Education Drivers

Induction

Teacher induction is a set of practices that help transferring and beginning teachers become competent and effective instructors. The goals of induction are to improve instructional practices; to help teachers in their first years understand and effectively integrate into school and community cultures; and ultimately to improve pupil learning. By supporting the teachers and facilitating their socialization into the profession, school systems could potentially reduce the significant turnover rate of teachers in the first 5 years of employment. Despite its substantial cost, induction has failed to meet most of the stated goals. Research reveals that despite setting high expectations, current models fall short in selecting evidence-based approaches for accomplishing the task. Goals and practices for induction activities are not clearly defined nor is performance effectively monitored. Finally, most models fail to provide effective implementation strategies necessary for sustainability. The overall message is that comprehensive teacher induction has the potential to positively impact teaching practices and pupil learning, but it requires careful reconsideration of current conceptual, procedural, and empirical foundations of the practice.

Teacher Induction Overview

Teacher Induction PDF

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Teacher quality is an important factor in student achievement and has an impact on student success (Hattie, 2009; Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Students who have high-quality teachers have higher test scores than students who do not have high-quality teachers (American Education Research Association, 2004).

Ensuring student access to high-quality teachers has been a focus of reforms and legislation for decades (No Child Left Behind Act, 2002; States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012). However, the United States has struggled with low academic achievement, stagnant academic growth, and educational inequalities (Maheady, Jabot, Rey, & Michelli-Pendl, 2007). On the 2019 Nation’s Report Card, 75% of fourth graders and 66% of eighth graders scored below proficiency in reading. In math, 59% of fourth graders and 66% of eighth graders scored below proficiency (National Assessment of Education Progress, 2020).

Teacher preparation has been named a potential reason for trends in low academic achievement (Maheady et al., 2007). This raises the question: are teachers getting the preparation they need to be successful in raising student achievement from the start of their careers?

Currently, teachers graduating from teacher preparation programs may or may not be prepared to teach successfully. As a result, teacher induction programs have been created to serve as a bridge between university programs and classroom teaching (Hart Research Associates, 2010).

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs. Important questions about teacher induction programs include:

  • What should teacher induction programs focus on? What are the effective components of a teacher induction program?
  • How should professional development be delivered in teacher induction programs?
  • What benefits can schools and districts expect to see from teacher induction programs?

[A head][C1] Need for Teacher Induction Programs

New teachers require training that meets their unique needs and provides intensive experiences to quickly boost their skills and integrate them into their new schools. Newly trained teachers report that they feel unprepared for the actual demands of teaching (Cibulka, 2009; Duncan, 2009). Specifically, they feel poorly prepared to handle behavior, assess student performance, and implement teaching strategies (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005).

Perhaps because they feel ill-equipped for the classroom, new teachers often produce lower student achievement than more veteran teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). Also, turnover among new teachers is high: 15% of new teachers leave teaching and 14% change schools after their first year (Ingersoll & Smith, 2004; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). That turnover rate is almost double the national teacher turnover rate of 8% (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017).

Teacher induction programs attempt to address the specific needs of new teachers. The American Association of State Colleges and Universities (2006) defines teacher induction as professional development focused on the needs of novice teachers and prioritizing the practices that help them become effective in the classroom. To this end, teacher induction programs teach practices that help new teachers become effective classroom professionals (American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 2010). They also provide a way to train teachers for the specific schools they have been hired to teach in, and allow for the involvement of existing staff in mentoring and training.

Since they started in the 1980s, teacher induction programs have demonstrated the following benefits (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2004; Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004; Fletcher, Strong, & Villar, 2008; Howe, 2006; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004):

  • Increased teacher retention
  • Refined teacher practice
  • Improved teacher quality
  • Improved student achievement

Another potential benefit is the improved morale and communication between administration and teachers (Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004).

[A head]Current State of Teacher Induction

Prior to the 1980s, teacher induction programs consisted of a few hours of orientation before teachers started work in the classroom (States et al., 2012). In the 1980s, more formal teacher induction programs were instituted to potentially improve teacher competency. Since then, teacher induction programs have become increasingly common (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004). Recently, García and Weiss (2019) reported that the vast majority of teachers in their first year of teaching participated in teacher induction programs (72.7%). Of the teachers in these programs, 79.9% worked with a mentor and 91.9% completed additional professional development opportunities.

As teacher induction programs developed, they went through four waves (Wood & Stanulis, 2009). Prior to 1986 (first wave), programs were informal and unfunded, and focused on increasing teacher competence and satisfaction, with the goal of decreasing attrition. In the second wave (1986–1989), mentoring was added to many programs, with more structured observations and professional development. In the third wave (1990–1996), programs added formative assessment and teacher observation. Despite showing promise, many of these programs were defunded. Finally, in the fourth wave (1997–2006), programs became more comprehensive and organized, with additional assistance and assessment for new teachers.

