Rules and Procedures Overview
Rules and Procedures PDF
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Rules and Procedures. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-rules-procedures.
In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, educators and parents are being asked to radically shift the environment in which students learn. As students of all ages adjust to this massive change, behavioral challenges are almost inevitable. Although our overviews on classroom management focus heavily on techniques to apply in settings with many students in one space, the basic principles on which these strategies are based hold true and can be adapted for use in home or online instruction. For example, the Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2020) published a guide for creating a behavioral matrix for remote instruction. Just as behavioral matrices can identify how to exemplify universal social expectations in different school environments, the same tool can be used to align these expectations with different remote learning environments, such as breakout groups, group instruction, and one-on-one instruction.
Rules and procedures are a critical component of governing human behavior in all levels of society, including educational settings. A multitiered system of support (MTSS) involves both proactive and reactive interventions to support appropriate behavior and discourage inappropriate behavior. Universal interventions are applied to all students, and more intensive interventions are introduced for students for whom universal interventions are not effective. Rules play an important role across tiers of MTSS, are a key element of the first tier (Reinke, Herman, & Stormont, 2013), and are included in many effective behavior management strategies such as active supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997), the good behavior game (Tingstrom, Sterling-Turner, & Wilczynski, 2006), check-in/check-out (Wolfe et al., 2016), and classwide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT; Kamps et al., 2011).
Although establishing and implementing effective school or classroom rules may appear a straightforward process, it remains a persistent topic in classroom management textbooks and empirical research. Recommendations across these sources may be inconsistent (Alter & Haydon, 2017), but prioritizing recommendations from empirical research best aligns with using evidence-based practices. This overview summarizes research about the effects of rules on appropriate and inappropriate behavior in school settings and provides recommendations for incorporating rules effectively into a behavior management program.
What Is a Rule?
The various definitions of “rules” include “explicit statements that define behavioral expectations and that help establish a predictable teaching and learning environment” (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009, p. 196) and “statements that teachers present to describe acceptable and unacceptable behavior” (Alter & Haydon, 2017, p. 115). However, at its simplest, a rule is a statement of the relation between a signal, a behavior, and a consequence (Blakely & Schlinger, 1987). For example, after lunch (signal), classes that line up quietly (behavior) get to go out to the playground (consequence).
Research on Rules
Rules are an efficient means of changing behavior. Once students are aware of the relation between a signal, a behavior, and a consequence, they can learn what to do and what not to do before ever experiencing a consequence. One simple demonstration of the power of rules is giving meaning to an otherwise arbitrary signal. Tiger and Hanley (2004) examined whether providing rules would increase the effectiveness of using signals to indicate when a teacher was or was not available to assist students. In an initial phase of the study, the classroom teacher wore different colored floral leis to signal students about availability for help with work. A red lei meant the teacher would provide assistance when asked, and a white lei meant assistance was not available. However, the teacher did not explain to the students what each lei meant. There were minimal differences in the number of times the students requested teacher attention during this phase. Next, the teacher provided rules about what each lei color signaled. Immediately after this change, the students engaged in higher levels of requesting assistance when the red lei was worn, and lower levels of requesting assistance when the white lei was worn.
Vargo, Heal, Epperley, and Kooistra (2014) demonstrated a similar effect on hand raising in preschool classrooms. The intervention involved teaching students the following rules: When the blue card is on the board and you raise your hand, the teacher will call on you as soon as possible. When the yellow card is on the board and you raise your hand, the teacher will not call on you. After learning the rules, students raised their hands more frequently when the blue card was on the board and less frequently when the yellow card was on the board.
Torelli, Lloyd, Diekman, and Wehby (2017) expanded this line of research to elementary school classrooms. A table lamp served as the signal for whether or not the teacher was available. The teacher explained to the students how the light being on or off signaled availability or lack of availability to answer questions. The students engaged in higher levels of recruiting teacher assistance when the appropriate signal was in place and lower levels when the signal was not in place. Further, the teacher was able to alter the rule and switch the signal—if a turned-on light previously signaled availability, now a turned-off light signaled availability and a turned-on light meant the teacher was not available.
