Education Drivers

Teacher Turnover Analysis

Matching the availability of teachers to demand constantly evolves. During recessions schools are forced to layoff teachers. As economic times improve, schools acquire resources and rehire personnel. Currently, American schools are faced with the most severe shortages in special education; science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); and bilingual education. Shortages vary across the country and are most acute in areas with lower wages and in poor schools. Starting in the 1980’s schools began filling vacancies with under-qualified personnel hired on emergency or temporary credentials to meet needs. Teacher supply consists of recent graduates, alternative credentialed teachers, those returning to the profession, and teachers moving between schools. A 35% drop in pre-service enrollment and high teacher attrition currently impact the supply. Candidates and veteran teachers are influenced to leave teaching due to low compensation, stressful working conditions, and a perceived decline in respect. The demand side is influenced primarily by fluctuations in population, finances, and education policy. Matching supply to demand is a challenge but can be accomplished through better planning, procuring less volatile funding sources, and improving working conditions through improved pay and effective training.

 

Teacher Retention Analysis

Teacher Retention Analysis Overview PDF

 

Donley, J., Detrich, R. Keyworth, R., & States, J., (2019). Teacher Retention Analysis Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-retention-turnover-analysis.

 

Failure to retain teachers has been a persistent problem in the United States over the past 25 years. Teacher turnover has contributed to a short supply of qualified teachers in certain locations (e.g., high-poverty urban and rural communities), in particular subject areas (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and math [STEM] courses), and among certain student groups (e.g., special education students) (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond, & Carver-Thomas, 2019). These shortages have led to an inequitable distribution of high-quality teachers and poor outcomes for the students most in need of consistent high-quality instruction (Goldhaber, Gross, & Player, 2011; Goldhaber, Lavery, & Theobald, 2015; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivken, 2004). Teacher turnover is also quite costly (Barnes, Crowe, & Schaefer, 2007; Synar & Maiden, 2012), and has been shown to disrupt student learning and lower student achievement (Henry & Redding, in press; Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2013) as well as contribute negatively to teacher working conditions (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppescu, & Easton, 2010; Ingersoll, 2001; Simon & Johnson, 2015). Keeping effective teachers in classrooms is a key ingredient necessary for school improvement and positive and equitable student outcomes. This report analyzes the retention problem in the United States through documentation of recent teacher turnover data, and reviews the research on the factors that contribute to teachers’ decisions to remain in the classroom.

 

The Problem of Teacher Turnover

Teacher turnover, defined as “change in teachers from one year to the next in a particular school setting” (Sorenson & Ladd, 2018, p. 1), has been a persistent problem often described as a revolving door in the teaching profession (Ingersoll, 2003). Teacher turnover includes teachers who move to a different school (“movers”) and those who either leave the profession to retire or leave voluntarily prior to retirement (“leavers”) (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019). Movers and leavers together represent the degree of “churn” in the teacher workforce (Atteberry, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2017; Ingersoll Merrill, Stuckey, & Collins, 2018), while leavers considered separately represent the rate of attrition in the workforce. Rates of churn vary greatly across states, districts, and schools, and across subject areas and student populations (Papay, Bacher-Hicks, Page, & Marinell, 2017; Redding & Henry, 2018). A discussion of recent descriptive data is provided next, followed by an analysis of the factors that contribute to teacher turnover.

Figure 1 shows that teacher turnover rates in the United States have hovered around 16% over the last 10 years for which data are available (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014).

Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics report “Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2012–13 Teacher Follow-up Survey” (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014).

 

 

Figure 1 Retention analysis

Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics report “Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2012–13 Teacher Follow-up Survey” (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014).

Figure 1. Percentage of public school teacher movers and leavers, 1988–1989 through 2012–2013

 

While the percentage of movers has remained fairly consistent across 25 years of the study, the percentage of leavers increased substantially from 1991–1992 and peaked in 2004–2005, suggesting increasing problems with attrition during that time period. In fact, an additional analysis of the sources of turnover from 2011–2012 to 2012–2013 found that voluntary preretirement turnover (including movers and leavers) represented two thirds of the turnover rate during these years (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019), as shown in Figure 2.

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019). Note: percentages do not total 100 due to rounding.

Figure 2. Sources of teacher turnover, 2011–2012 to 2012–2013

 

While attrition due to retirement is predictable and has increased as the teacher workforce ages (Ingersoll et al., 2018), the relatively high preretirement attrition rate is a cause for concern. Attrition rates in the United States compare unfavorably with those in high-performing countries such as Finland, Canada, and Singapore, which typically average leaver rates between 3% and 4% (National Center on Education and the Economy, 2016).

While most research has focused attention on end-of-year teacher turnover, some studies have addressed teacher turnover duringthe school year (Redding & Henry, 2018, 2019). Within-year turnover may be particularly disruptive to student learning, school operations, and staff collaboration and collegiality. An analysis of turnover data in North Carolina showed that an average of 4.64% of teachers turned over during the school year, accounting for one quarter of the total turnover volume (Redding & Henry, 2018). Within-district transfers were more likely to occur within the first 2 months of the school year, while leaving was more likely to occur at the start of the spring semester. Schools with higher numbers of economically disadvantaged and underrepresented minority students had higher rates of both within- and end-of-year turnover, although the relationship between school economic status and turnover was stronger for within-year turnover. Teachers with higher evaluation ratings were also much less likely that those with lower ratings to turn over during the school year. A subsequent analysis showed that within-year turnover had a larger negative impact on student achievement than turnover that occurs at the end of the year (Henry & Redding, in press). Within-year turnover contributes to the workforce churn that is also generated by end-of-year turnover, and constitutes a significant area for further research.

 

Factors Related to Teacher Turnover

Research has documented a number of factors that are associated with teachers’ decisions to leave or remain in their schools, including certain school and demographic characteristics, level of teaching experience, qualifications, and teaching area. In addition, school contextual factors and teacher working conditions influence teachers’ decisions to remain in their schools. An overview of these factors follows.

 

Type of School.Research shows that the movement of teachers out of schools differs by school level and type of school, and is not equally distributed across states, regions, and districts (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Recent national data from 2011–2012 to 2012–2013 show that 8.9% of elementary teachers moved to a different school compared with 7.2% of secondary teachers, but secondary teachers were more likely to leave teaching (8.3%) than elementary teachers (7.1%) (U.S. Department of Education, 2017). Figure 3 depicts the destination of teachers who moved to a different school. Elementary teachers were much more likely to move within-district than outside of the district, while approximately equal rates were seen for secondary teachers. Few elementary or secondary teachers transferred to a private school. While private schools may have advantages such as better working conditions (e.g., smaller class sizes) (Orlin, 2013), they may be less likely to attract public school teachers due to lower salaries and lack of compensation for years of service in teacher retirement systems.

 

Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Education Digest Report (2017).

 Figure 3. Percentage of public school teachers who moved to a different school by school level and destination, 2011–2012 to 2012–2013

 

 

When teacher turnover rates in traditional public schools and charter schools are compared, research consistently shows higher rates of turnover in charter schools (Goldring, et al., 2014; Gross & DeArmond, 2010; Gulosino, Ni, & Rorrer, 2019; Naslund & Ponomariov, 2019; Newton, Rivero, Fuller, & Dauter, 2018; Stuit & Smith, 2012). For example, the Goldring et al. (2014) study found 10.2% mover and 8.2% leaver rates at charter schools compared with 8% mover and 7.7% leaver rates at traditional public schools. Longitudinal trends show a narrowing gap between turnover at the two types of schools, as shown in Figure 4 (Goldring et al., 2014; Stuit & Smith, 2012).

 

 

Adapted from Goldring et al., 2014; Stuit and Smith (2012).

 

Figure 4. Turnover rates at charter schools and traditional public schools, 2004–2005 to 2012–2013

 

            While these trends are encouraging, there is a great degree of variability in turnover in charter schools across various regions and states. For example, Newton and colleagues (2018) found significantly higher turnover rates in Los Angeles charter schools than in traditional public schools, even when controlling for student, teacher, and school characteristics. Specifically, elementary charter school teachers had approximately 35% higher odds of leaving and secondary charter school teachers were close to 4 times more likely to exit their schools than their counterparts in traditional public schools. Naslund and Ponomariov (2019) found that Texas charter school teachers turn over at twice the rate as traditional public school teachers (36.7% versus 18.2%). While the reasons for the higher turnover are unclear (Stuit & Smith, 2012), several explanations have been proposed, including differences in teacher working conditions, preparation, and support, and the fact that greater rates of involuntary turnover tend to occur in charter schools. Roch and Sai (2018) found (using Schools and Staffing Survey data) that teachers in for-profit and nonprofit education management organizations (EMOs) were more likely to report plans to either change schools or leave the profession than those teaching in regular charter schools, with differences partially explained by poorer working conditions, including less administrative support. Some evidence also suggests that new charter school teachers have less access to beginning teacher supports (e.g., seminars or classes) and less supportive communication with administration, and are slightly less likely to report that they were well prepared to handle instructional duties than traditional public school teachers (Bowsher, Sparks, & Hoyer, 2018).

            Naslund and Ponomariov’s 2019 study determined negative effects of turnover on student achievement in both charter and traditional public schools, but found the turnover to be slightly less harmful for science and math passing rates in charter schools. The researchers suggested that greater flexibility in hiring and school leaders’ capacity to remove ineffective teachers may alleviate some of the negative student outcomes of turnover in charter schools, but argued for additional research in this area. Understanding the factors influencing the high rates of turnover in charter schools is increasingly important given their substantial growth in recent years, with more than 3 million students now being educated in charter schools nationally (David & Hesla, 2018).

Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) found higher turnover rates in the South, in Title I schools (particularly in math and science, and for alternatively certified teachers), and in schools serving higher proportions of students of color. In fact, teachers in this study left schools with higher proportions of students of color at a rate 46% higher than those teaching the fewest students of color; however, when working conditions are factored in, the predictive relationship between student ethnicity and turnover is reduced. Other research supports these findings, reporting that the rates of turnover have been highest in economically disadvantaged and high-minority urban (Papay et al, 2017) and rural schools (Miller, 2012; Monk, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2017; Sutton, Bausmith, O’Connor, Pae, & Payne, 2014). The rates of mobility (movers) have often reflected an annual disproportionate shuffling from more to less disadvantaged schools, from high- to low-minority schools, and from urban to suburban schools (Ingersoll & May, 2012).

 

Teacher Characteristics and Qualifications.The exit of teachers from schools is not uniformly spread across different teacher characteristics and qualifications. While women represent the majority of teachers, particularly at the elementary level (Ingersoll et al., 2018), they are also more likely to leave teaching than men due to a variety of factors such as childbearing and better opportunities in other workforce sectors (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014). Younger and older teachers are more likely than middle-aged teachers to turn over, with mobility and attrition generally following a U-shaped pattern as the workforce ages (Allensworth, Ponisciak, & Mazzeo, 2009; Johnson, Berg, & Donaldson, 2005).