By 2004, most states mandated support for new teachers as they transitioned from college to the classroom (Villar & Strong, 2007). Today, the scope and quality of teacher induction programs vary. A National Council on Teacher Quality report (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020) found that among 124 districts, the majority (82) provided an orientation that ranged from 3 to 4 hours to 6 days. Additionally, 92 districts provided mentoring for new teachers, ranging from 30 weeks to 4 years. And 25% of districts incorporated collaborative time for teachers during daily planning.

The vast majority of teachers will experience some kind of induction or professional development during their first year of teaching (García & Weiss, 2019). However, especially given the range of induction experiences that districts provide, the amount of professional development provided to new teachers may not be sufficient to produce necessary improvements (Glazerman et al., 2010; Saenz-Armstrong, 2020).

[A head]Research on Teacher Induction Programs

Research has examined the effect that induction programs have on teacher quality and retention. Lopez, Lash, Schaffner, Shields, and Wagner (2004) reviewed 89 studies (3 experimental, 41 quasi-experimental, 22 qualitative, 23 reviews of research) and concluded that while much has been written about teacher induction, few rigorous studies have investigated the impact of induction on teacher quality and retention. The studies reviewed by Lopez et al. were weak for a variety of reasons including lack of definition of core variables, reliance on self-reporting, the use of one outcome measure, and many potentially confounding variables. Based on these flaws, Lopez et al. could not conclude that teacher induction programs produced an impact on teacher quality or retention.

Since then, an Institute of Education Science report (Glazerman et al., 2010) examined the results of a randomized control trial (RCT) on teacher induction. The study included 1,009 teachers across 418 schools in 17 districts. Within this group, teachers were randomly assigned to receive comprehensive induction or standard induction programming. The RCT compared benchmarks (retention, achievement, and classroom practices) of teachers who received a comprehensive induction program with those of new teachers who received only standard new teacher support. Teachers who had the benefit of comprehensive induction, which included 1 to 2 years of full-time mentor support, monthly professional development, and opportunities to observe veteran teachers. Teachers were followed for 3 years to gauge the impacts of comprehensive induction.

After one year of comprehensive induction, there was no impact on student achievement or teacher retention. However, teachers who received 3 years of comprehensive induction saw a positive impact on student achievement in their third year. The resulting impact was the equivalent of moving a student who was in the 50th percentile in reading to the 54th percentile in reading and the 58th percentile in math. There was no impact on teacher retention (Glazerman et al., 2010).

In another study, Ingersoll and Strong (2011) examined 15 studies conducted between the mid-1980s and 2010. They included only studies that compared outcome data for participants and non-participants, and studies with clear explanations of the methods, data sources, sample sizes, methods, and outcomes. The parameters resulted in a group of studies that examined at least one aspect of teacher induction programs. Overall, the studies provided support for the conclusion that induction programs have a positive impact on new teachers’ job satisfaction, commitment, and retention. Teacher induction programming also improved new teachers’ classroom practices (keeping students on task, classroom management, questioning strategies, developing lesson plans). This is important because new teachers have indicated struggling with classroom management and implementing instructional strategies (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005). Finally, the students of teachers who participated in teacher induction programs had higher scores on academic achievement tests than students whose teachers did not participate. From this research, additional research is needed to examine the content, duration, and intensity of induction that produces the best results. In addition, additional research is needed to determine the cost-benefit of induction programs for districts.

Perry and Hayes (2011) used a matched group of 44 newly hired K–6 teachers in one district (22 in the treatment group and 22 teachers who provided a matched comparison) to do a two-group comparative study of teacher induction practices. The teachers in the treatment group participated in a teacher induction program. All teachers in the study completed a survey of their knowledge of the district’s educational processes and procedures. The induction program involved an initial induction process before they started the school year and ongoing professional development across their first 2 to 3 years. Professional development included training, collaboration, mentoring, and visits to demonstration classrooms. Teachers in their third year of the program were better able to use assessment results to improve instruction and increase student achievement. In other aspects, there was no difference between teachers who participated and those who did not participate. Between their first and third years of teaching, both groups of teachers did not demonstrate a difference in their ability to communicate with students and parents, to understand classroom management techniques, to monitor student growth, and to use research-based practices. The results indicated that induction must be multiyear and comprehensive if it is to incorporate teachers fully into a district and to reap the benefits of the program. The cost-benefit of this program was not addressed in the study.

Overall, while the research that has been conducted shows some positive findings, there is a lack of rigorous research and a lack of recent research on this topic (Glazerman et al., 2010; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011).

[A head]Questions Driving Teacher Induction

The most important questions have to do with what teacher induction programs should include and the benefits that districts should expect from them.

[B head]What Should Be Included? What Should Teacher Induction Programs Focus On?

There are two ways to approach these questions. First, what should be included specifically for teachers who are new to the profession? Second, which strategies are most effective and should be the focus of induction programs?

What should be included specifically for new teachers? The Alliance for Excellent Education (2004) identified high-quality teacher induction as having the following:

  • High-quality mentoring
  • Shared planning time and collaboration
  • Ongoing professional development
  • Participation in an external network of teachers
  • Standards-based evaluation

From this checklist, it is clear that effective teacher induction programs are more than an overview of human resource protocols and operations procedures (although those are important for new hires to know).