It is important to note that in each of the aforementioned studies, rules were accompanied by consistent consequences. That is, if the rule was, “I can help you if the light is on, but I cannot help you if the light is off,” the teacher consistently responded to the students in accordance with the rule.
Additional research has explored which features of a rule make it more or less effective. Braam and Malott (1990) compared the effects on preschool children of four types of rules for following directions. In general, if the students completed a task, they could select a prize from a prize box. The variations on the rule included whether or not completing the task would result in a prize, whether the prize would be immediate or delayed by 1 week, and whether or not there was a deadline for completing the task. Initially, when there were no rules or prizes delivered for following rules, the students followed only 42% of instructions. When the rule included a deadline and specified that a prize would be delivered immediately, the students followed 97% of instructions. When the rule included a deadline but not a prize, students followed only 31% of instructions. Further, when the rule included a deadline and specified that a prize would be delivered after a 1-week delay, the students followed 74% of directions, compared with following only 28% of directions when the rule did not include a deadline but specified that a prize would be delivered after a 1-week delay.
Table 1. Average percentages of directions followed across conditions (adapted from Braam & Malott, 1990)
These findings indicated that providing a deadline combined with an immediate prize for completing the task had the strongest influence over whether or not students followed directions.
Introducing rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year is an excellent starting point and one of the hallmarks of schoolwide positive behavioral supports (SWPBS). However, ongoing reminders and prompts are also crucial for ensuring continuing effectiveness of those rules (Taylor-Green et al., 1997). Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated the effects of rule reminders on rule following.
Faul, Stepensky, and Simonsen (2012) evaluated the effects of verbal reminders of expectations on off-task behavior with two middle school students. The intervention involved the teacher reminding the students of three rules immediately before class. The teacher did not provide any additional prompts, praise, or other consequences for on- or off-task behavior after the initial delivery of the rules. For both participants, the verbal reminders of the rules resulted in decreased off-task behavior. Moreover, Moore et al. (2019) evaluated the effects of verbally reviewing classroom rules immediately prior to a lesson in which the rules would be in effect. Participants were three high school students with mild disabilities. Prior to the study, the classroom rules were displayed in the classroom (and remained on display throughout the study), but the teacher did not provide any reminders or prompts. On-task behavior occurred at moderate levels during this phase. In the intervention phase, at the beginning of each class the teacher read each rule, then asked students to give an example of following the rule and an example of not following the rule. The intervention resulted in increased on-task behavior for all three participants.
Faul et al. (2012) and Moore et al. (2019) evaluated rule reminders in isolation, but other research has demonstrated how rule reminders can be used in conjunction with additional intervention components such as behavior-specific praise and corrective feedback. Rosenberg (1986) examined if adding rules to an existing token economy would result in greater decreases in disruptive behavior. His study compared two conditions:
- No rule review: The teacher briefly reminded students that they could earn tokens for following math lesson rules. If a student followed the rules during the lesson, they were notified of earning a point but was given no specific feedback. Similarly, if a student did not follow the rules during the lesson, they were notified that they did not earn a point, but no further feedback was provided.
- Rule review: teacher asked the class if they remembered the rules for earning tokens; students raised their hands to answer individually, and then the teacher prompted the class to recite the rule in unison. During the lesson, rule following resulted in specific praise about how the student had followed the rule in addition to a point, and not following the rules resulted in additional reminders about behavioral expectations.
The students exhibited higher levels of on task behavior and lower levels of disruptive behavior when rules were reviewed and incorporated into feedback via behavior-specific praise or corrective statements. It is important to note that rules were merely one component of the effective intervention; it is unclear if the rules, specific praise, points, or combination of these elements were responsible for the change in behavior.
Rules: Part of the Intervention Package
Stating behavioral expectations is frequently the first step in implementing a behavior management strategy. In addition to treatment packages such as the good behavior game, check-in/check-out, and CW-FIT, researchers have examined the effects of rules in combination with other intervention components such as practice opportunities and feedback.