Research suggests that beginning teachers have the highest turnover rate of any teacher group (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll, 2003; Papay et al., 2017), with recent national data showing that more than 44% of new teachers exit within 5 years (Ingersoll, Merrill, & Stuckey, 2014; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Raue & Gray, 2015). Papay and colleagues (2017) reported even higher turnover rates in a study on urban schools, with early-career attrition rates ranging from 46% to 71%, depending on the district. Nationally, nearly two thirds of the turnover among beginning teachers occurs within the first 3 years of teaching (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of this turnover is voluntary (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017) and includes moving to a different school, leaving teaching temporarily, or leaving the profession permanently. When asked for their reasons for exit, roughly one third of first-year teachers indicated their exit was due to involuntary staffing changes, 40% indicated that family or personal issues were important, 32% left to pursue another job or career, and 44% left due to dissatisfaction with their position (respondents could report more than one reason for their exit) (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Involuntary transfer or dismissal has frequently targeted early-career teachers, with personnel decisions focused on “last in, first out” policies to determine which teachers to discharge (Kraft, 2015). Research shows that teaching effectiveness improves quickly among early-career teachers (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, Rockoff, & Wyckoff, 2008; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005), and, therefore, lower retention rates among these teachers is of particular concern as schools with high turnover often lose a large portion of their talent pipeline.

Working conditions likely explain a large portion of turnover for teachers overall, but may be particularly important factors for beginning teachers, who are adjusting to the profession and their school context (Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Simon & Johnson, 2015). Some evidence suggests that quality mentoring and induction programs can provide supportive structures for new teachers that increase their chances of being retained (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Raue & Gray, 2015). Research indicates that many teachers in high-poverty schools do not have mentors, and even those who do have them are less likely to report meaningful interactions about their instruction, partially because their mentors often teach different grades or subjects, or do not teach at the same school (Donaldson & Johnson, 2010).

While significantly more teachers of color have entered the workforce in recent years due in part to minority recruitment programs, just 20% of teachers are ethnic minorities compared with more than half of the student population (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of the increase in minority teachers has occurred in high-poverty, hard-to-staff schools (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017); however, the turnover rate among minority teachers has also increased by 45% in recent years (Ingersoll, May, & Collins, 2017) and exceeds that of White teachers in the most recent data available, shown in Figure 5 (Goldring et al., 2014).

 

Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics report “Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2012–13 Teacher Follow-up Survey” (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014). Data are not included for teachers of other ethnicities due to reporting standards not being met because of unacceptably high standard errors.

 

Figure 5. Percentage of public school teacher movers and leavers by teacher ethnicity, 2012–2013

 

Studies by Ingersoll and colleagues (2017) and Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) also found larger gaps between teachers of color and White teacher movers than leavers, and the data in both studies suggested that the difficult working conditions in many hard-to-staff schools were responsible for the higher rates of minority teacher turnover. Minority teacher turnover in these schools may be particularly problematic given research that suggests positive academic and behavioral benefits for minority students assigned to teachers of the same ethnicity (Redding, 2019).

A teacher’s qualifications and entry pathway into the profession also predict the likelihood of turnover. The percentage of teachers entering the profession from outside traditional, in-state university teacher preparation programs nearly doubled from 1999–2000 (13%) to 2011–2012 (25%) (Redding & Smith, 2016), in large part due to staffing shortages in hard-to-staff subjects and schools (Redding & Henry, 2019). Research indicates that, even after controlling for factors that predict high turnover, alternatively certified teachers are still more likely than traditionally prepared teachers to exit the profession (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Boyd et al., 2012; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Redding & Smith, 2016). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) found the turnover rate for alternatively certified teachers 80% higher for Title I than non-Title I schools, and 150% higher in schools with high proportions of students of color (Figure 6). Similar, although less extreme, patterns were observed for regularly certified teachers; however, turnover rate differences among types of schools were statistically significant for both types of certification pathways.

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019)

 Figure 6. Teacher turnover by type of school and teacher certification, 2011–2012 to 2012–2013

 

Alternatively certified teachers are more likely to work in urban schools in disadvantaged communities, where working conditions are often less than optimal (Cohen-Vogle & Smith, 2007), with less preparation and support than for traditionally certified teachers (Redding & Smith, 2016). Combining teaching and coursework for certification likely is overwhelming and contributes to the difficult professional situation for these teachers (Redding & Henry, 2019).

Research regarding teacher effectiveness and retention provides evidence of two somewhat contradictory trends. Teachers who have stronger qualifications (e.g., higher certification exam scores or higher undergraduate institution rankings) are more likely to exit the profession (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005); however, more effective teachers (as measured by value-added student achievement scores) are less likely to turn over (Goldhaber et al., 2011; Hanushek et al., 2004; Redding & Henry, 2018). While the reasons for these findings are unclear, some researchers have hypothesized that more qualified teachers possess the types of skills that are more highly valued in other professions, but effective teachers stay because their success with students reinforces their professional efficacy and enhances job satisfaction (Katz, 2018).

 

Teaching Area.Results from analyses of teacher attrition and mobility suggest that elementary and humanities teachers have among the lowest turnover rates, and teachers of math, science, special education, and English for foreign language speakers have significantly higher rates (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). Figure 7 demonstrates that math and science teachers are significantly more likely to leave high-minority, high-poverty, and Title I schools than their counterparts teaching math and science in other types of schools (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Ingersoll & May, 2012). Relatively high turnover rates among math and science teachers in high-need schools contribute to shortages in these schools in both urban and rural areas (Goldhaber, Krieg, Theobald, & Brown, 2015; Player, 2015). In addition, as many as 30% of math and science teachers in schools with large numbers of students of color are alternatively certified, compared with just 12% of those in schools with mostly White students (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). This is concerning as many alternative certification pathways lack important coursework and student teaching experiences, which can stymie beginning teachers’ performance and ultimately lead to higher turnover rates (Redding & Henry, 2019).

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond, (2019)

Figure 7. Turnover for math/science and special education teachers, 2011–2012 to 2012–2013

 

Figure 7 shows that while no significant difference in turnover has been found for special education teachers in Title I versus non-Title I schools, rates are considerably higher in high-minority compared with low-minority schools (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019). Special education teachers overall have higher average turnover rates than general education teachers, particularly during the early career years (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Vittek, 2015). These teachers are likely to face difficult working conditions, such as excessive paperwork, lack of collaboration with colleagues, lack of appropriate induction/mentoring, and lack of administrative support, all of which increase the likelihood that they will transfer to a general education position or leave teaching entirely (Boe, Cook, & Sunderland, 2008; McLesky, Tyler, & Flippin, 2004; Vittek, 2015). Recent research by Gilmour and Wehby (in press) has also found that as the proportion of students with disabilities increases in the classrooms of general education teachers, the likelihood of turnover increases (but not for special education teachers); however, teaching students with emotional/behavioral disabilities is related to increased turnover rates for both special education and general education teachers. Special education teacher turnover rates along with insufficient numbers of newcomers being prepared has led to teacher shortages in this field, and currently teacher shortages in special education represent the largest shortages in 48 of the 50 states (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond, & Carver-Thomas, 2016).

 

Teacher-Reported Reasons for Turnover.Understanding the reasons teachers leave may help educators develop solutions to address teacher concerns and reduce turnover. Recent data illustrate the factors that teachers report as very important in their decision to leave the teaching profession (Figure 8) or to move to a different school (Figure 9) (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017).

 

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond (2017). Figure displays percentages of teachers reporting each factor as important; teachers were able to select more than one reason, so percentages do not total 100.

Figure 8. Factors important in teachers leaving the profession

 

 Figure 9 Retention analysis

Adapted from Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond (2017). Figure displays percentages of teachers reporting each factor as important; teachers were able to select more than one reason, so percentages do not total 100. 

Figure 9. Factors important in teachers moving to another school

 

Dissatisfaction was most frequently cited by both movers and leavers as important in their decision to leave. Leavers most frequently cited testing/accountability (25%), problems with administration (21%), and dissatisfaction with teaching as a career (21%) as sources of dissatisfaction; the family/personal reasons they cited included moving to a more conveniently located job, health reasons, and caring for family members. Two thirds of movers reported dissatisfaction as a reason to move, citing concerns with school administration, lack of influence on school decision making, and school conditions such as inadequate facilities and resources (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond’s 2019 research also found that a perceived lack of administrative support and compensation were significantly related to turnover. These findings highlight the importance of working conditions in teacher retention.

 

Teacher Working Conditions.Working conditions are an important predictor of teacher turnover (e.g., Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Johnson, Kraft, & Papay, 2012), and offer potentially malleable school conditions that can be shaped by changes to educational policy (Katz, 2018). Research has demonstrated that student demographics are important in teachers’ decisions to remain at their schools and that they most often leave schools containing large numbers of low-income, low-achieving, and minority students (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Clotfelter, Ladd, Vigdor, & Wheeler, 2006; Hanushek et al., 2004). However, teacher interviews have revealed that dysfunctional school contexts that make it difficult to succeed with these student populations, rather than the students themselves, are responsible for the decision to leave (Allensworth et al, 2009; Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Johnson et al., 2012). In fact, several studies have demonstrated that teacher working conditions explain most of the relationship between student demographics and teacher turnover (Allensworth et al., 2009; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Ladd, 2011; Simon & Johnson, 2015).

A critical aspect of teacher working conditions that influences retention is the quality of principal leadership (Boyd et al., 2011; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Johnson et al., 2012; Ladd, 2011; Marinell & Coca, 2013). Research suggests that as school leadership improves, the likelihood of teacher turnover decreases (Kraft, Marinell, & Yee, 2016; Ladd, 2011). For example, teachers were more likely to stay at schools where they reported the principal was trusting and supportive of teachers, a knowledgeable instructional leader, an efficient manager, and skilled at forming external partnerships with external organizations (Marinell & Coca, 2013). Additional research indicates that teachers who left schools led by the most effective principals were less likely to be effective than those who left schools led by less successful principals (Branch, Hanushek, & Rivken, 2013). Unfortunately, high-poverty schools are often staffed with less experienced and weaker principals (Loeb, Kalogrides, & Horng, 2010); on a positive note, research has also shown that an effective principal may offset teacher turnover in disadvantaged schools (Grissom, 2011; Kraft et al., 2016).

