Education Drivers

External Influences - Society


Working Paper: Understanding Rural Teacher Recruitment and the Role of Community Amenities

This paper is the first attempt to test the community amenity hypotheses in a multivariate framework using administrative data on teacher employment patterns.

Miller, L. C. (2012). Understanding rural teacher recruitment and the role of community amenities. Journal of Research in Rural Education27(13), 1-52.


Data Mining

What is the United States adult literacy rate in relationship to other nations?
This analysis compares literacy rates in the United States to 208 other nations.
States, J. (2011). What is the United States adult literacy rate in relationship to other nations? Retrieved from what-is-united-states.



You Believe What? The Influence of Macro Contingencies on Individual School Cultures

Many of the contingencies that shape educator cultural values and beliefs occur outside of the school environment. This paper analyzes those contingencies and their influence on school culture change.

Keyworth, R. (2012). You Believe What? The Influence of Macro Contingencies on Individual School Cultures [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

Culture Mapping: A Functional Analysis of the Education Culture Landscape

This paper presents a culture map of national cultural values and beliefs that impact critical decisions in our education system, including how decisions are made and how they are implemented.

Keyworth, R. (2014). Culture Mapping: A Functional Analysis of the Education Culture Landscape [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.

The Importance and Challenges of Bridging the Culture Gap

This paper defines school culture change as a "wicked problem", exacerbated by its incredible complexity, interdependence of variables and stakeholders, and “messy” solutions.

Keyworth, R. (2014). The Importance and Challenges of Bridging the Culture Gap [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-intro-randy-keyworth.

Today's Education Environment: Establishing a Context for Leadership
This paper identifies seven obstacles that must be overcome to build effective school leadership: inertia, inequity, politics, culture, preparation, turnover, and sustainability.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Today's Education Environment: Establishing a Context for Leadership [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-wing-presentation-part-1-randy-keyworth.
Reviving the Goal of an Integrated Society: A 21st Century Challenge

This current report takes us through the 2006-07 school year, using the most recent federal data. It shows a continuing surge in minority students, yet another increase in racial segregation of African American and Latino students, the extremely large proportion of American students who are growing up in poverty, and the development of multiracial schools in many parts of the country. This report is about the students in school during the year the Supreme Court heard and decided the voluntary integration (PICS) case in 2007

Orfield, G. (2009). Reviving the goal of an integrated society: A 21st century challenge.

The Teaching-Family Model: A case study in data-based program development and refinement (and dragon wrestling)

A case study in program development and refinement is presented. We describe the
Teaching-Family model and its history, the original research goal of developing a community-
based program that was more humane, more effective in teaching communityliving skills,
and less expensive than the traditional large state institutions prevalent when we began. 

A Project of the Saguaro Seminar: Closing the Opportunity Gap

As rich and poor families have increasingly moved into separate communities, the character of neighborhood life in the United States has changed. This paper attempt to outlined several concrete steps to reduce economic segregation, rebuild communities, and narrow the opportunity gap. 

Closing the Opportunity Gap. (2016). A Project of the Saguaro Seminar. Retrieved from

The Comparative Costs and Benefits of Programs to Reduce Crime

This report describes the “bottom-line” economics of programs that try to reduce crime. This report also provides a snapshot of the Institute’s cost-benefit findings as of May 2001. 

Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, R., Leib, R. The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime: a review of national research findings with implications for Washington StateWashington State Institute for Public PolicyOlympia (WA)1999

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Evaluating the Relationships Between Poverty and School Performance

One of the most critical issues facing K-12 education is the impact that poverty has on school performance.  This study first examines school performance using traditional metrics for school poverty levels (percent of student body that qualify for free and reduced lunch: FRL) and school performance (school achievement based on the aggregate test scores of its student body).  The results support prior research documenting the negative relationship between the level of poverty in a school and student achievement (the higher the poverty the lower the achievement).  However, when replacing the student achievement metric with a student growth metric, the relationship is significantly different.

Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Olson, L. S. (2001). Schools, achievement, and inequality: A seasonal perspective. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23, 171–191.

Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence

In response to the continuing gun violence in American schools, an interdisciplinary group of 19 scholars are proposing an eight-point plan to prevent future tragedies that have become common place in the nation. This one-page position statement proposes a public health approach to protecting children as well as adults from gun violence involves three levels of prevention: (1) universal approaches promoting safety and well-being for everyone; (2) practices for reducing risk and promoting protective factors for persons experiencing difficulties; and (3) interventions for individuals where violence is present or appears imminent.

Astor, R. et al. (2018). Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. University of Virginia.


The Community Indicators Handbook: Measuring Progress Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities

The Community Indicators movement is exploring in the United States and around the world, involving hundreds of local governments, community groups, and civic partnerships. This handbook is designed to be constantly updated and adapted by its users.

Atkisson, A., Besleme, K., Mullin, M., & Rixford, C. (1998). Community Indicators Handbook: Measuring Progress Toward Healthy & Sustainable Communities. Seattle: Diane Books Publishing Company.

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2010

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race / ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the number of students of each race / ethnicity who have completed high school and continue their education in college have increased. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied, and differences persist among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, American Indians / Alaska Natives and students of two or more races in their performance on key indicators of educational performance.

Aud, S. (2011). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups (2010). DIANE Publishing.

Dissemination and adoption of innovative psychosocial interventions.

Discusses the limitations of traditional methods such as journal articles and conferences in disseminating innovative programs and describes 3 examples of successful utilization: the behavior analysis and modification project (R. P. Lieberman et al, 1976); the teaching family model for group home treatment of deviant adolescents (E. L. Phillips et al, 1974); and the Fairweather hospital–community treatment program (G. W. Fairweather, 1964). 