In their seminal study, Madsen, Becker, and Thomas (1968) evaluated the effects on the inappropriate behavior of elementary school children of a classroom management package that included setting rules, ignoring inappropriate behavior, and praising appropriate behavior. Rules alone and rules combined with ignoring inappropriate behavior did not produce any changes in inappropriate behavior. Only when setting rules, ignoring inappropriate behavior, and praising appropriate behavior were combined did decreases in inappropriate behavior occur.
Johnson, Stoner, and Green (1996) demonstrated the effectiveness of actively teaching classroom rules. On the first day of intervention, the teacher initially spent approximately 10 minutes teaching the rules by giving examples and providing specific feedback. During each subsequent day, the teacher spent about 3 minutes reteaching one of the five rules. Throughout the class period, the teacher also provided feedback about the target rule at least three times. The intervention resulted in decreased inappropriate behavior and increased appropriate behavior.
Lohrmann and Talerico (2004) evaluated the effects of an intervention called “anchor the boat” on inappropriate behavior in a class of students with disabilities. Three behavioral expectations were defined positively (i.e., stating what to do instead of what not to do): Stay in your seat, complete your assignments, and talk when it is your turn. The teacher explained each rule and provided examples of what following the rule looked like and what violating the rule looked like. The class then engaged in a role-playing activity to practice following the rules. The teacher prepared a visual on the classroom wall of a boat and an anchor 20 inches apart. The class earned paperclips for following the classroom rules, which were added to the visual to connect the anchor to the boat. Once sufficient paperclips were earned and the anchor was connected to the boat, the students could each choose a prize from a prize box. Then the paperclips were removed and the process repeated. The intervention resulted in decreases in all three inappropriate behaviors (not staying in the seat, not completing assignments, and talking out of turn).
Rules can be critical to teaching new skills in addition to reducing inappropriate behavior. Sharpe, Brown, and Crider (1995) evaluated the effects of a social curriculum package including rules, peer monitoring, and feedback on sportsmanship and leadership in public school physical education classes. At the beginning of each physical education class, the teacher reviewed the rules including giving verbal descriptions of what following each rule looked like. The students rotated through a randomized roster so that during each class two students functioned as referees and resolved any interpersonal conflicts, and two students functioned as team captains and were responsible for team division, equipment organization, and rule reminders. At the end of each class, the teacher provided verbal and written feedback to each team based on adherence to the rules. The intervention resulted in increases in leadership and teacher-independent conflict resolution, and decreases in conflict and off-task behavior.
It is critical to note that in all of the studies discussed in this overview, when a rule specified a consequence, that consequence was delivered consistently. Applying consistent consequences is another hallmark of MTSS (Taylor-Greene et al., 1997).
Developing Effective Rules
Some social expectations are ubiquitous in American culture. Lynass, Tsai, Richman, and Cheney (2012) examined the behavioral matrices of schools implementing SWPBS across the United States. A behavioral matrix involves listing the overall school expectations, then describing the specific behaviors involved in adhering to that expectation across school settings (e.g., classroom, cafeteria, hallway). The top four social expectations observed were respect (89%), responsibility (72%), safety (64%), and learning readiness (27%). The most frequent behavioral indicators for the four expectations respectively included kind words and actions (55%), following instructions (49%), hands and feet to self (75%), and having materials prepared (65%). The authors acknowledged that the homogeneity of the expectations observed left the question of cultural differences unaddressed.
Despite this uniformity, developing a list of school or classroom rules can be a difficult task. Involving school personnel in the development of school rules is a vital first step in ensuring consistent implementation of behavior management strategies; incorporating team members in the development of behavior support plans can increase adherence to a plan compared with having a specialist develop the plan on his or her own (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006; Sanetti, Collier-Meek, Long, Kim, & Kratochwill, 2014).