Teachers are more likely to remain in schools when they report satisfaction with school facilities and resources (e.g., textbooks or technology tools) (Loeb, Darling-Hammond, & Luczak, 2005). Turnover is also more frequent in schools with poor student discipline and where there are issues with teacher safety (Allensworth et al., 2009; Boyd et al., 2005; Grissom, 2011; Ingersoll, 2001). Additional teacher working conditions that have been identified as important to teacher retention (and that are related to administrative leadership) include a sense of collective responsibility for student outcomes, a sense of collegiality and trusting working relationships, parent-teacher interaction, time for collaboration and planning, and expanded roles for teachers (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Kraft et al., 2016; Simon & Johnson, 2015). Simon and Johnson cited three factors supporting teachers’ work with their colleagues: (1) an inclusive environment of respect and trust (e.g., teachers respect one another and trust that their colleagues are “doing the right thing for the right reasons”); (2) formal structures for collaboration and support (e.g., well-designed induction/mentoring programs and well-designed instructional teams or professional learning communities, or PLCs); and (3) a shared set of professional goals and purposes (e.g., all teachers share a social justice perspective and are motivated to help disadvantaged students achieve).

The research literature also suggests that professional empowerment and opportunities for autonomy and shared decision making are important (Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll, 2003; Ingersoll & May, 2012; Marinell & Coca, 2013; Wronowski, 2018). Goldring et al. (2014) found that of teachers who left the profession, more than half indicated they had more autonomy in their work and greater influence over workplace practices and policies in their current job than they did as teachers. Inadequate autonomy and empowerment may be particularly important for minority teachers teaching in hard-to-staff schools as well as responsible for many of these teachers leaving the profession and subsequent teacher shortages (Ingersoll & May, 2012; Ingersoll et al., 2017). In addition, research has ascribed higher teacher attrition to a perceived lack of influence and autonomy in the school, and few opportunities for career advancement and career pathways (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010; TNTP, 2012), suggesting that leadership opportunities may encourage many teachers to stay. A recent study found that two thirds of national and state “teacher of the year” award winners rated teacher leadership opportunities as a top growth experience that contributed positively to their career progression (Behrstock-Sherratt, Bassett, Olson, & Jacques, 2014).

A related aspect of teacher working conditions that influences retention is the level of compensation. Teacher salaries are generally not competitive with other labor markets (Hanushek, Piopiunik, & Wiederhold, 2014), even when controlling for the shorter work year, with new teachers earning approximately 18% less than individuals working in other fields, and midcareer teachers earning 30% less (Baker, Sciarra, & Farrie, 2015, 2018). Research consistently shows that teachers who work in districts that pay less are more likely to leave their jobs (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Goldring et al., 2014; Podolsky, Kini, Bishop, & Darling-Hammond, 2016). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) found a significant relationship between the highest teacher salary possible in a district and turnover; for example, teachers who could earn more than $78,000 in their districts had an attrition rate 31% lower than those who could earn a maximum of only $60,000. Gray and Taie (2015) found a 10-point percentage gap in turnover rates between novice teachers whose first-year salary was $40,000 or higher compared with beginning teachers earning less. Whether math and science and other in-demand teachers decide to remain in teaching is particularly dependent on salary (Adamson & Darling-Hammond, 2011). When teachers were asked what would bring them back to the profession, financial considerations including salary increases and an ability to maintain teaching retirement benefits ranked high (Podolsky et al, 2016).

Research further indicates that the highest paid teachers in high-poverty schools are paid significantly less than the highest paid teachers in less disadvantaged communities (Adamson & Darling-Hammond, 2011). The inability to adequately reward excellent teachers contributes to an inequitable distribution of high-quality teachers among schools within districts, as teachers with more seniority transfer out of less desirable placements and are replaced by less experienced and often less effective teachers (Podgursky & Springer, 2011). Many educational researchers and policymakers are advocating for reforms to the compensation teachers receive, particularly in hard-to-staff subjects and schools (Aragon, 2016; Dee & Goldhaber, 2017; Sutcher et al., 2016).

 

Summary and Conclusions

Teacher turnover contributes significantly to teacher shortages and often results in the inequitable distribution of effective and qualified teachers across schools. While the overall turnover rate (including teacher movers and leavers) has remained fairly consistent, the rate of preretirement attrition has increased in recent years. Within-year turnover has also been identified in the research as a significant problem, particularly in disadvantaged schools, and negatively impacts student achievement. Elementary school turnover includes a greater proportion of movers within districts, while secondary school turnover includes greater percentages of teachers leaving the profession. Teachers in charter schools are more likely to turn over than those teaching in traditional public schools, in many cases due to poorer working conditions. Teacher turnover is highest among minority teachers (particularly those working in high-need schools), younger or older teachers, those with higher qualifications, beginning teachers, alternatively certified teachers, special education teachers, and teachers of math and science. The key reasons for turnover have centered primarily around dissatisfaction with the job or school due to poor working conditions, which are more predictive of turnover than student demographic characteristics. Principal leadership, teacher relationships and collaboration, a safe school climate, autonomy, shared decision making, and opportunities for leadership and advancement are all important components of teacher working conditions that influence retention. In addition, compensation levels are predictive of turnover, with teachers (particularly those teaching hard-to-staff subjects or students) more likely to exit districts that pay less.

The research cited in this report suggests that teacher turnover is a persistent issue with negative consequences for students and schools but is also linked to several malleable factors that could be addressed through educational policy. In an overview of teacher retention research, Katz (2018) recommended several policy strategies that are consistent with the research reviewed in this report, including focused retention efforts for new teachers, differentiated pay for high-need subject areas and schools, and creating strong cadres of highly effective principals. These strategies and others are discussed in more detail in the Teacher Retention Strategies report.

 

 

Citations

Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Funding disparities and the inequitable distribution of teachers: Evaluating sources and solutions. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(37), 1–46.

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009). The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago Public Schools.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Consortium on School Research. Retrieved from https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/schools-teachers-leave-teacher-mobility-chicago-public-schools

Aragon, S. (2016). Mitigating teacher shortages: Financial incentives. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/Mitigating-Teacher-Shortages-Financial-incentives.pdf

Atteberry, A., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher churning: Reassignment rates and implications for student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,39(1), 3–30.

Baker, B., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2015). Is school funding fair? A national report card.4th ed.Newark, NJ: Education Law Center. Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/state_edwatch/Is%20School%20Funding%20Fair%20-%204th%20Edition%20(2).pdf

Baker, B., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2018). Is school funding fair? A national report card. 7th ed.Newark, NJ: Education Law Center. Retrieved from https://edlawcenter.org/assets/files/pdfs/publications/Is_School_Funding_Fair_7th_Editi.pdf

Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The cost of teacher turnover in five school districts: A pilot study. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b4ab/6eaa2ac83f4721044e5de193e3e2dec07ac0.pdf

Behrstock-Sherratt, E., Bassett, K., Olson, D., & Jacques, C. (2014).From good to great: Exemplary teachers share perspectives on increasing teacher effectiveness across the career continuum.Washington, DC: Education Policy Center, American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED555657.pdf

Boe, E., Cook, L. H., & Sunderland, R. J. (2008). Teacher turnover: Examining exit attrition, teaching area transfer, and school migration. Exceptional Child, 75(1), 7–31.

Borman, G. D., & Dowling, N. M. (2008). Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 367–409.

Bowsher, A., Sparks, D., & Hoyer, K. M. (2018). Preparation and support for teachers in public schools: Reflections on the first year of teaching (NCES 2018-143). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581881.pdf

Boyd, D., Dunlop, E., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Mahler, P., O’Brien, R. O., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Finance and Policy Conference, Boston, MA.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 303–333.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4), 793–818.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2005). Explaining the short careers of high-achieving teachers in schools with low-performing students.American Economic Review, 95(2), 166–171.

Branch, G. F., Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2013). School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals. Education Next, 13(1), 62–69.

Bryk A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., & Easton, J. Q. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Carver-Thomas, D. & Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher turnover: Why it matters and what we can do about it. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Teacher_Turnover_REPORT.pdf

Carver-Thomas, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). The trouble with teacher turnover: How teacher attrition affects students and schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(36), 1–32.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J., & Wheeler, J. (2006). High-poverty schools and the distribution of teachers and principals. North Carolina Law Review, 85, 1345–1379.

Cohen-Vogel, L., Smith, T. M. (2007). Qualifications and assignments of alternatively certified teachers: Testing core assumptions. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 732–753. 

David, R., & Hesla, K. (2018). Estimated public charter school enrollment, 2017–2018. Washington, D.C.: National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Retrieved from https://www.publiccharters.org/sites/default/files/documents/2018-03/FINAL%20Estimated%20Public%20Charter%20School%20Enrollment%252c%202017-18_0.pdf

Dee, T. S., & Goldhaber, D. (2017). Understanding and addressing teacher shortages in the United States.The Hamilton Project. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/es_20170426_understanding_and_addressing_teacher_shortages_in_us_pp_dee_goldhaber.pdf

Donaldson, M. L., & Johnson, S. M. (2010). The price of misassignment: The role of teaching assignments in Teach for America teachers’ exit from low-income schools and the teaching profession. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(2), 299–323.

Gilmour, A. F., & Wehby, J. J. (in press). The association between teaching students with disabilities and teacher turnover. Journal of Educational Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Allison_Gilmour/publication/333675165_The_Association_Between_Teaching_Students_with_Disabilities_and_Teacher_Turnover/links/5cfe5251299bf13a384a7997/The-Association-Between-Teaching-Students-with-Disabilities-and-Teacher-Turnover.pdf

Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2011). Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(1), 57–87.

Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Theobald, R., & Brown, N. (2015). Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines. Phi Delta Kappan, 97(4), 56–62.

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2015). Uneven playing field? Assessing the teacher quality gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Educational Researcher, 44(5), 293–307.

Goldring, R., Taie, S., & Riddles, M. (2014). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2012–13 Teacher Follow-up Survey (NCES 2014-077). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014077.pdf

Gray, L., & Taie, S. (2015). Public school teacher attrition and mobility in the first five years: Results from the first through fifth waves of the 2007-08 beginning teacher longitudinal study (NCES 2015-337). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015337.pdf

Grissom, J. A. (2011). Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments. Teachers College Record, 113(11), 2552–2585.

Gross, B., & DeArmond, M. (2010). Parallel patterns: Teacher attrition in charter vs. district schools. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from http://www.crpe.org/sites/default/files/pub_ics_Attrition_Sep10_0.pdf

Gulosino, C., Ni, Y., & Rorrer, A. K. (2019). Newly hired teacher mobility in charter schools and traditional public schools: An application of segmented labor market theory. American Journal of Education, 125(4), 547–592.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J., & Rivkin, S. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources, 39, 326–354.

Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance. Working Paper No. 20727. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w20727.pdf

Henry, G. T., & Redding, C. (in press). The consequences of leaving school early: The effects of within-year and end-of-year teacher turnover. Education Finance and Policy.Retrieved from https://cdn.theconversation.com/static_files/files/269/withinyear_efp_final.pdf?1536242239

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534.

Ingersoll, R. (2003). Is there really a teacher shortage? Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 435–464.

Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. (2017). Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, E. (2017). A quarter century of changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force: From 1987 to 2012 (NCES 2017-092). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Ingersoll, R. M., Merrill, L., & Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated April 2014. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.cpre.org/sites/default/files/workingpapers/1506_7trendsapril2014.pdf

Ingersoll, R., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated October 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=cpre_researchreports

Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. A. (2010). Is the supply of mathematics and science teachers sufficient? American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 563–594.

Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201–233.

Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., & Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://projectngt.gse.harvard.edu/files/gse-projectngt/files/harvard_report.pdf

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581–617.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), p. 1–39.

Katz, V. (2018). Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved from https://curry.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/epw/Teacher%20Retention%20Policy%20Brief.pdf

Kraft, M. A. (2015). Teacher layoffs, teacher quality, and student achievement: Evidence from a discretionary layoff policy. Education Finance and Policy, 10(4), 467–507.

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal,53(5), 1411–1449.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), 235–261.

Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L., & Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3), 44–70.

Loeb, S., Kalogrides, D., & Horng, E. L. (2010). Principal preferences and the uneven distribution of principals across schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(2), 205–229.

Marinell, W. H., & Coca, V. M. (2013). Who stays and who leaves? Findings from a three-partstudy of teacher turnover in NYC middle schools. New York, NY: Research Alliance for New York City Schools. Retrieved from https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/sg158/PDFs/ttp_synthesis/TTPSynthesis_Report_March2013.pdf

McLeskey, J., Tyler, N. C., & Flippin, S. S. (2004). The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 5–21.

Miller, L. C. (2012). Working paper: Understanding rural teacher retention and the role of community amenities. Charlottesville, VA: Center on Education Policy and Workforce Competitiveness.

Monk, D. H. (2007). Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas. Future of Children, 17(1), 155–174.

Naslund, K., & Ponomariov, B. (2019). Do charter schools alleviate the negative effect of teacher turnover? Management in Education, 33(1), 11–20.

National Center on Education and the Economy. (2016). Empowered educators: How high-performing systems shape teaching quality around the world. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/RecruitmentPolicyBrief.pdf

Newton, X., Rivero, R., Fuller, B., & Dauter, L. (2018). Teacher turnover in organizational context: Staffing stability in Los Angeles charter, magnet, and regular public schools. Teachers College Record, 120(3), 1–36.

Orlin, B. (2013, October 24). Why are private-school teachers paid less than public-school teachers? The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/10/why-are-private-school-teachers-paid-less-than-public-school-teachers/280829/

Papay, J. P., Bacher-Hicks, A., Page, L. A., & Marinell, W. H. (2017). The challenge of teacher retention in urban schools: Evidence in variation from a cross-site analysis. Educational Researcher, 46(8), 434–448.

Player, D. (2015). The supply and demand for rural teachers. Rural Opportunities Consortium of Idaho. Retrieved from http://www.rociidaho.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ROCI_2015_RuralTeachers_FINAL.pdf

Podgursky, M., & Springer, M. (2011). Teacher compensation systems in the United States K–12 public school system. National Tax Journal, 64(1), 165–192.

Podolsky, A., Kini, T., Bishop, J., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). Solving the teacher shortage: How to attract and retain excellent educators.Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf

Raue, K., & Gray, L. (2015). Career paths of beginning school teachers: Results for the first through fifth waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study.Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015196.pdf

Redding, C. (2019). A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 89(4), 499–535.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2018). New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover. Educational Researcher, 47(9), 577–593.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2019). Leaving school early: An examination of novice teachers’ within- and end-of-year turnover. American Educational Research Journal, 56(1), 204–236.

Redding, C., & Smith, T. M. (2016). Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates? American Educational Research Journal, 53(4), 1086–1125.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.

Roch, C. H., & Sai, N. (2018). Stay or go? Turnover in CMO, EMO and regular charter schools. Social Science Journal, 55(3), 232–244.

Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4–36.

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117(3), 1–36.

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. F. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working Paper No. 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). Retrieved from https://caldercenter.org/publications/hidden-costs-teacher-turnover

Stuit, D.A, & Smith, T.M. (2012). Explaining the gap in charter and traditional public school teacher turnover rates. Economics of Education Review, 31(2), 268–279.

 Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the U.S. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT.pdf

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2019). Understanding teacher shortages: An analysis of teacher supply and demand in the United States. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(35), 1–39.

Sutton, J. P., Bausmith, S. C., O’Connor, D. M., Pae, H. A., & Payne, J. R. (2014). Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a Grow Your Own program. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 33(4), 14–23. Retrieved from http://www.sccreate.org/Research/article.CREATE.RSEQ.14.pdf

Synar, E., & Maiden, J. (2012). A comprehensive model for estimating the impact of teacher turnover. Journal of Education Finance, 38, 130–144.

TNTP. (2012). The irreplaceables: Understanding the real retention crisis in America’s urban schools.New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP_Irreplaceables_2012.pdf

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). Digest of Education Statistics.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d17/tables/dt17_210.30.asp

Vittek, J. E. (2015). Promoting special educator teacher retention: A critical review of the literature. SAGE Open, (5)2, 1–6.

Wronowski, M. L. (2018). Filling the void: A grounded theory approach to addressing teacher recruitment and retention in urban schools. Education and Urban Society, 50(6), 548–574.

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Retention Analysis

This report analyzes the retention problem in the United States through documentation of recent teacher turnover data, and reviews the research on the factors that contribute to teachers’ decisions to remain in the
classroom.

Donley, J. (2019). Teacher Retention Analysis. Oakland, CA: Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1V1YeiC6nzDooV0A1UIRQKt6dnOBMXICz/view?usp=sharing

Teacher Turnover Impact

This report provides an overview of the research that documents how teacher turnover impacts students, teachers, and schools. Understanding turnover’s impact is essential for making the case for the policies and strategies needed to keep effective teachers in classrooms.

Donley, J., Detrich, R, Keyworth, R., & States, J. (2019). Teacher Turnover Impact. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-retention-turnover

Teacher Retention Overview

This paper examines the impact of teacher turnover on education systems. Teacher turnover is quite costly, and primarily has negative consequences for school operations, staff collegiality, and student learning.

 

Donley, J., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R., & States, J. (2019). Teacher Retention. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-retention

Teacher Retention Strategies

Research on teacher turnover has led to the identification of retention strategies to help advance the profession and improve the recruitment, preparation, and support of teachers. This report summarizes available research on these strategies and discusses potential barriers and research on their relative cost-effectiveness.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2019). Teacher Retention Analysis Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-retention-strategies

Working Paper: Understanding Rural Teacher Recruitment and the Role of Community Amenities

This paper is the first attempt to test the community amenity hypotheses in a multivariate framework using administrative data on teacher employment patterns.

Miller, L. C. (2012). Understanding rural teacher recruitment and the role of community amenities. Journal of Research in Rural Education27(13), 1-52.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of working conditions how this correlates to student performance.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between901.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race experience and age on teacher recruiting and retention.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting899.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This analysis examines evidence on the influence of teacher induction programs on reducing teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact884.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This review examines the effectiveness of teacher induction.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact928.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover898.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of poverty on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover897.
How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover for public and private schools.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-percent-of.
How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This analysis lookes at data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-teacher-turnover.
What is the turnover for new teachers over time?
This analysis looks at the rate of teacher turnover as it relates to the length of time a person is on the job.
States, J. (2009). What is the turnover for new teachers over time? Retrieved from what-is-turnover-for.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This analysis is based on data from New York City public schools that linking working conditions to teacher career trajectories and retention with a focus on administrative support.
States, J. (2014). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals833.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).

Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

The compositional effect of rigorous teacher evaluation on workforce quality

In this paper, we study how providing improved information to principals about teacher effectiveness and encouraging them to use the information in personnel decisions affects the composition of teacher turnovers.

Cullen, J. B., Koedel, C., & Parsons, E. (2016). The compositional effect of rigorous teacher evaluation on workforce quality. Working Paper No. 22805. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w22805.pdf

The role of teacher quality in retention and hiring: Using applications-to-transfer to uncover preferences of teachers and schools.

This study uses applications-to-transfer data to examine separately which teachers apply for transfer and which get hired and, in so doing, differentiates teachers from school preferences.

 Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., & Wyckoff, J. (2010). The role of teacher quality in retention and hiring: Using applications-to-transfer to uncover preferences of teachers and schools. Working Paper No. 15966. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w15966.pdf

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013)

This report from KIPP provides a snap short of critical indicators from KIPP schools from across the United States.

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013) Retrieved from http://www.kipp.org/reportcard.

Funding disparities and the inequitable distribution of teachers: Evaluating sources and solutions.

This study examines how and why teacher quality is inequitably distributed, by reviewing research and examining data on school funding, salaries, and teacher qualifications from California and New York—two large states that face similar demographic diversity and educational challenges.

Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Funding disparities and the inequitable distribution of teachers: Evaluating sources and solutions. education policy analysis archives20, 37.

Teacher turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement in DCPS

This study examines this question by evaluating the effects of teacher turnover on student achievement under IMPACT, the unique performance-assessment and incentive system in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS).

Adnot, M., Dee, T., Katz, V., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement in DCPS. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis39(1), 54–76.

The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago Public Schools.

In this report, we examine the degree to which teacher mobility is problematic in Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and look at the factors associated with high mobility rates, including teachers’ background characteristics, school structure, students’ characteristics, and workplace conditions.

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009). The schools teachers leave: teacher mobility in Chicago public schools. Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

Mitigating teacher shortages: Financial incentives.

The first brief in this series, Teacher Shortages: What We Know, explores research on teacher shortages and highlights recent state task force findings. This report is one of five policy briefs examining strategies states are using to address shortages.

Aragon, S. (2016). Mitigating teacher shortages: Financial incentives. Retrieved from.

Teacher churning: Reassignment rates and implications for student achievement.

The authors use panel data from New York City to compare four ways in which teachers are new to assignment: new to teaching, new to district, new to school, or new to subject/grade. 

Atteberry, A., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher churning: Reassignment rates and implications for student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis39(1), 3-30.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: First Edition

The National Report Card is a critique of state school funding systems and the extent to which these systems ensure equality of educational opportunity for all children, regardless of background, family income, place of residence or school. The report makes the assumption that "fair" school funding is defined as "a state finance system that ensures equal educational opportunity by providing a sufficient level of funding distributed to districts within the state to account for additional needs generated by student poverty."