The teacher induction program that Perry and Hayes (2011) examined included a continuum of professional development through systematic support across a teacher’s first 2 to 3 years in the classroom. This support involved the following:

  • Study groups that allowed teachers to network
  • Administrative support
  • Mentorship through assignment of a specific mentor
  • Opportunities for teachers to visit demonstration classrooms and see model lessons
  • Building-level professional development through school-based instructional facilitators

A logical follow-up question: Once elements are in place, how long should an induction program be implemented to have an impact? The results from the Glazerman et al. (2010) study indicate that teacher induction programs should last through a teacher’s third year to demonstrate significant impacts on student achievement. However, a review of all 50 states’ induction program policies by the New Teacher Center (Goldrick, Osta, Barlin, & Burn, 2012) revealed that only half of states required any induction or mentoring for new teachers, and no state provided an induction program that included high-impact multiyear induction support.

What strategies should teacher induction programs focus on? In a report focusing on the aspects of instruction that most influence student learning, Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1997) identified 28 aspects of teaching and created weighted scores by combining the effect sizes of each. The higher the weighted score, the greater the effect size and the more impactful the strategy. From those, they identified the top items that most influenced student learning (the numbers in parentheses are the weighted scores):

  • Classroom management (64.8)
  • Student-teacher interaction (56.7)
  • Quantity of instruction (53.7)
  • Classroom climate (52.3)

A meta-analysis by Hattie (2009) corroborated these findings. Hattie identified formative assessment (observation and feedback), classroom management, and teaching strategies as key. From all three of these studies, focusing on classroom management, relationships and interactions with students, and maximizing time for instruction should be priorities for teacher induction programs (Hattie, 2009; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Wang et al., 1997).

[B head]What Methods Should Teacher Induction Programs Use?

The goal of teacher induction (like the goal of teacher preparation) is for teachers to transfer their knowledge from training to the classroom. Teacher induction programs have the added focus of accelerating new teacher practices to maximize new teacher impacts on student achievement and to minimize turnover (Rivkin et al., 2005). On the whole, induction programs have focused on mentoring and formative assessment of new teachers (Wood & Stanulis, 2009).

Joyce and Showers (2002) examined four methods of training teachers: (1) Discussion, readings, and lectures; (2) modeling of skills/demonstration; (3) practice and feedback under simulated conditions; and (4) coaching, or collaboration between trainer and trainee, to solve problems in the classroom. Training teachers through lectures and modeling was insufficient to transfer skills to the classroom; practice and feedback were also insignificant. Only coaching produced a significant transfer of skills to the classroom.

Coaching could be a strong option for teacher induction programs as many programs are built on a combination of mentoring and formative assessment (Wood & Stanulis, 2009), and coaching already has a strong research base to support its effectiveness (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2018).

Teacher coaching has been shown to impact teacher practice and student achievement, specifically reading instruction (Sailors & Price, 2010). Coaching has also been shown to have a positive impact on classroom environment (Neuman & Wright, 2010; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). Finally, coaching has demonstrated positive effects on improving specific teacher practices, such as their implementation of a model-lead-test math lesson format (Kraft, Blazer, & Hogan, 2018; Kretlow, Wood, & Cook, 2011).

Another method included in Joyce and Showers’ 2002 review was collaboration among teachers. Professional learning communities (PLCs) engage teachers in thoughtful, explicit examination of teaching practices and their impacts (Little, 1990). Teachers can use PLC time to observe peers and review their own practice, both of which can change teacher practice and effectiveness (Lustick & Sykes, 2006; Sato, Wei, & Darling-Hammond, 2008). Intensive, content-rich, collaborative working experiences such as those in a PLC can improve teacher practice and student outcomes (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009). PLCs may also address needs identified by new teachers to plan instruction and observe teaching (Barlin, 2010).

Another way that districts provide development for new teachers are mentorship programs (Villar & Strong, 2007). Mentoring involves facilitating a relationship between an established teacher and a new teacher with the focus on guiding, influencing, and supporting the new teacher. Typically, a new teacher is paired with a veteran teacher who can provide experience in teaching as well as information about the school and district (Feiman-Nemser & Parker, 1992).

Strong mentoring programs have research support for boosting student achievement. For example, Fletcher et al. (2008) studied three California districts with a new teacher training program that included mentoring. The researchers categorized programs based on the ratio of mentors to novice teachers. Across the three districts, 89 teachers impacting 3,268 students participated in the study. Spring achievement test data for students in grades 2 through 6 was used to gauge the impact of teachers. Overall, mentor-based induction had a positive impact on student achievement when teachers maintained weekly contact with mentors who were veteran teachers and were selected through a rigorous interview process and provided with ongoing training.

In summary, teacher induction programs should include high-quality coaching or mentoring, as well as collaboration, which could be accomplished through school-based PLCs.  

[B head]What Benefits Should Schools and Districts Expect to See from Teacher Induction Programs?

There are two main questions about the benefits of teacher induction programs. First, is there an impact on teacher quality? Second, is there an impact on teacher retention?