Valenti and Kerr (2015) acknowledged the challenges associated with reaching a consensus on school rules and described a strategy for generating behavioral matrices with faculty input. The researchers conducted an anonymous, electronic survey to gather information about staff perceptions of school rules. The survey listed misbehaviors already included in the school’s code of conduct and additional common school misbehaviors (e.g., arriving late to class). Respondents were asked to rate each misbehavior on a scale of 1 to 5 on how important they thought it was to address the behavior. The survey results were summarized and presented at a faculty meeting with the following guidance:
- Behaviors that the faculty agreed were important should be translated into school rules.
- Behaviors that faculty agreed were not important should not be translated into school rules.
- Behaviors that faculty did not agree on should be subject to group discussion or a vote.
In addition, Alter and Haydon (2017) provided a number of recommendations for developing effective rules based on empirical literature.
- Less is more. Recommendations for the exact number of rules based on secondary sources are ambiguous, but the general consensus is that fewer rules are better. In empirical studies reviewed, the average number of rules was 4.67 (range = 2–9).
- Collaborate with students. Although the benefits of this practice have yet to be demonstrated empirically, this recommendation appears frequently in secondary sources (i.e., sources that provide suggestions about developing effective rules, but do not include experimental data).
- Keep it positive. When stating rules, say what to do whenever possible instead of what not to do.
- Be specific. Rules should identify specific environments, behaviors, and consequences. General principles such as “be respectful” can be used at a school level; a behavioral matrix can be helpful in specifying what behaviors exemplify that principle in different environments. For example, being respectful on the playground may involve different behaviors than being respectful in the classroom.
- Make it public. Post the classroom rules in a place where everyone can see them, or provide handouts to each student.
- Teach the rules. Model appropriate behavior for students, arrange opportunities for students to practice, and provide praise and corrective feedback as necessary.
- Connect rules to positive and negative consequences. Identify what will happen when rules are followed and when they are not followed.
Conclusions and Implications
Establishing clear rules about behavioral expectations is the first step in developing a comprehensive behavior management program. Although there is some consistency in school rules across the United States, reaching consensus among school staff regarding school rules can be challenging. Using a data-based strategy to gather information about behavioral priorities can facilitate the development of overarching expectations with input from school staff.
Rules can enhance the effectiveness of other behavioral interventions such as using signals to indicate teacher availability, token economies, and peer monitoring. In addition to initially teaching the rules with descriptions, rationales, and examples, providing reminders may be necessary to help students follow the rules. Rules alone are often insufficient to change behavior, but can be part of a treatment package involving additional components such as prompting, behavior-specific praise, rewards, and corrective feedback. Most importantly, rules should be thought of as the starting point for guiding student behavior. In order to be effective, rules must be accompanied by consistent consequences such as praise and rewards for rule following, and corrective consequences for rule violations.
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Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. (2003). Identifying and implementing educational practices supported by rigorous evidence: A user-friendly guide. US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.
The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures.
Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.
Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance
This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.
DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14(3), 221-230.
The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.
The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior.
Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review, 48(1).
Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook
Featuring step-by-step guidance, examples, and forms, this guide to functional assessment procedures provides a first step toward designing positive and educative programs to eliminate serious behavior problems.
EDITION, N. T. T. (2015). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook.
Reaching America’s health potential: A state-by-state look at adult health
This chartbook—which is a companion piece to a chartbook on child health released in October 2008—provides state and national data on an important and widely-used measure of health: self-reported adult health status.
Egerter, S., Braveman, P., Cubbin, C., Dekker, M., Sadegh-Nobari, T., & An, J. (2009). Reaching America’s health potential: a state-by-state look at adult health. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission to Build a Healthier America.
Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom
This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.
Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide, 20(8), 12-22.
An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.
The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.
Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools, 25(2), 154-163.
The St. Louis conundrum: The effective treatment of antisocial youths
This book analyzes the findings of a treatment program which integrated antisocial and delinquent youths into prosocial peer groups in a suburban community center in St. Louis.