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2010). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card. Education Law Center.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Second Edition

The Second Edition of the National Report Card on public school funding, Is School Funding Fair?, shows that far too many states continue to deny public schools the essential resources they need to meet the needs of the nation's 53 million students and to boost academic achievement. The National Report Card rates the 50 states on the basis of four "fairness indicators" - funding level, funding distribution, state fiscal effort, and public school coverage. The Report provides the most in-depth analysis to date of state education finance systems and school funding fairness across the nation.

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2012). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Second Edition. Education Law Center.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Third Edition

The 3rd Edition of Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card details how the Great Recession and its aftermath have affected school funding in the states. The National Report Card (NRC) examines each state's level of commitment to equal educational opportunity, regardless of a student's background, family income, or where she or he attends school. Providing fair school funding -- at a sufficient level with additional funds to meet needs generated by poverty -- is crucial if all students are to be afforded the opportunity to learn and be successful.

Baker, B. D., Sciarra, D. G., & Farrie, D. (2014). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card: Third Edition. Education Law Center.

The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study

This research reports on the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. It reports the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers.

Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

From good to great: Exemplary teachers share perspectives on increasing teacher effectiveness across the career continuum.

The main body of the report takes readers through the four stages that this study used to define the teacher career continuum: Preservice, Novice, Career, and Teacher Leader stages.

Behrstock-Sherratt, E., Bassett, K., Olson, D., & Jacques, C. (2014). From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum. Center on Great Teachers and Leaders.

Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes

This study examines the detrimental impact of principal turnover, including lower teacher retention and lower student achievement. Particularly hard hit are high poverty schools, which often lose principals at a higher rate as they transition to lower poverty, higher student achievement schools.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2012). Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(4), 904-919.

Teacher turnover: Examining exit attrition, teaching area transfer, and school migration

The purposes of this research were to quantify trends in three components of teacher turnover and to investigate claims of excessive teacher turnover as the predominant source of teacher shortages.

Boe, E. E., Cook, L. H., & Sunderland, R. J. (2008). Teacher turnover: Examining exit attrition, teaching area transfer, and school migration. Exceptional children75(1), 7-31.

Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research

This comprehensive meta-analysis on teacher career trajectories, consisting of 34 studies of 63 attrition moderators, seeks to understand why teaching attrition occurs, or what factors moderate attrition outcomes.

Borman, G. D., & Dowling, N. M. (2008). Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research. Review of educational research78(3), 367-409.

Preparation and support for teachers in public schools: Reflections on the first year of teaching

This Statistics in Brief adds to existing research on early-career teachers by presenting findings on their preparation and supports from data from the 2011–12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). This brief, like past research, investigates several specific areas of preparation and types of support.

Bowsher, A., Sparks, D., & Hoyer, K. M. (2018). Preparation and Support for Teachers in Public Schools: Reflections on the First Year of Teaching. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-143. National Center for Education Statistics.

Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City

This paper assess the long-run implications of alternatively certified teachers. 

Boyd, D., Dunlop, E., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Mahler, P., O’Brien, R., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City. In annual meeting of the American Education Finance and Policy Conference, Boston, MA.

The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions

This article explores the relationship between school contextual factors and teacher retention decisions in New York City and finds that school administration by far has the greatest influence on teacher retention.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). The influence of school administrators on teacher retention decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 303-333.

Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement

The goal of this paper is to estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). Who leaves? Teacher attrition and student achievement. Working Paper No. 14022. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w14022

Explaining the short careers of high-achieving teachers in schools with low-performing students

This paper examines New York City elementary school teachers’ decisions to stay in the same school, transfer to another school in the district, transfer to another district, or leave teaching in New York state during the first five years of their careers.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2005). Explaining the short careers of high-achieving teachers in schools with low-performing students. American Economic Review, 95(2), 166-171.

The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools.

By estimating the effect of teacher attributes using a value-added model, the analyses in this paper predict that observable qualifications of teachers resulted in average improved achievement for students in the poorest decile of schools of .03 standard deviations.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high‐poverty schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management27(4), 793-818.

School leaders matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals.

This study provides new evidence on the importance of school leadership by estimating individual principals’ contributions to growth in student achievement.

Branch, G., Hanushek, E., & Rivkin, S. G. (2013). School leaders matter: measuring the impact of effective principals Education Next, 13.

Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago

The authors of this illuminating book identify a comprehensive set of practices and conditions that were key factors for improvement, including school leadership, the professional capacity of the faculty and staff, and a student-centered learning climate.

Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers

The study investigated the impact of organizational and personality factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one conceptual framework. 

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Educational Research Journal31(3), 645–673.

Teacher turnover: Why it matters and what we can do about it.

The analysis of nationally representative survey data from the 2012 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2013 Teacher Follow-up Survey reveals that the severity of turnover varies markedly across the country

Carver-Thomas, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2017). Teacher turnover: Why it matters and what we can do about it. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

The trouble with teacher turnover: How teacher attrition affects students and schools

Using the most recent nationally representative data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Schools and Staffing Surveys, the authors detail which teachers are leaving, why, and which students are most impacted.

Carver-Thomas, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). The trouble with teacher turnover: How teacher attrition affects students and schools. education policy analysis archives27, 36.

University Council for Educational Administration: Quality Leadership Matters

Policy Brief 2018-1: Addressing the Importance and Scale of the U.S. Teacher Shortage

Castro, A., Quinn, D. J., Fuller, E., & Barnes, M. (2018). Quality leadership matters. University Council for Educational Administration. Policy Brief Series,(1)1.

Value-added measures: How and why the strategic data project uses them to study teacher effectiveness

This brief explains how and why Strategic Data Project (SDP) uses value-added measures for our diagnostic work. We also explain how value-added measures relate to other measures of teacher effectiveness and the limitations of value-added measures.

Center for Education Policy Research. (2011). Value-added measures: How and why the strategic data project uses them to study teacher effectiveness. Retrieved from https://hwpi.harvard.edu/files/sdp/files/sdp-va-memo_0.pdf

Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of the efficacy of valued-added measures in evaluating the effectiveness of teachers and long term impact on student’s lives.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (in press II). Measuring the impact of teachers II: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. American Economic Review.

The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs

The study separately compares the effectiveness of teachers from each program with the effectiveness of other teachers teaching the same subjects in the same schools.

Clark, M. A., Chiang, H. S., Silva, T., McConnell, S., Sonnenfeld, K., Erbe, A., & Puma, M. (2013). The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs (NCEE 2013-4015). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=NCEE20134015

Would higher salaries keep teachers in high-poverty schools? Evidence from a policy intervention in North Carolina

Using longitudinal data on teachers, we estimate hazard models that identify the impact of this differential pay by comparing turnover patterns before and after the program’s implementation, across eligible and ineligible categories of teachers, and across eligible and barely-ineligible schools.

Clotfelter, C. T., Glennie, E., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor. J. L. (2008). Would higher salaries keep teachers in high-poverty schools? Evidence from a policy intervention in North Carolina. Journal of Public Economics, 92(5), 1352–1370.

Teacher mobility, school segregation, and pay-based policies to level the playing field

Using information on teaching spells in North Carolina, the authors examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this pattern. They conclude that salary differentials are a far less effective tool for retaining teachers with strong pre‐service qualifications than for retaining other teachers in schools with high proportions of minority students. 

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J. L. (2011). Teacher mobility, school segregation, and pay-based policies to level the playing field. Education Finance and Policy6(3), 399-438.

High-Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and Principals

Although many factors combine to make a successful school, most people agree that quality teachers and school principals are among the most important requirements for success, especially when success is defined by the ability of the school to raise the achievement of its students. The central question for this study is how the quality of the teachers and principals in high-poverty schools in North Carolina compares to that in the schools serving more advantaged students.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J., & Wheeler, J. (2006). High-poverty schools and the distribution of teachers and principals. NCL Rev., 85, 1345.

Qualifications and assignments of alternatively certified teachers: Testing core assumptions.

By analyzing data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors empirically test four of the core assumptions embedded in current arguments for expanding alternative teacher certification (AC):

Cohen-Vogel, L., & Smith, T. M. (2007). Qualifications and assignments of alternatively certified teachers: Testing core assumptions. American Educational Research Journal44(3), 732-753.

An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report

The study compares the effectiveness of different routes to teaching. It finds there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of teachers who were traditionally trained when compared to teachers who obtained training through alternative credential programs.

Constantine, J., D. Player, T. Silva, K. Hallgren, M. Grider, and J. Deke, 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report (NCEE 2009- 4043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Missing elements in the discussion of teacher shortages

Though policymakers are increasingly concerned about teacher shortages in U.S. public schools, the national discussion does not reflect historical patterns of the supply of and demand for newly minted teachers.

Cowan, J., Goldhaber, D., Hayes, K., & Theobald, R. (2016). Missing elements in the discussion of teacher shortages. Educational Researcher45(8), 460–462.

Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the “highly qualified teacher” challenge

The authors study the mal-distribution of teachers and examine its causes then describe examples of both states and local school districts that have fashioned successful strategies for strengthening their teaching forces. 

Darling-Hammond, L., and Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the “highly qualified teacher” challenge. Education Policy Analysis Archives11(33), 1–55.

Estimated public charter school enrollment,

This information is used to determine the current number of charter schools in each state and to estimate total charter school enrollment at the national level.

David, R., & Hesla, K. (2018). Estimated public charter school enrollment, 2017–2018. Washington, D.C.: National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Retrieved from https://www.publiccharters.org/sites/default/files/documents/2018-03/FINAL%20Estimated%20Public%20Charter%20School%20Enrollment%252c%202017-18_0.pdf

Understanding and addressing teacher shortages in the United States.

While anecdotal accounts of substantial teacher shortages are increasingly common, we present evidence that such shortages are not a general phenomenon but rather are highly concentrated by subject and in schools where hiring and retaining teachers are chronic problems. We discuss several promising, complementary approaches for addressing teacher shortages.

Dee, T. S., & Goldhaber, D. (2017). Understanding and addressing teacher shortages in the United States. The Hamilton Project.

The cost of teacher turnover in Alaska

The costs associated with teacher turnover in Alaska are considerable, but have never been systematically calculated,1 and this study emerged from interests among Alaska education researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders to better understand these costs.

DeFeo, D. J., Tran, T., Hirshberg, D., Cope, D., & Cravez, P. (2017). The cost of teacher turnover in Alaska. Anchorage, AK: Center for Alaska Education Policy Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11122/7815/2017-CostTeacher.pdf?sequence=1

The price of misassignment: The role of teaching assignments in Teach for America teachers’ exit from low-income schools and the teaching profession.