Do teacher induction programs have an impact on teacher quality? The goal of increasing teacher quality is to raise student achievement; therefore, research into teacher quality studied student achievement in the form of test scores or reading assessments (Glazerman et al., 2010; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Villar & Strong, 2007). In their review of studies, Ingersoll and Strong (2011) found that teachers who participated in an induction program improved their ability to implement core practices, including keeping students on task, developing lesson plans, creating a positive classroom atmosphere, and using effective questioning strategies. Students of teachers who participated in an induction program also had higher achievement scores on standardized tests than students of teachers who did not participate (specific effect sizes were not discussed).

In a review of a mentoring program in California, Villar and Strong (2007) found that the students of new teachers who participated in a mentoring program achieved reading gains that were equivalent to those achieved by students of more veteran teachers. This is also significant because the new teachers were assigned to classes with lower initial achievement and a higher percentage of students with language learning needs.

It does take time to see benefits in student achievement; Glazerman et al. (2010) found positive effects on student learning occurred only after 2 full years of mentoring. High-quality teacher induction programs can improve teacher quality when quality indicators are in place across multiple years.

Do teacher induction programs have an impact on teacher retention? Research by Smith and Ingersoll (2004) suggests a relationship between the duration and intensity of induction and new teacher turnover. The researchers used an analysis of National Center for Education Statistics school personnel survey data from 1999–2000 to examine information about induction, mentoring, and turnover, and the impact that various levels of induction had on teacher retention. A sample of 52,000 teachers in elementary and secondary schools was included in the analysis. The levels of induction ranged from none (no support components) to basic (two support components) to comprehensive (four support components). The list of possible support components included:

  • Professional development
  • Common planning time and collaboration with other teachers
  • Participation in an external network of teachers
  • Regular, supportive communication with the principal or administration
  • Reduced teaching schedule
  • Fewer number of classes to prepare for
  • A teacher’s assistant

            Smith and Ingersoll’s analysis found that the more comprehensive the induction, the fewer teachers left teaching or changed schools. In general, mentoring and collaboration reduced the risk that a teacher would leave the district. Having a mentor in the same field reduced the likelihood that a teacher would leave the profession by 30% (significant), but did not impact whether or not a teacher would move schools. Having common planning time reduced the risk of leaving by 43% (significant). Other supports (professional development, participation in an external network, supportive communication with administration, and fewer classes to prepare for) also reduced the risk that a teacher would leave, but were not significant. A reduced teaching schedule and a classroom aide both increased the risk of a teacher leaving, but were not significant.

Another study (Perry & Hayes, 2011) that examined teacher retention in new teacher induction programs found that there was a significant difference between mobility results within the district compared to outside the district. When teachers moved schools, they were more likely to move within the district than to leave it.

Many questions remain, such as the effectiveness of various induction components, and the optimal duration and intensity of induction. Also, demands of the teaching profession are constantly changing and evolving. More contemporary research into this topic is necessary.

[A head]Cost of Teacher Induction

Because teacher induction is such an intensive intervention, it is important to understand the cost-benefit of providing this type of program to new teachers.

An analysis of Yeh (2007) research found that the effectiveness ratio (the effect size/cost per student) of teacher induction was slight (0.00018). From this, Yeh suggested that induction was not a cost-effective intervention, especially when compared to formative assessment, which was more cost-effective, and to other interventions that were not cost-effective (e.g., class size reduction, charter schools, increased spending, high-stakes testing).

A benefit-cost analysis of a mentoring program for new teachers (Villars & Strong, 2007) found that the program produced a monetary benefit that decreased over time. The benefit was highest for first-year teachers, and smallest for third-year teachers. Of course, the benefit to individual districts will vary depending on many factors. However, note that the benefit of mentoring decreased over time, presumably as teachers improved in their skills and became more comparable to veteran teachers in their ability to produce gains for students.

In terms of retention, the Villars and Strong analysis assumed that the cost of hiring a replacement teacher was worth 50% of the teacher’s salary. With this assumption, the investment in new teacher mentoring provided $1.66 for each $1 spent. Here also, the exact benefit will differ by district and each individual case, but there is a benefit to investment in keeping new teachers through high-quality mentorship programs.

[A head]Recommendations for Teacher Induction

Teacher induction is an intense, complicated intervention that requires significant investment in resources, time, and money. To show impacts, teacher induction programs may need to span at least the first 2 years of a teacher’s career (Glazerman et al., 2010).

Teacher induction programs should focus on high-leverage and high-impact teaching strategies: classroom management, student-teacher interactions (e.g., questioning strategies), classroom climate, and quantity of instruction (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Wang et al., 1997).

Induction programs should also focus on leveraging professional development approaches that have the most impact in changing teacher practice and student achievement, namely coaching, mentoring, and PLCs. Successful induction programs are fully integrated into a school’s culture, from hiring practices to curriculum, orientation, mentoring and support, and evaluation (Cherian & Daniel, 2008; New Teacher Center, 2006). They also require ongoing support from administration (Barlin, 2010). Teacher induction must allow teachers to observe, be observed, and learn as part of a collaborative network (Perry & Hayes, 2011). Finally, induction programs should be comprehensive, designed to incorporate teachers into the district, and multiyear (Perry & Hayes, 2011). Providing this level of implementation would align the design and delivery of induction programs with existing implementation best practices (Fixen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005).