Feldman, R. A., Caplinger, T. E., & Wodarski, J. S. (1983). The St. Louis conundrum: The effective treatment of antisocial youths. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.
The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five.
Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction, 17(1), 2-15.
Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings
The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes
Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research, 84(4), 546-571.
Harming Our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown
The publication of this report marks the 65th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case declaring racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. This report shows that the growth of racial and economic segregation that began then has now continued unchecked for nearly three decades, placing the promise of Brown at grave risk. Research shows that segregation has strong, negative relationships with the achievement, college success, long-term employment and income of students of color.
Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J. B., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown.
Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents
CASL's general goal is to identify instructional practices that accelerate the learning of K-3 children with disabilities. A specific goal is to identify and understand the nature of nonresponsiveness to generally effective instruction.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 57-61.
A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention
To implement RTI for prevention and identification, schools must make decisions about six components that constitute the process. The authors recommendation is that schools employ three tiers, with only one tier separating general and special education.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. Teaching exceptional children, 39(5), 14-20.
The Meaning of Educational Change
This book is written for individuals at all levels of the educational system. All key players will find a chapter on their own roles, as well as chapters on other roles and agencies with whom they must interact.
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. Routledge.
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
Supporting Appropriate Behaviors
This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.
The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right
The author puts forth the case that using simple checklists prior to medical and surgical procedures can substantially improve outcomes.
Guwande, A. (2010). The checklist manifesto. New York: Picadur.
Introduction to the special section on stepped care models in psychotherapy.
This article introduces a special section addressing these resource allocation issues in the context of prevalent disorders
Haaga, D. A. F. (2000). Introduction to the special section on stepped care models in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 547-548.
No Child Left Behind, Contingencies, and Utah's Alternate Assessment
This article examine the concept of behavioral contingency and describes NCLB as a set of contingencies to promote the use of effective educational practices. Then they describe their design of an alternate assessment, including the components designed to capitalize on the contingencies of NCLB to promote positive educational outcomes.
Hager, K. D., Slocum, T. A., & Detrich, R. (2007). No Child Left Behind, Contingencies, and Utah’s Alternate Assessment. JEBPS Vol 8-N1, 63.
Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training
The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.
Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(1), 17-38.
Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.
Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.
Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior, 20(2).
Evidence-based medicine: how to practice & teach EBM
This book explains the philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and demonstrating its application.
Haynes, R. B., Sackett, D. L., Richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W., & Langley, G. R. (1997). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice & teach EBM. Canadian Medical Association. Journal, 157(6), 788.
This article provides an overview of multisystemic therapy (MST). Specifically, the theoretical and empirical foundations for the demonstrated clinical and cost-effectiveness of MST in treating children and adolescents presenting serious clinical problems and their families are discussed.
Henggeler, S. W. (2001). Multisystemic therapy. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18(3), 75-85.
A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom
A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior.
Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 60(4), 1-8.
The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET; Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, Todd, & Horner, 2001) was created to provide a rigorous measure of primary prevention practices within school-wide behavior support. In this article, the authors describe the SET and document its psychometric characteristics.
Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET) a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12.
The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes
Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session.
Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 255-265.
Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.
This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement.
Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf
Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students.
Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of multi-tiered systems of support. Springer.
Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: a sustainability planning model
This article presents an informed definition of sustainability and an associated planning model for sustaining innovations (pertinent to both infrastructure and interventions) within organizational, community, and state systems.
Johnson, K., Hays, C., Center, H., & Daley, C. (2004). Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: a sustainability planning model. Evaluation and program planning, 27(2), 135-149.
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms
The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD).
Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(3), 154-167.supp
Hyperactivity and Diet Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of the Feingold Hypothesis
This paper is a review of primary research investigating the Feingold hypothesis which suggests diet modification as an efficacious treatment for hyperactivity.
Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1983). Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16(6), 324-330.
History of Behavior Modification
This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right.
Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.
Parent Management Training: Treatment for Oppositional, Aggressive, and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescent
Here, Alan E. Kazdin brings together the conceptual and empirical bases underlying PMT with discussions of background, principles, and concepts, supplemented with concrete examples of the ways therapists should interact with parents and children.
Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Parent management training: Treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Oxford University Press.
Delineating mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy: methodological issues and research recommendations
In this article, we discuss the importance of studying mechanisms, the logical and methodological requirements, and why almost no studies to date provide evidence for why or how treatment works.
Kazdin, A. E., & Nock, M. K. (2003). Delineating mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy: Methodological issues and research recommendations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(8), 1116-1129.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Children: Therapist Manual, Third Edition
This therapist manual provides an overview of the general strategies used in the treatment of anxiety in children.
Kendall, P. C., Kane, M., Howard, B., & Siqueland, L. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxious children: Treatment manual. Ardmore, PA: Workbook.
Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention
This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools.
Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(2), 138.
Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Conceptual and practice issues Part II.
The authors present some conceptual and practice issues on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Conceptual issues discussed include the foci of effective intervention studies, specification of interventions, and intervention manuals and procedural guidelines.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Conceptual and practice issues—Part II. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(2), 233.
Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly.
The inauguration of the ESI section of School Psychology Quarterly represents a new era in research for our profession that we hope will usher in advancements for both the science and practice of school psychology.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 69.
Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change
This bestselling resource presents authoritative thinking on the pressing questions, issues, and controversies in psychotherapy research and practice today.
Lambert, M. J., Garfield, S. L., & Bergin, A. E. (2004). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Sustainability Planning Workbook
This workbook helps program developers and community leaders identify basic issues in: sustaining promising initiatives, addressing strategic details, and developing a comprehensive plan. It includes a guide and five step-by-step modules that help initiative leaders identify specific resources and strategies that are needed to successfully sustain effective programs and services.
Langford, B. H., & Flynn, M. (2003). Sustainability planning workbook. Finance Project.
Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia
This guideline provide guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia
Lehman, A. F., Lieberman, J. A., Dixon, L. B., McGlashan, T. H., Miller, A. L., Perkins, D. O., ... & Cook, I. (2004). Practice guideline for the treatment of partients with schizophrenia. American Journal of psychiatry, 161(2 SUPPL.).
Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations.
These Treatment Recommendations, presented here in final form for the first time, are based on exhaustive reviews of the treatment outcomes literature and focus on those treatments for which there is substantial evidence of efficacy.
Lehman, A. F., Steinwachs, D. M., & Co-Investigators of the PORT Project. (1998). Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophrenia bulletin, 24(1), 1-10.
Self‐recording of attention versus productivity
The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.
Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(3), 315-32
Tootling with a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Class-wide Behavior.
This paper examines the practice of “tootling.” Tootling is a peer-mediated classroom management practice designed to have students identify and then report on peer prosocial behavior. Students are taught to be on the look-out for peer behavior that met the criterion for being reinforced. When they witness prosocial behavior, they write it down on a piece of paper and turn it into the teacher. At the end of the class, three “tootles” are drawn from the lot and read out to the classroom. The results suggest that peer reinforcement had a positive impact on increasing appropriate student behavior, reducing disruptive conduct, and student engagement
Lum, J. D., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., Olmi, D. J., & Wright, S. J. (2019). Tootling With a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Classwide Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 21(2), 93-105.
Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote
Homework Completion and Accuracy
This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.
Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International, 24(4), 369-377.
Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training
This study examined the extent to which competence in applying behavioral procedures (timeout from positive reinforcement) was sufficient to establish competence in teaching others to apply the same procedures.
McGimsey, J. F., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1995). Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 301-315.
Relationships Between Academics and Problem
Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School
Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9
McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 243-255.
RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention.
This comprehensive yet accessible reference covers the three tiers of RTI, schoolwide screening, progress monitoring, challenges to implementation, and changes in school structures and individual staff roles.
Mellard, D. F., & Johnson, E. S. (Eds.). (2007). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. Corwin Press.
Blueprints for violence prevention
This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.
Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom
A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons
Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology, 21(3), 255-265.