This study is the first to examine these teachers’ retention nationwide, asking whether, when, and why they voluntarily transfer from their low-income placement schools or leave teaching altogether.

Donaldson, M. L., & Johnson, S. M. (2010). The price of misassignment: The role of teaching assignments in Teach for America teachers’ exit from low-income schools and the teaching profession. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis32(2), 299-323.

Teacher Retention Analysis

This report analyzes the retention problem in the United States through documentation of recent teacher turnover data, and reviews the research on the factors that contribute to teachers’ decisions to remain in the
classroom.

Donley, J. (2019). Teacher Retention Analysis. Oakland, CA: Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1V1YeiC6nzDooV0A1UIRQKt6dnOBMXICz/view?usp=sharing

Teacher Turnover Impact

This report provides an overview of the research that documents how teacher turnover impacts students, teachers, and schools. Understanding turnover’s impact is essential for making the case for the policies and strategies needed to keep effective teachers in classrooms.

Donley, J., Detrich, R, Keyworth, R., & States, J. (2019). Teacher Turnover Impact. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-retention-turnover

 
Teacher Retention Overview

This paper examines the impact of teacher turnover on education systems. Teacher turnover is quite costly, and primarily has negative consequences for school operations, staff collegiality, and student learning.

 

Donley, J., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R., & States, J. (2019). Teacher Retention. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-retention

Teacher Retention Strategies

Research on teacher turnover has led to the identification of retention strategies to help advance the profession and improve the recruitment, preparation, and support of teachers. This report summarizes available research on these strategies and discusses potential barriers and research on their relative cost-effectiveness.

Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2019). Teacher Retention Analysis Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-retention-strategies

Tapping The Potential: Retaining And Developing High-Quality New Teachers

This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.

Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.

Teacher quality and teacher mobility

Using matched student-teacher panel data from the state of Florida, the authors study the determinants of teacher job change and the impact of such mobility on the distribution of teacher quality.

Feng, L., & Sass, T. R. (2017). Teacher quality and teacher mobility. Education Finance and Policy12(3), 396–418.

An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California

Policy makers are concerned about reports of teacher shortages and the high rate of attrition among new teachers. Prior studies indicate that mentor-based induction can reduce the numbers of new teachers leaving schools or the profession

Fletcher, S., Strong, M., & Villar, A. (2008). An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California. Teachers college record110(10), 2271-2289.

The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement

The purpose of this study is to examine how the principal preparation programs of newly hired elementary school principals might influence school achievement. The study looks at differing elementary school principal preparation program approaches impact on build teams and the affect this has on student achievement.

Fuller, E. J., Young, M. D., & Baker, B. (2007). The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf

The association between teaching students with disabilities and teacher turnover.

The authors fit multilevel logistic regression models to a large state administrative dataset in order to examine (1) if the percentage of SWDs a teacher instructs was associated with turnover, (2) if this association varied by student disability, and (3) how these associations were moderated by special education certification.

Gilmour, A. F., & Wehby, J. H. (2019). The Association Between Teaching Students with Disabilities and Teacher Turnover.

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Results from the frst year of a randomized controlled study

The study examines whether comprehensive teacher induction programs lead to higher teacher retention rates and other positive teacher and student outcomes as compared to prevailing, generally less comprehensive approaches to supporting new teachers

Glazerman, S., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Isenberg, E., Lugo-Gil, J., ... & Ali, M. (2008). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Results from the First Year of a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2009-4034. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Final results from a randomized controlled study

To evaluate the impact of comprehensive teacher induction relative to the usual induction support, the authors conducted a randomized experiment in a set of districts that were not already implementing comprehensive induction.

Glazerman, S., Isenberg, E., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Grider, M., & Jacobus, M. (2010). Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?

In this paper we examine the mobility of early-career teachers of varying quality, measured using value-added estimates of teacher performance.

Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2011). Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management30(1), 57-87.

Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines.

This article documents the mismatch between the supply and demand of STEM and special education teachers in Washington State, where almost 4,000 more STEM and special education teachers have left the profession than have been produced by in-state teacher training institutions over the past 25 years. 

Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Theobald, R., & Brown, N. (2015). Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines. Phi Delta Kappan97(4), 56-62.

Uneven Playing Field? Assessing the Teacher Quality Gap Between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students

In this study, we present a comprehensive, descriptive analysis of the inequitable distribution of both input and output measures of teacher quality across various indicators of student disadvantage across all school districts in Washington State.

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2015). Uneven playing field? Assessing the teacher quality gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Educational researcher44(5), 293-307.

Public school teacher attrition and mobility in the first five years: Results from the first through fifth waves of the 2007-08 beginning teacher longitudinal study

This report provides nationally representative data on attrition and mobility of beginning teachers in public elementary and secondary schools.

Gray, L., & Taie, S. (2015). Public School Teacher Attrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: Results from the First through Fifth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. First Look. NCES 2015-337. National center for education statistics.

Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments.

This study hypothesizes that school working conditions help explain both teacher satisfaction and turnover. In particular, it focuses on the role of effective principals in retaining teachers, particularly in disadvantaged schools with the greatest staffing challenges. 

Grissom, J. A. (2011). Can good principals keep teachers in disadvantaged schools? Linking principal effectiveness to teacher satisfaction and turnover in hard-to-staff environments. Teachers College Record113(11), 2552-2585.

Strategic retention: Principal effectiveness and teacher turnover in multiple-measure teacher evaluation systems

Using multiple measures of teacher and principal effectiveness, the authors document that indeed more effective principals see lower rates of teacher turnover, on average

Grissom, J. A., & Bartanen, B. (2019). Strategic retention: Principal effectiveness and teacher turnover in multiple-measure teacher evaluation systems. American Educational Research Journal56(2), 514–555.

Parallel patterns: Teacher attrition in charter vs. district schools

This report examines how teacher turnover in charter schools resembles and differs from teacher turnover in traditional public schools. They offer two perspectives on the issue.

Gross, B., & DeArmond, M. (2010). Parallel patterns: Teacher attrition in charter vs. district schools. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from http://www.crpe.org/sites/default/files/pub_ics_Attrition_Sep10_0.pdf

Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature.

This article critically reviews the recent empirical literature on teacher recruitment and retention published in the United States.

Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of educational research76(2), 173-208.

Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. 

Guin, K. (2004). Chronic teacher turnover in urban elementary schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(42), 1–30.

Newly Hired Teacher Mobility in Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools: An Application of Segmented Labor Market Theory

This study draws on segmented labor market theory to examine the dynamics of the teacher labor market in charters and TPS, focusing on newly hired teachers. 

Gulosino, C., Ni, Y., & Rorrer, A. K. (2019). Newly Hired Teacher Mobility in Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools: An Application of Segmented Labor Market Theory. American Journal of Education125(4), 000-000.

Teacher Deselection.

This discussion provides a quantitative statement of one approach to achieving the governors’ (and the nation’s) goals – teacher deselection.

Hanushek, E. A. (2009). Teacher deselection. Creating a new teaching profession168, 172-173.

Teacher Quality

This chapter of Handbook of The Economics of Education reviews research on teacher labor markets, the importance of teacher quality in the determination of student achievement, and the extent to which specific observable characteristics often related to hiring decisions and salary explain the variation in the quality of instruction.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.

Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality.

Eric Hanushek and Steven Rivkin examine how salary and working conditions affect the quality of instruction in the classroom.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2007). Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality. The Future of Children17(1), 69–86. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795875.pdf

 
Constrained job matching: Does teacher job search harm disadvantaged urban schools?

This paper provides direct evidence about the impacts of school job matching on productivity and student achievement.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). Constrained job matching: Does teacher job search harm disadvantaged urban schools? Working Paper No. 15816. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w15816.pdf

The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance

This new research addresses a number of critical questions:  Are a teacher’s cognitive skills a good predictor of teacher quality? This study examines the student achievement of 36 developed countries in the context of teacher cognitive skills. This study finds substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance.

Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (No. w20727). National Bureau of Economic Research.

 

Dynamic effects of teacher turnover on the quality of instruction

This paper examines the combined effects of overall turnover and the quality distribution of teacher transitions for a large, urban district in Texas with special emphasis on nonrandom sorting of students into classrooms, endogenous teacher exits, and grade-switching.

Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G., & Schiman, J. C. (2016). Dynamic effects of teacher turnover on the quality of instruction. Economics of Education Review, 55, 132–148.

Why public schools lose teachers

This paper examines the issue of teacher attrition and the factors that motivate teachers leaving schools. The results indicate that teacher mobility is much more strongly related to characteristics of the student population (race and lower socioeconomic status) and achievement. The study finds salary plays a much smaller role in these decisions.

Hanushek, E., Kain, J., & Rivkin, S. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources, 39(2), 326-354.

Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement

The authors study the effects of various types of education and training on the ability of teachers to promote student achievement.

Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics95(7–8), 798-812.

 

 
Career Changers in the Classroom: A National Portrait

This volume is the third report in a series on the potential, promise, experience, and needs of career changers who are teaching in America’s classrooms today. It is based on a survey of a cross-section of such individuals conducted by Hart Research Associates in 2009.

Hart Research Associates (2010). Career changers in the classroom: A national portrait. Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.woodrow. org/images/pdf/policy/CareerChangersClassroom_0210.pdf

Differential teacher attrition: Do high-ability teachers exit at higher rates?

This work presents new evidence on the nature of differential teacher attrition in Texas and attempts to reconcile these conflicting results. 

Hendricks, M. D. (2016). Differential teacher attrition: Do high-ability teachers exit at higher rates? Working paper. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2824586

The consequences of leaving school early: The effects of within-year and end-of-year teacher turnover.

Using unique administrative data from North Carolina that allow us to separate classroom teacher turnover during the school year from end-of -year turnover, this research find students who lose their teacher during the school year have significantly lower test score gains than those students when their teachers stay. 

Henry, G. T., & Redding, C. (2018). The consequences of leaving school early: The effects of within-year and end-of-year teacher turnover. Education Finance and Policy, 1-52.

Rethinking teacher turnover: Longitudinal measures of instability in schools

In this essay, we present a typology of teacher turnover measures, including both measures used in existing teacher turnover literature as well as new measures that we have developed. 

Holme, J. J., Jabbar, H., Germain, E., & Dinning, J. (2017. Rethinking teacher turnover: Longitudinal measures of instability in schools. Educational Researcher47(1), 62–75. 

Principal’s time use and school effectiveness.

This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.

Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American journal of education116(4), 491-523.

Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis

This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.

Is there really a teacher shortage?

This report summarizes a series of analyses that have investigated the possibility that there are other factors—tied to the organizational characteristics and conditions of schools—that are behind school staffing problems.