School leaders implementing teacher induction programs should measure the impact on (1) the practices used by new teachers, (2) student achievement, and (3) teacher retention. It may be beneficial to consider teacher retention in a district when examining districtwide impacts (Perry & Hayes, 2011).

The New Teacher Center recommends that states set policies to formally create induction programs and establish policies to ensure that the programs align with best practices, including hiring and training effective mentors, providing formative assessment and classroom observation for teachers, providing teacher induction across multiple years, and adequately funding these programs (Goldrick et al., 2012). 

The needs of teachers are constantly shifting. Currently, many new teachers enter education with the expectation that they teach online during an international pandemic. In a review of teacher induction programs within the current demands of education, the National Council on Teaching Quality (NCTQ) (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020) recommends:

  • Increasing orientation time for new teachers to help them navigate school expectations, culture, and instructional demands
  • Structure mentoring programs to provide support across 2 years
  • Prioritize collaborative time for all teachers
  • Commit to professional development, particularly around remote instruction

            NCTQ acknowledged that, under typical conditions, many districts do not have mentoring and new teacher induction programs that provide the adequate quality and duration to produce desired results. However, this year many new teachers have arrived with less preparation than ever for the challenges of the job, so more induction is necessary (Saenz-Armstrong, 2020).

Conclusion

Teacher induction programs serve an important function for new teachers who do not feel prepared for the demands of the job, and for schools and districts that want to ensure teacher quality and reduce turnover. High-quality teacher induction programs, when delivered with fidelity and across multiple years, can have a positive impact on teacher quality and teacher retention. These programs have the potential to reduce the financial burden on districts while increasing the capacity of teachers. Particularly during periods of online instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, teacher induction programs should be organized to help new teachers develop successful practices and habits, and connect them with mentor teachers or coaches who can help integrate them into school settings, even when those settings are virtual.  

 

Citations

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Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257. http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/002/834/127%20-%20Nye%20B%20%20Hedges%20L%20%20V%20%20%20Konstantopoulos%20S%20%20(2004).pdf

Perry, B., & Hayes, K. (2011). The effect of a new teacher induction program on the new teachers reported teacher goals for excellence, mobility and retention rates. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 6(1). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972907.pdf

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 299–312.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.

Saenz-Armstrong, P. (2020). Supporting teachers through mentoring and collaboration. Washington, DC: National Council on Teaching Quality. https://www.nctq.org/blog/Supporting-teachers-through-mentoring-and-collaboration

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110(3), 301–323.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. https://www.beteronderwijsnederland.nl/files/cumulative%20and%20residual%20effects%20of%20teachers.pdf

Sato, M., Wei, R. C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of national board certification. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 669–700.

Smith, T., & Ingersoll, R. (2004). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 681–714. https://www.gse.upenn.edu/pdf/rmi/Effects-of-Induction-and-Mentoring-RMI-Fall-2004.pdf

States, J., Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2012). Effective teachers make a difference. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.), Education at the Crossroads: The state of teacher preparation, Vol. 2 (pp. 1–45). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol2Ch1.pdf

Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and five-year rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum: Journal of Research and Information, 25(3), 1–17. https://edsource.org/wp-content/uploads/old/ment-8.pdf

Wang, M., Haertel, G., & Walberg H. (1997). Learning Influences. In H. Walberg & G. Haertel (Eds.), Psychology and educational practice (pp. 199–211). Berkeley. CA: McCutchan Publishing.

Wood, A. L., & Stanulis, R. N. (2009). Quality teacher induction “fourth wave” (1997–2006) induction programs. New Educator, 5(1), 1–23. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868911.pdf

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416–436.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.
What areas do principals express as needing additional support?
This analysis examines principal's need for additional support and training based upon the North Carolina Working Conditions Survey.
States, J. (2014). What areas do principals express as needing additional support? Retrieved from what-areas-do-principals.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role
This paper describes the development, content and delivery of a professional development course for Principals regarding their role in multi-tiered systems of school-wide positive behavior supports.
Eber, L. (2015). Installing Tier 2/3 Behavior Supports in Schools: The Principal's Role [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-lucille-eber.
Now What? The Current State of Principal Preparation, Evaluation, and Support
This paper examines the current state of principal development in the context of best practices, including: evidence-based curriculum, well-trained instructors, effective coaching, and ongoing feedback and support.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Now What? The Current State of Principal Preparation, Evaluation, and Support [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations.

This article attempts an analysis of the accumulated literature on collegial relations with the intent of formulating a more robust conception, one that accounts for variation in teachers’ involvements with one another, the circumstances that surround those involvements, the meanings teachers and others attach to them, and the consequences that flow from them.

 Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.

Effects of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth.

The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. 