The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures
The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures
Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International, 35(2), 191-205.
Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.
The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.
Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 335-338.syste
National School Climate Standards Benchmarks to promote effective teaching, learning and comprehensive school improvement
The National School Climate Council has developed a school climate framework that is built around five core standards that address the school’s “vision,” policies, practices, environment, and commitment.
What To Know & Where To Go: Parents' Guide to No Child Left Behind. A New Era in Education.
This guide for parents outlines what they need to know about the legislation.
Paige, R. (2002). What to know and where to go parent’s guide to no child left behind a new era in education. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, Office of the Secretary.
The handbook of school psychology, 3rd ed.
The book covers topics vital to school psychology, ranging from theory-based presentation to scholarly reviews of research to more directive, or how-to, chapters.
Reynolds, C. R., & Gutkin, T. B. (1999). The handbook of school psychology. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.
This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study.
Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review, 43(3).
Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism.
Describes treatment of autism, a severe, chronic developmental disorder that results in significant lifelong disability for most persons, with few persons ever functioning in an independent and typical lifestyle.
Rogers, S. J. (1998). Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism. Journal of clinical child psychology, 27(2), 168-179.
A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance
The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).
Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education, 40(2), 112-128.
The Hidden Cost of California’s Harsh School Discipline: And the Localized Economic Benefits from Suspending Fewer High School Students
This research from the Center for Civil Rights Remedies at the Civil Rights Project, UCLA, and California Dropout Research Project shows that the overuse of suspensions in California schools is harming student achievement and graduation rates, and causing billions of dollars in economic damage. The financial consequences of school suspensions, including both additional costs borne by taxpayers as a result of suspensions and lost economic benefit, are quantified. The impact of school suspension varies widely by school district, with California’s largest districts incurring the greatest losses. For example, suspensions in the Los Angeles Unified School District for a 10th grade cohort are estimated to cause $148 million in economic damage. The report calculates a total statewide economic burden of $2.7 billion over the lifetime of the single 10th grade cohort.
Rumberger, R., & Losen, D. (2017). The Hidden Cost of California’s Harsh School Discipline: And the Localized Economic Benefits from Suspending Fewer High School Students. The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at the Civil Rights Project, UCLA, and California Dropout Research Project.
Hiring an External Evaluator
This essay seeks to help you put the hard-earned experience of others to use through a set of practical steps, prompts, and tips for matching the right evaluator to your need.
S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation. (2018). Hiring an External Evaluator. Retrieved from http://sdbjrfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/04_Evaluation-Consultant_2018Oct25.pdf
Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention
This popular practitioner guide and text presents an effective, problem-solving-based approach to evaluating and remediating academic skills problems. The author provides practical strategies for working with students across all grade levels (K–12) who are struggling with reading, spelling, written language, or math.
Shapiro, E. S. (2011). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. Guilford Press.
The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline.
This book describes the Time-out Grid, a heuristic tool for analyzing and solving problems associated with implementing time-out in the classroom.
Shriver, M. D., & Allen, K. D. (1996). The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(1), 67.
Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.
Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practice
Did you know that plants and plant products can be used to improve people’s cognitive, physical, psychological, and social functioning? Well, they can, and Horticulture as Therapy is the book to show you how!
Simson, S., & Straus, M. (1997). Horticulture as therapy: Principles and practice. CRC Press.
Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.
In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.
SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 37(3), 263-270.
Digest of Education Statistics 2017
This annual publication is thedefinitive compendium of data on virtually every aspects of education from pre-kindergarten through graduate school. Its chapters include: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Libraries and Use of Technology.
Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.
Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity.
The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training procedures and treatment integrity.
Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., Wildmon, M., Watkins, C., & Little, E. (2001). Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 56.
Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I.
In Part 1 of this 2-part article, the authors present historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings.
Stoiber, K. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 75.
What We Know and Need to Know about Preventing Problem Behavior in Schools
This article focuses on what we know and need to know about school-wide applications of effective practices and systems for preventing problem behaviors.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). What we know and need to know about preventing problem behavior in schools. Exceptionality, 16(2), 67-77.
