorded along with rate of pupil disruption and rates of teacher approval and disapproval. 

Wheldall, K., & Lam, Y. Y. (1987). Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341870070405

 
A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out

This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. 

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(2), 74-88.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Back to Top