Akiba, M., & Liang, G. (2016). Effects of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth. Journal of Educational Research, 109(1), 99–110. https://www.lib.fsu.edu/sites/default/files/scholarship/effects_of_teacher_pl_activities.pdf

Research Commentary: Technology-Mediated Learning—A Call for Greater Depth and Breadth of Research

This essay suggests potential research avenues in the area of technology-mediated learning. It seeks to motivate greater depth of research into the question of how technology enhances learning. 

Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Research commentary: Technology-mediated learning—a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1–10. https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/isre.12.1.1.9720

Promoting teacher effectiveness: Conditions for success in teacher induction.

The work of the New Teacher Center (NTC) highlights the importance of the conditions for success in its Program Theory of Action model. This paper also provides Conditions for Success Self-Evaluation Worksheet that will help you to evaluate your program’s readiness to effectively implement the Teacher Induction Pathway presented in the Adult Education Teacher Induction Toolkit. 

American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Literacy Information and Communication System (LINCS). (2015). Promoting teacher effectiveness: Conditions for success in teacher induction. https://lincs.ed.gov/publications/te/conditions.pdf  

 
Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources.

This Research & Policy Brief addresses the aspect of the teacher support system that is perhaps the most important and often the most weakly implemented: teacher learning and development.

Archibald, S., Coggshall, J. G., Croft, A., & Goe, L. (2011). High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/docs/HighQualityProfessionalDevelopment.pdf

 
How effective are National Board-Certified teachers?

Are teachers who achieve National Board for Professional Teaching Standards certification more effective than their noncertified peers?

ASCD. (2004, April 13). How effective are National Board-Certified teachers? http://www.ascd.org/publications/researchbrief/v2n08/toc.aspx

 

 
Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas.

This study examines the impact of a nationally disseminated professional development program, Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI), on teachers' specialized knowledge for teaching mathematics and illustrates how such research could be conducted.

Bell, C. A., Wilson, S. M., Higgins, T., & McCoach, D. B. (2010). Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5): 479–512. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Courtney_Bell5/publication/268429188_Measuring_the_Effects_of_Professional_Development_on_Teacher_Knowledge_The_Case_of_Developing_Mathematical_Ideas/links/54f5c6310cf21d8b8a5b791b.pdf

 
Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind.

As part of a federally funded study of NCLB, RAND Corporation researchers, in collaboration with researchers from the American Institutes for Research, analyzed the progress that states, districts, and schools have made in implementing the teacher qualification provisions of NCLB through the 2004–2005 school year. 

Birman, B., Le Floch, K., Klekotka, A., Ludwig, M., Taylor, J., Walters, K…..O’Day, J. (2007). Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9287.html

 
The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders

The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) was awarded a grant from the
National Science Foundation to conduct a meta analysis study with the goal of providing
state and local education leaders with scientifically-based evidence regarding the effects of
teacher professional development on improving student learning. 

Blank, R. K., and de las Alas, N. (2009). The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544700.pdf

Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain

Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning. 

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher30(8), 3–15.

Professional community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences.

Using data from a large urban school district, this article tests the impact of structural, human, and social factors on the emergence of school-based professional community and examines the extent to which such developments in turn promote learning and experimentation among faculty

Bryk, A., Camburn, E., & Louis, K. S. (1999). Professional community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(5), 751–781. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karen_Louis/publication/249684711_Professional_Community_in_Chicago_Elementary_Schools_Facilitating_Factors_and_Organizational_Consequences/links/5845de4f08ae8e63e6286a05/Professional-Community-in-Chicago-Elementary-Schools-Facilitating-Factors-and-Organizational-Consequences.pdf

 

 
Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts

This document includes the excerpts of five articles that provide a substantial evidence-based argument for the power of collaborative communities to improve teaching and learning. 

Carroll, T., Fulton, K., & Doerr, H. (Eds.) (2010). Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED512177

 
Teacher Induction

The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.

Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices.

This study aimed to look into this by asking, “Which features of high quality online professional development were noted by participating educators in a statewide online teacher professional development program?” A survey was used to collect educators’ voices in this FIP professional development (PD) program.

Collins, L. J., & Liang, X. (2015). Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 6(1), 18–34. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137401.pdf

 
Research Review / Teacher Learning: What Matters?

Research shows how schools can create more powerful professional development experiences.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Research review. Teacher learning: What matters? How Teachers Learn, 66(5), 46–53. http://outlier.uchicago.edu/computerscience/OS4CS/landscapestudy/resources/Darling-Hammond-and-Richardson-2009.pdf

 
Effective teacher development.

This paper reviews 35 methodologically rigorous studies that have demonstrated a positive link between teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student outcomes. 

 

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Effective_Teacher_Professional_Development_REPORT.pdf

 
Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States

This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD) in the United States (U.S.).

Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015).Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States. Psychology, Society, and Education, 7(3), 252-263. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/31ff/d06b4df5bb399f782d3985f17311d2bc44ae.pdf

Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation.

This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face. 

Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.

What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers.

This study uses a national probability sample of 1,027 mathematics and science teachers to provide the first large-scale empirical comparison of effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers' learning.

Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945. http://www.artsintegrationpd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/What-makes-PD-effective-Garet_et_al.pdf

Make Room for the Principal Supervisors

This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired personnel to coach and evaluate its principals.