School Boards Give Superintendents Hefty Severance Packages to Quit Early
When school boards offer hefty buy-out packages to get rid of superintendents with whom they no longer see eye-to-eye, do taxpayers get the shaft?
Superville, D. R. (2011). School Boards Give Superintendents Hefty Severance Packages to Quit Early. Retrieved from https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/2017/05/School_boards_pay_hefty_packages_to_get_rid_of_superintendents_early.html
What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?
This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.
Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right
Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).
Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 99-112.
The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002
This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I
Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification, 30(2), 225-253.
Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline
The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's
U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli
Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Final Report.
The Commission identified the six goals as the foundation for transforming mental health care in America. This report discusses each goal in-depth, showcasing model programs to illustrate the goal in practice and providing specific recommendations needed to transform the mental health system in America.
United States. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: transforming mental health care in America: final report. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.
Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities
In order to ensure the Department's “Equity in IDEA” or “significant disproportionality” regulations effectively address significant disproportionality, the Department proposes to postpone the compliance date by two years, from July 1, 2018, to July 1, 2020
US Department of Education. (2006). Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; Final rule (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301). Federal Register, 71, 46540.
Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior
of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education
The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.
Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education, 8(2), 162-169.
The Measurement of Behavior: Behavior Modification
practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.
Essentials of response to intervention
This book offers a concise overview of the features of RTI, instruction for its implementation, and post-implementation guidelines for assessing whether a program has been effective.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Burns, M. K. (2010). Essentials of response to intervention (Vol. 79). John Wiley & Sons.
Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD)
This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Getting to outcomes: A results-based approach to accountability
This article presents a brief description of a manual called Getting to outcomes: methods and tools for planning, evaluation, and accountability (GTO) designed to assist practitioners in formulating the planning, implementation, and evaluation strategies for programs and policies.
Wandersman, A., Imm, P., Chinman, M., & Kaftarian, S. (2000). Getting to outcomes: A results-based approach to accountability. Evaluation and program planning, 23(3), 389-395.
The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom
Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 42(1), 285-293.
Guidelines for schizophrenia: consensus or confusion?
The authors describe and compare the three major guidelines on schizophrenia that have been published in the United States: The American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia, the Expert Consensus Guidelines Series: Treatment of Schizophrenia, and the SchizophreniaPatient Outcome Research Team (PORT) Treatment Recommendations.
Weiden, P. J., & Dixon, L. (1999). Guidelines for schizophrenia: consensus or confusion?. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 5(1), 26-31.
What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures Handbook, Version 4.1
This What Works Clearinghouse Procedures Handbook, Version 4.1, provides a detailed description of the procedures used by the WWC in the systematic review process.
Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students
This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems.
Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children, 32(4), 551-571.
What's behavioral about behavioral consultation
This article provides a brief review and a critique of behavioral consultation. Specifically, the procedures utilized within BC for assessment of the problem, development of an intervention, implementation of the intervention, and plan evaluation are overly reliant on indirect methods of behavior assessment and behavior change.
Witt, J. C., Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1996). What's behavioral about behavioral consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 7(4), 327-344.
A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out
This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO.
Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 74-88.
A Logical and Empirical Analysis of Current Practices in Classifying Students as Handicapped
Two studies were conducted to examine the extent to which the category "learning disabilities" (LD) meets the major criterion for classification systems, specifically that the category demonstrates at least one universal and one specificfcharacteristic.
Ysseldyke, J., Algozzine, B., & Epps, S. (1983). A logical and empirical analysis of current practice in classifying students as handicapped. Exceptional Children, 50(2), 160-166.
Reliability Analysis of The Motivation Assessment Scale
In this study, the reliability of the MAS was reexamined with two independent groups of developmentally disabled individuals who exhibited SIB (N = 55).
Zarcone, J. R., Rodgers, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Rourke, D. A., & Dorsey, M. F. (1991). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale: A failure to replicate. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12(4), 349-360.