Ingersoll, R. (2003). Is there really a teacher shortage? Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

A quarter century of changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force: From 1987 to 2012

This report utilizes the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to examine changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force in the United States over the quarter century from 1987–88 to 2011–12.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2017). A Quarter Century of Changes in the Elementary and Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 to 2012-Statistical Analysis Report.

A quarter century of changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force: From 1987 to 2012

This report utilizes the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to examine changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force in the United States over the quarter century from 1987–88 to 2011–12.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2017). A Quarter Century of Changes in the Elementary and Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 to 2012-Statistical Analysis Report.

The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover

This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of the departures of mathematics and science teachers from public schools.

Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 435-464.

The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research

This review critically examines 15 empirical studies, conducted since the mid1980s, on the effects of support, guidance, and orientation programs—collectively known as induction—for beginning teachers.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research81(2), 201-233.

Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated October 2018

This report summarizes the results of an exploratory research project that investigated what trends and changes have, or have not, occurred in the teaching force over the past three decades.

Ingersoll, R. M., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven Trends: The Transformation of the Teaching Force–Updated October 2018.

Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013.

This brief summarizes the results from a study of the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority k-12 teachers. The study examines the extent and sources of the minority teacher shortage—the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of minority students in the school system.

Ingersoll, R., & May, H. (2016). Minority teacher recruitment, employment and retention: 1987 to 2013. Learning Policy Institute, Stanford, CA.

Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013.

This brief summarizes the results from a study of the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority k-12 teachers. The study examines the extent and sources of the minority teacher shortage—the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of minority students in the school system.

Ingersoll, R., & May, H. (2016). Minority teacher recruitment, employment and retention: 1987 to 2013. Learning Policy Institute, Stanford, CA.

Is the supply of mathematics and science teachers sufficient?

This study seeks to empirically ground the debate over mathematics/science teacher shortages, and evaluate the extent to which there is, or is not, a sufficient supply of teachers in these fields.

Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. A. (2010). Is the supply of mathematics and science teachers sufficient? American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 563–594.

Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated April 2014.

Has the elementary and secondary teaching force changed in recent years? And, if so, how? Have the types and kinds of individuals going into teaching changed? Have the demographic characteristics of those working in classrooms altered?

Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force. Consortium for Policy Research in Education4, 31.

Seven Trends: The Transformation of the Teaching Force—Updated October 2018

This study examines the most recent data from staffing surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as well as those going back to 1987. Its concludes that over the last three decades the teaching force has become: 1) larger, 2) grayer, 3) greener, 4) more female, 5) more diverse by race-ethnicity, 6) consistent in academic ability, and 7) unstable.  It also calls for more research as to the reasons for these trends and their implications and consequences.

Ingersoll, Richard M.; Merrill, Elizabeth; Stuckey, Daniel; and Collins, Gregory. (2018). Seven Trends: e Transformation of the Teaching Force – Updated October 2018. CPRE Research Reports.

What do test scores miss? The importance of teacher effects on non-test score outcomes

Teachers affect a variety of student outcomes through their influence on both cognitive and noncognitive skills. The author proxy for students’ noncognitive skill using non–test score behaviors. These behaviors include absences, suspensions, course grades, and grade repetition in ninth grade.

Jackson, C. K. (2018). What do test scores miss? The importance of teacher effects on non-test score outcomes. Journal of Political Economy126(5), 2072–2107.

The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools

To identify and better understand the experience of these teachers, the authors started by studying 90,000 teachers across four large, geographically diverse urban school districts

Jacob, A., Vidyarthi, E., & Carroll, K. (2012). The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools. TNTP.

The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools

To identify and better understand the experience of these teachers, the authors started by studying 90,000 teachers across four large, geographically diverse urban school districts

Jacob, A., Vidyarthi, E., & Carroll, K. (2012). The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools. TNTP.

Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions.

This article reports on a longitudinal study designed to explore these questions. In 1999, researchers from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers selected and interviewed a diverse group of 50 new teachers in the Massachusetts public schools.

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal40(3), 581-617.

Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention

The Literature Review considers research that provides insight into problems of teacher shortage and turnover, offers a comprehensive explanation for why some able teachers leave the classroom prematurely, and suggests current strategies for increasing retention rates.

Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., & Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stays in teaching and why?: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Project on the Next Generation of Teachers, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement.

the authors build on this body of work by further examining how working conditions predict both teachers‘ job satisfaction and their career plans.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record114(10), 1-39.

What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City

The authors use six years of data on student test performance to evaluate the effectiveness of certified, uncertified, and alternatively certified teachers in the New York City public schools. This study also evaluates turnover among teachers with different certification status and the impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover

Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education review27(6), 615-631.

Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy

This policy brief summarizes the available evidence on the policy relevant factors that affect teacher turnover.

Katz, V. (2018). Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved from https://curry.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/epw/Teacher%20Retention%20Policy%20Brief.pdf

Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 teacher follow-up survey

The objective of TFS is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K–12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Keigher, A. (2010). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-353. National Center for Education Statistics.

Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research

The goal of this paper is to provide researchers and policymakers with a comprehensive and timely review of this body of work.

Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Teaching_Experience_Report_June_2016.pdf

Teacher layoffs, teacher quality, and student achievement: Evidence from a discretionary layoff policy.

This study present some of first evidence on the implementation and subsequent effect of discretionary layoff policies, by studying the 18th largest public school district in the nation, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (CMS).

Kraft, M. A. (2013). Teacher Layoffs, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: The Implementation and Consequences of a Discretionary Reduction-in-Force Policy. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data

This study is among the first to address the empirical limitations of prior studies on organizational contexts by leveraging one of the largest survey administration efforts ever conducted in the United States outside of the decennial population census.

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Shen-Wei Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal53(5), 1411-1449.

Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?

This quantitative study examines the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions and their intended and actual departures from schools.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis33(2), 235-261.

Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing,

This study examines the relationship between two dominant measures of teacher quality, teacher qualification and teacher effectiveness (measured by value-added modeling), in terms of their influence on students’ short-term academic growth and long-term educational success (measured by bachelor’s degree attainment).

Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis40(3), 359–381.

Estimating teacher turnover costs: A case study.

This study created a model and methodology to document turnover costs for the middle and high schools in the Boston Public Schools to test the degree to which it could detect differences in costs for teachers of science, and to explore the feasibility of its implementation by school personnel

Levy, A. J., Joy, L., Ellis, P., Jablonski, E., & Karelitz, T. M. (2012). Estimating teacher turnover costs: A case study. Journal of Education Finance38(2), 102–129.

How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools.

Using California teacher survey data linked to district data on salaries and staffing patterns, this study examines a range of school conditions as well as demographic factors and finds that high levels of school turnover are strongly affected by poor working conditions and low salaries, as well as by student characteristics. 

Loeb, S., & Luczak, L. D. H. (2013). How Teaching Conditions Predict: Teacher Turnover in California Schools. In Rendering School Resources More Effective (pp. 48-99). Routledge.

Effective schools: Teacher hiring, assignment, development, and retention

In this paper, the authors use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school’s effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development and retention of its teachers.

Loeb, S., Béteille, T., & Kalogrides, D. (2012). Effective schools: Teacher hiring, assignment, development, and retention. Education Finance and Policy7(3), 269–304.

Principal Preferences and the Uneven Distribution of Principals Across Schools

The authors use longitudinal data from one large school district to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. They find that schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low-achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges. This distribution of principals is partially driven by the initial match of first-time principals to schools, and it is exacerbated by systematic attrition and transfer away from these schools.

Loeb, S., Kalogrides, D., & Horng, E. L. (2010). Principal preferences and the uneven distribution of principals across schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(2), 205-229.

Who stays and who leaves? Findings from a three-part study of teacher turnover in NYC middle schools

This research summary focuses on aspects of the study’s results that are likely to be most useful for policymakers and school leaders as they strive to maintain and manage an effective teacher workforce.

Marinell, W. H., & Coca, V. M. (2013). " Who Stays and Who Leaves?" Findings from a Three-Part Study of Teacher Turnover in NYC Middle Schools. Online Submission.

The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers

This article provides an analysis of factors influencing the supply of and demand for special education teachers

McLeskey, J., Tyler, N. C., & Saunders Flippin, S. (2004). The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. The Journal of Special Education38(1), 5-21.

A new approach to the cost of teacher turnover.

This research seeks to provide policy makers with some hard information on the costs of teacher turnover. The goal is to develop an average dollar cost per vacancy, which could also be converted to a percent of payroll, in order to compare to the rules of thumb mentioned
above.

Milanowski, A. T., & Odden, A. R. (2007). A new approach to the cost of teacher turnover. Working Paper 13. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from https://www.crpe.org/sites/default/files/wp_sfrp13_milanowskiodden_aug08_0.pdf

Principal Turnover, Student Achievement and Teacher Retention

This study uses twelve years of administrative data from North Carolina to examine the impact of school principals on school quality. The study finds that principal departures are followed by a decrease in a school’s performance.

Miller, A. (2009). Principal turnover, student achievement and teacher retention. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University.

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities—small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs.

Monk, D. H. (2007). Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas. Future of Children17(1), 155–174.

Do charter schools alleviate the negative effect of teacher

Using data on charter and public school districts in Texas, the authors test the hypothesis that the labor practices in charter schools, in particular, their ability to easily dismiss poorly performing teachers, diminishes the negative effect of teacher turnover on student achievement and graduation rates in comparison to public schools. 

Naslund, K., & Ponomariov, B. (2019). Do charter schools alleviate the negative effect of teacher turnover? Management in Education33(1), 11–20.

Creating Sustainable Teacher Career Pathways: A 21st Century Imperative

The authors offer a new vision of teacher career pathways for the 21st century that holds promise for recruiting and retaining excellent teachers who further student learning. They showcase recent initiatives at the local, state, and national level that promote teacher role differentiation and create different models of teacher staffing and teacher career continuums.

Natale, C. F., Bassett, K., Gaddis, L., & McKnight, K. (2013). Creating sustainable teacher career pathways. 2013-07-05)[2016-02-19]. http://researchnetwork. pearson, com/wp-content/uploads/CSTCP-21 CI-pk-final-WEB. pdf.

Empowered educators: How high-performing systems shape teaching quality around the world

This book examines seven jurisdictions that have worked to develop comprehensive teaching policy systems: Singapore and Finland, the states of New South Wales and Victoria in Australia, the provinces of Alberta and Ontario in Canada, and the province of Shanghai in China. 