Gill, J., (2013). Make Room for the Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.

Can teacher quality be effectively assessed?

In this paper, we describe the results of the first large-scale study, based on a unique data set from North Carolina, assessing the relationship between the certification of teachers by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and elementary level student achievement

Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2004). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington. https://m.cedr.us/papers/value/2007-Can%20Teacher%20Quality.pdf

Toward a theory of teacher community.

The authors use their experience with a professional development project to propose a model of teacher community in the workplace. They describe a project that brought together 22 English and social studies teachers (and a special education and ESL teacher) from an urban high school over a period of 2 1/2 years.

Grossman, P., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 942–1012. https://stacks.stanford.edu/file/druid:ch289xy7677/Grossman-Wineburg-Woolworth.pdf

Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development

The authors report an investigation of a five-step structured study-group approach to promoting a self-sustaining learning community that supports teachers in developing the ‘habits of mind’ necessary for improving literacy acquisition and development for urban African American students attending a low-performing, high-poverty elementary school. 

Hollins, E. R., McIntyre, L. R., DeBose, C., Hollins, K. S., & Towner, A. (2004). Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(2), 247–264.

 
Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement.

This paper defines and describes what is meant by "professional learning community"; describes what happens when a school staff studies, works, plans, and takes action collectively on behalf of increased learning for students; and discusses what is known about creating such communities of professionals in schools.

Hord, S. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410659.pdf

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development.

This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education. 

King, K. P. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education5(3), 231–246.

 
What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge.

The authors introduce Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) as a way of representing what teachers need to know about technology and argue for the role of authentic design-based activities in the development of this knowledge.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2) 131–152. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.983.6956&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The missing link in school reform.

In trying to improve American public schools, educators, policymakers, and philanthropists are overselling the role of the highly skilled individual teacher and undervaluing the benefits that come from teacher collaborations that strengthen skills, competence, and a school’s overall social capital.

Leana, C. (2011). The missing link in school reform. Stanford Social Innovation Review.https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_missing_link_in_school_reform

 
Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools

In this paper we examine social capital and its relationship with performance at the organizational level.

Leana, C., & Pil, F. (2006). Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools. Organization Science, 17(3), 353–366.

 
Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice.

This paper draws on intensive case studies of teacher knowledge, practice, and learning among teachers of mathematics and English in two high schools to take up the problem of how classroom teaching practice comes to be known, shared, and developed among teachers through their out-of-classroom interactions.

Little, J. W. (2003). Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 913–945. 

 
Leadership coaching in an induction program for novice principals: A 3-year study

This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period.

Lochmiller, C. R. (2014). Leadership coaching in an induction program for novice principals: A 3-year study. Journal of Research on Leadership Education9(1), 59–84.

Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools.

This paper reports findings of a study that is grounded in the assumption that the ways in which teachers interact outside their classrooms may be critical to the future of school restructuring and the effects of restructuring on students.

Louis, K. S., Marks, H. M., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 757–798. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED381871.pdf

National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning?

This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards'(NBPTS)
assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from
the participants.

Lustick, D., & Sykes, G. (2006). National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(5), 1– 43. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/76/202

 
Why Professional Development Matters

Th is publication is an eff ort to answer basic questions and to inform and engage more people in strengthening the quality and improving the results of professional development.

Mizell, H. (2010). Why professional development matters. Oxford, OH: Learning Forward. https://learningforward.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/professional-development-matters.pdf

 
Counting the cost: A commitment to educational equity that yields results.

NTC's most recent report explores: 1) The impact on teacher retention rates, 2) Expected months of additional learning for students and potential of lifetime earnings, 3) Districts' expected savings on this investment. 4) Long-term economic impact of students and in their communities.

New Teacher Center (2019). Counting the cost: A commitment to educational equity that yields results. Santa Cruz, CA: Author. https://info.newteachercenter.org/Counting-the-Cost

 
Powerful learning: Creating learning communities in urban school reform. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision

This article focuses on the response of one urban middle school to a major school reform initiative.

Phillips, J. (2003). Powerful learning: Creating learning communities in urban school reform. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(3), 240–258. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~coesyl-p/principle7-article2.pdf

Linking professional development, teacher outcomes, and student achievement: The case of a learner-centered mathematics program for elementary school teachers.

This study examined the influence of three year-long cohorts of elementary school teachers' participating in a learner-centered mathematics professional development program.

Polly, D., McGee, J., Wang, C., Martin, C., Lambert, R., & Pugalee, D. K. (2015). Linking professional development, teacher outcomes, and student achievement: The case of a learner-centered mathematics program for elementary school teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 26–37. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883035515000282

Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).

Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.

Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics

This Statistics in Brief provides a snapshot of the state of teacher professional development activities among U.S. public school teachers using data collected through the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Public School Teacher Questionnaire.

Rotermund, S., DeRoche, J., & Ottem, R. (2017). Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics, 2011–12 (NCES 2017-200). Stats in Brief. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED573871.pdf

Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of National Board Certification.