National Center on Education and the Economy. (2016). Empowered educators: How high-performing systems shape teaching quality around the world. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/RecruitmentPolicyBrief.pdf

Teacher turnover in organizational context: Staffing stability in Los Angeles charter, magnet, and regular public schools

Prior research on teacher turnover focused mostly on whether or not and who leaves. This research builds on and extends prior studies by investigating not only whether and who but also when a teacher leaves. The phenomenon of this study emphasizes the dynamic nature of teacher exit.

Newton, X., Rivero, R., Fuller, B., & Dauter, L. (2018). Teacher turnover in organizational context: Staffing stability in Los Angeles charter, magnet, and regular public schools. Teachers College Record120(3), 1–36.

Why are private-school teachers paid less than public-school teachers?

One explanation: The working conditions are better in private schools, so instructors are willing to take a salary cut.

Orlin, B. (2013, October 24). Why are private-school teachers paid less than public-school teachers? The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/10/why-are-private-school-teachers-paid-less-than-public-school-teachers/280829/

The challenge of teacher retention in urban schools: Evidence in variation from a cross-site analysis

Applying consistent data practices and analytical techniques to administrative data sets from 16 urban districts, the authors document substantial cross-district variation in teacher retention rates. They also explore the influence of temporary leaves of absence and cross-district, within-state movement on retention estimates.

Papay, J. P., Bacher-Hicks, A., Page, L. A., & Marinell, W. H. (2017). The challenge of teacher retention in urban schools: Evidence in variation from a cross-site analysis. Educational Researcher46(8), 434–448.

The supply and demand for rural teachers.

The purpose of this paper is to summarize what we know about the current state of rural teacher labor markets by contrasting them with the same data from urban, suburban, and large and small town settings.

Player, D. (2015). The supply and demand for rural teachers. Rural Opportunities Consortium of Idaho. Retrieved from http://www.rociidaho.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ROCI_2015_RuralTeachers_FINAL.pdf

Teacher compensation systems in the United States K–12 public school system.

This paper provides a review of the current teacher compensation system and examines the structure of teacher compensation in the U.S. K-12 public education system.

Podgursky, M., & Springer, M. (2011). Teacher compensation systems in the United States K-12 public school system. National Tax Journal64(1), 165.

The academic quality of public school teachers: an analysis of entry and exit behavior

The authors investigate how the labor market decisions of recent college graduates, new teachers, and employers affect the academic quality of the teaching workforce in public schools.

Podgursky, M., Monroe, R., & Watson, D. (2004). The academic quality of public school teachers: An analysis of entry and exit behavior. Economics of Education Review23(5), 507–518.

Solving the Teacher Shortage: How to Attract and Retain Excellent Educators

This report reviews an extensive body of research on teacher recruitment and retention, and identifies five major factors that influence a teacher’s decision to enter, remain in, or leave the teaching profession, generally, and high-need schools, specifically.

Podolsky, A., Kini, T., Bishop, J., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). Solving the teacher shortage: How to attract and retain excellent educators. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

Career paths of beginning school teachers: Results for the first through fifth waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study

This report examines the career paths of beginning public school teachers and how these career paths vary by characteristics during the teachers' first year of teaching and most recent year of teaching. 

Raue, K., & Gray, L. (2015). Career Paths of Beginning Public School Teachers: Results from the First through Fifth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-196. National Center for Education Statistics.

A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes

Underlying this research is the belief that the cultural fit between students and teachers has the potential to improve a child’s academic and nonacademic performance in school. 

Redding, C. (2019). A Teacher Like Me: A Review of the Effect of Student–Teacher Racial/Ethnic Matching on Teacher Perceptions of Students and Student Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 0034654319853545.

New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover.

Teacher turnover occurs during and at the end of the school year, although documentation of within-year turnover currently rests on anecdotal evidence.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2018). New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover. Educational Researcher47(9), 577-593.

Leaving school early: An examination of novice teachers’ within- and end-of-year turnover

This research use data from North Carolina to measure teacher turnover monthly throughout the entire year and conduct an analysis of their persistence to examine the differences in early career teacher turnover.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2019). Leaving school early: An examination of novice teachers’ within-and end-of-year turnover. American Educational Research Journal56(1), 204-236.

Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates?

The authors report on descriptive evidence of growing differences in the characteristics of alternatively and traditionally certified teachers and the schools in which they teach.

Redding, C., & Smith, T. M. (2016). Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates?. American Educational Research Journal53(4), 1086-1125.

Teachers, schools, and academic achievement.

This paper disentangles the impact of schools and teachers in influencing achievement with special attention given to the potential problems of omitted or mismeasured variables and of student and school selection. 

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica73(2), 417-458.

Stay or go? Turnover in CMO, EMO and regular charter schools.

We examine whether working conditions in different types of charter schools lead to different levels of teacher turnover. 

Roch, C. H., & Sai, N. (2018). Stay or go? Turnover in CMO, EMO and regular charter schools. The Social Science Journal55(3), 232-244.

How teacher turnover harms student achievement

This study used a version of value added modeling to evaluate the impact of teacher turnover has on student achievement.

Ronfeldt, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 17176. doi:10.3386/w17176

What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?

This study examines whether such programs - collectively known as induction - have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers.

Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover?. American educational research journal41(3), 681-714.

The Hidden Cost of Teacher Turnover

This study asks how schools respond to spells of high teacher turnover, and assesses organizational and human capital losses in terms of the changing composition of the teacher pool. 

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. F. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working Paper No. 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). Retrieved from https://caldercenter.org/publications/hidden-costs-teacher-turnover

Explaining the gap in charter and traditional public school teacher turnover rates

This study uses national survey data to examine why charter school teachers are more likely to turnover than their traditional public school counterparts.

Stuit, D. A., & Smith, T. M. (2012). Explaining the gap in charter and traditional public school teacher turnover rates. Economics of Education Review31(2), 268-279.

A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US

Recent media reports of teacher shortages across the country are confirmed by the analysis of several national datasets reported in this brief. Shortages are particularly severe in special education, mathematics, science, and bilingual/English learner education, and in locations with lower wages and poorer working conditions. Shortages are projected to grow based on declines in teacher education enrollments, coupled with student enrollment growth, efforts to reduce pupil-teacher ratios, and ongoing high attrition rates.

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US. Washington, DC: Learning Policy Institute. Available at: https://learningpolicyinstitute. org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT. pdf.

Understanding Teacher Shortages: An Analysis of Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States
This paper reviews the sources of and potential solutions to teacher shortages in the United States. It describes the sources of current and projected increases in teacher demand relative to enrollments, shift in pupil-teacher rations, and attrition. 

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2019). Understanding Teacher Shortages: An Analysis of Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States. education policy analysis archives27(35).

Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a Grow Your Own program

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a grow your own (GYO) program equitably increased special education teacher capacity in one Southern state's rural and non-rural school districts.

Sutton, J. P., Bausmith, S. C., O'connor, D. M., Pae, H. A., & Payne, J. R. (2014). Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a grow your own program. Rural Special Education Quarterly33(4), 14-23.

A comprehensive model for estimating the impact of teacher turnover.

The purpose of this study was to develop a model that may be used to estimate the financial costs of teacher turnover in urban school districts. 

Synar, E., & Maiden, J. (2012). A comprehensive model for estimating the financial impact of teacher turnover. Journal of Education Finance, 130-144.

The High Cost of Leaving: An Analysis of the Cost of Teacher Turnover

The cost of teacher turnover to schools and school districts has only recently been studied. This research reveals that when high-quality teachers leave the classroom, the effect on both student performance and school and district fiscal operations is significant and deleterious.

Watlington, E., Shockley, R., Guglielmino, P., & Felsher, R. (2010). The cost of leaving: An analysis of the cost of teacher turnover. Journal of Education Finance, 36(1), 22–37.

A review of literature on beginning teacher induction.

This review of teacher induction4 literature is designed to summarize current research on the practices, policies, and programs intentionally developed to support novice teachers.

Whisnant, E., Elliott, K., & Pynchon, S. (2005). A review of literature on beginning teacher induction. Center for Strengthening the teaching profession.

Who leaves, Teacher attrition and student achievement
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between student achievement and teacher attrition using value-added modeling for teachers in New York City.
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2007). Who leaves, Teacher attrition and student achievement (Research Report). Albany, NY: Teacher Policy Research.
Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22)
This report to the North Carolina General Assembly provides detailed information on teacher retention in the state’s public schools for the period ending 2013.
Coby, W. et al., (2013). Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22). North Carolina Department Of Public Instruction, Educator Effectiveness Division. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/meetings/TempFolder/Meetings/Attachment%201%20-%202012-13%20Teacher%20Turnover%20Report_19785ndyywn45kqzxm045lztxku45.pdf
The Revolving Door of the Principalship
This study examines the importance of selection and retention of quality principals for improving and sustaining school success. Data from Texas educational employment files provides a basis for inquiry into this problem.
Fuller, E., Terry Orr, M., & Young, M. D. (2008). The Revolving Door of the Principalship. Implications from UCEA. University Council for Educational Administration. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
Are public schools really losing their “best”?: Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality of the teacher workforce
The purpose of this paper is to examine attrition and mobility of teachers using teacher value-added measures for early-career teachers in North Carolina public schools from 1996 to 2002. The results suggest the best teachers remain in teaching and stay in high socioeconomic Status and high performing schools.
Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2007). Are public schools really losing their “best”?: Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implication for the quality of the teacher workforce. Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (Working Paper 12). Washington, D.C. Urban Institute. H
Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers
This is taken from the testimony of Richard Ingersoll in front the Pennsylvania legislature on the issues of school turnover.
Ingersoll, R. M. (2013). Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers. Retrieved October 3, 2014
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey
This survey provides information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States and the District of Columbia.
Marvel, J., Lyter, D. M., Peltola, P., Strizek, G. A., Morton, B. A., & Rowland, R. (2007). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307. National Center for Education Statistics.
Administrative Climate And Novices' Intent To Remain Teaching
This study uses survey data from new elementary and middle school teachers across 11 districts to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools.
Pogodzinski, B., Youngs, P., Frank, K. A., & Belman, D. (2012). Administrative climate and novices' intent to remain teaching. The Elementary School Journal, 113(2), 252-275.
Churn: The High Cost of Principal Turnover
This study looks at the significant costs associated with school principal turnover. CHURN reveals the multitude of impacts on schools and school systems that include teachers and students. The study highlights the cost implications of a typical system associated with ineffective principals and the turmoil that results.
School Leaders Network. (2014). Churn: The High Cost of Principal Turnover. Retrieved March 4, 2015 from http://connectleadsucceed.org/sites/default/files/principal_turnover_cost.pdf
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2007-2008.
This report from the state of North Carolina provides data on the performance of the states’ schools.
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2007-2008. (2008). Public Schools of North Carolina, Department of Public Instruction, Talent Management and Development Division. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/newsroom/news/2007-08/

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