This study examines how mathematics and science teachers' classroom assessment
practices were affected by the National Board Certification process.

Sato, M., Wei, R. C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of National Board Certification. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 669–700. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.872.5162&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Teacher Induction Found to Raise Student Scores

Teachers who received two years of comprehensive induction services boosted student scores in reading and math more than teachers in a comparison group who didn’t receive the support, a study released today by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences finds.

 

Sawchuk, S. (2010) (2010, June 28). Teacher induction found to raise student scores. Education Week. Retrieved from www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/06/28/36induction.h29.html

Lean on Me: Peer Mentoring for Novice Principals

This study focuses on the experiences of ten novice principals involved in a principal mentoring program in a large urban school district to examine the connections of theory and practice from training received in their administrative preparation program. It sought to understand the impact of receiving support and mentoring in retaining principals. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the importance of networking with other principals, (2) individualized support with mentors, and (3) continuous development and professional growth. The research presented will contribute to the agenda of retaining quality administrators in the field.

Simieou, F., Decman, J., Grigsby, B., & Schumacher, G. (2010). Lean on me: Peer mentoring for novice principals. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 5(1), 1-9.

The hidden costs of teacher turnover.

High teacher turnover imposes numerous burdens on the schools and districts from which teachers depart. Some of these burdens are explicit and take the form of recruiting, hiring, and training costs. Others are more hidden and take the form of changes to the composition and quality of the teaching staff. This study focuses on the latter. 

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working paper 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2332858420905812

 
Promoting a collaborative professional culture in three elementary schools that have beaten the odds

This 3-year study examined the dynamics of school culture in 3 elementary schools that
have beaten the odds in improving low-income and minority student achievement.

Strahan, D. (2003). Promoting a collaborative professional culture in three elementary schools that have beaten the odds. Elementary School Journal, 104(2), 127–146.

Teacher induction, mentoring, and retention: A summary of the research

This paper reviews the research literature on new teacher mentoring, focusing on issues of definition, why teachers quit, and the effects of mentoring on retention. 

Strong, M. (2005). Teacher induction, mentoring, and retention: A summary of the research. The New Educator1(3), 181-198.

The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction
The main aim of this report is to identify and map studies that will shed light on the impact of induction programmes on teacher performance, career development and retention rates.

Totterdell, M., Bubb, S., Woodroffe, L., & Hanrahan, K. (2004). The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction. Research evidence in education library.

A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning

After an overview of the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs), this manuscript presents a review of 10 American studies and one English study on the impact of PLCs on teaching practices and student learning.

Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 80–91. https://www.psycholosphere.com/A%20review%20on%20research%20on%20the%20impact%20of%20PLCs%20on%20teaching%20practice%20&%20student%20learning%20by%20Vescio,%20Ross%20&%20Adams.pdf

Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers’ teaching: A critical review of the literature

Drawing on literature since 1997, this review explores the effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' conceptions and practice of teaching, and it identifies three approaches to understanding such effects, as found in the literature. 

Wang, J., Odell, S. J., & Schwille, S. A. (2008). Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' teaching: A critical review of the literature. Journal of teacher education59(2), 132-152.

Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform
This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired people to coach and evaluate its principals.
DeVita, M., Colvin, R., Darling-Hammond, L., Haycock, K. (2007). Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform. The Wallace Foundation.
Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices
Research shows that most assessments of school leaders are ineffective in gauging how leaders are - or are not - promoting learning. This Wallace Perspective describes a possible new direction, highlights new assessment instruments and discusses unknowns in using assessments to improve leadership and benefit students.
Portin, B. S. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of school leaders: New directions and new processes. The Wallace Foundation
Getting Principal Mentoring Right: Lessons from the Field
Mentoring for new principals, once rare, is now required by half the nation’s states. That’s a major advance, but many programs are not yet tailored to developing principals who can drive better instruction, according to this Wallace analysis. The report looks at two school districts that stress mentoring - Jefferson County (Kentucky) and New York City -and proposes guidelines for effective mentoring.
Spiro, J., Mattis, M. C., & Mitgang, L. D. (2007). Getting principal mentoring right: Lessons from the field. Wallace Foundation.
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How to Survive Your First Year Teaching

You’ve graduated college, completed your student teaching, earned your teaching credential, been offered a position, and are ready to jump into the classroom head first. But before your first day, it’s important to recognize the challenges that await many new teachers. According to the Learning Policy Institute, studies show that between 19 and 30 percent of teachers leave within their first five years due to low pay, lack of administrative support, poor work conditions, and other reasons. And the first year can be the most challenging of all. Teachers like you are the cornerstone of our educational system, but often lack the resources needed to succeed – or aren’t sure where to find them.

We’re here to fill that gap with this guide, which provides meaningful support through helpful resources and expert tips, whether you’re teaching Pre-K children or college freshmen. Read on to learn how you and other teachers can make it through your first year and come out stronger on the other side.

 

National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

Steps: Student Training and Education in Public Service
How to Survive Your First Year Teaching

Do’s and don’ts, resources, and expert advice on how to navigate challenges as a new teacher and make the successful transition from college to classroom.

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