Backer, T. E., Liberman, R. P., & Kuehnel, T. G. (1986). Dissemination and adoption of innovative psychosocial interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology54(1), 111.

A Cost Analysis of the Innovation–Decision Process of an Evidence-Based Practice in Schools

This study presents a framework for integrating the diffusion of innovation theory into an economic evaluation utilizing a societal perspective, which affords the capturing of costs of all phases from adoption through implementation of EBPs for all stakeholders

Barrett, C. A., Pas, E. T., & Johnson, S. L. (2020). A Cost Analysis of the Innovation–Decision Process of an Evidence-Based Practice in Schools. School Mental Health12(3), 638-649.

Implicit discrimination

What drives people to discriminate? Economists focus on two main reasons: "taste-based" and "statistical" discrimination. Motivated by a growing body of psychological evidence, the authors put forward a third interpretation: implicit discrimination. The authors argue that discrimination may be unintentional and outside of the discriminator's awareness.

Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review95(2), 94-98.

mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco

the objective of this research is to evaluate a community intervention to mobilise positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people. 

Biglan, A., Henderson, J., Humphrey, D., Yasui, M., Whisman, R., Black, C., & James, L. (1995). Mobilising positive reinforcement to reduce youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control4(1), 42.

An evaluation of familial involvements’ influence on student achievement in K–12 virtual schooling

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of familial participation in student's achievement in K-12 virtual schools.

Black, E. W. (2009). An evaluation of familial involvements’ influence on student achievement in K–12 virtual schooling [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville]. University of Florida Digital Collections.

School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap.

This NCES study explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This study, the first of it's kind, used the 2011 NAEP grade 8 mathematics assessment data. Among the results highlighted in the report, the study indicates that the achievement gap between Black and White students remains whether schools fall in the highest density category or the lowest density category.

Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap (NCES 2015-018). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from

Parochial Empathy Predicts Reduced Altruism and the Endorsement of Passive Harm

This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern. 

Bruneau, E. G., Cikara, M., & Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science8(8), 934-942.

Five Key Trends in U.S. Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools

This paper advances the discussion of the achievements differences between the higher and lower social-class groups were increasing, particularly between children in the highest income group and everyone else issue by analyzing trends in the influence of race/ethnicity, social class, and gender on students’ academic performance in the United States. This paper also explores the ways in which English language ability relates to Hispanics’ and Asian Americans’ academic performance over time (Nores and Barnett 2014). 

Carnoy, M., & García, E. (2017). Five Key Trends in US Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools. Economic Policy Institute.

Comprehensive Multisituational Intervention for Problem Behavior in the Community: Long-Term Maintenance and Social Validation

Assessment and intervention approach for dealing with problem behavior need to be extended so that they can be effectively and comprehensively applied within the community. To meet assessment needs, the authors developed a three-component strategy: description, categorization, and verification.

Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., Smith, C. E., & McLaughlin, D. M. (1999). Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long-term maintenance and social validation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions1(1), 5-25.

Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students

To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence. 

Choy, S. P. (2002). Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students.Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis.


System of positive polity

In submitting this volume to the reader, I shall only express the hope that it may meet with
such serious and sustained attention as befits a subject so important and so difficult. In this
epoch of transition, there can be but few who come to the study of Sociology.

Comte, A. (1875). System of positive polity: Social statics (Vol. 2). Longmans, Green, and Company.

Gender and Sociodemographic Factors and the Disproportionate Identification of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Emotional Disturbance

The purpose of this study was to investigate gender and ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) and relationships between identification and sociodemographic factors.

Coutinho, M. J., Oswald, D. P., Best, A. M., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Gender and sociodemographic factors and the disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders27(2), 109-125.

When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior.

This article explored developmental and intervention evidence relevant to iatrogenic effects in peer-group interventions. Longitudinal research revealed that "deviancy training" within adolescent friendships predicts increases in delinquency, substance use, violence, and adult maladjustment.

Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American psychologist54(9), 755.

What Is a “Professional Learning Community”?

To create a professional learning community, focus on learning rather than teaching, work collaboratively, and hold yourself accountable for results.

DuFour, R. (2004). What is a" professional learning community"?. Educational leadership61(8), 6-11.

Social Influences on "Self-Stimulatory" Behavior": Analysis and Treatment Application.

This research tested the hypothesis that the "self-stimulatory" behaviors exhibited by some individuals may be socially mediated. 

Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Social influences on “self‐stimulatory” behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis20(2), 119-132.

Program on education policy and governance, survey 2019.

On several issues, our analysis teases out nuances in public opinion by asking variations of questions to randomly selected segments of survey participants. We divided respondents at random into two or more segments and asked each group a different version of the same general question.

Education Next. (2019). Program on education policy and governance, survey 2019.

Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?

An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that (a) detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; (b) mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and (c) positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory. 

Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist51(11), 1153.

California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged

The opinion article discuss about anti-vaxxers activist grow more aggressive while more study and evidence show how vaccination is important. The author suggest that the Lawmakers must stand up to the anti-vaccination crowd, a very small minority according to every poll. 

Elias, T.D, (2019). California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from

Promoting Health Through Community Development

Articulated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, this strategy emphasizes the importance of environmental influences on the behaviors associated with health promotion and injury prevention.

Fawcet, S. B., Paine, A. L., Francisco, V. T., & Vliet, M. (1993). Promoting Health Trough Community Development.

Why Urban Adolescents Drop into and out of Public High School.
The author analyzed the economic and social arrangements, school policies and practices, and individual and collective psychologies of adolescent dropouts from a comprehensive high school in New York City.

Fine, M. (1986). Why urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school. Teachers College Record87(3), 393-409.

The Effects of Community Policies to Reduce Youth Access to Tobacco

This paper reports the effects of the intervention on ordinances in TPOP communities, on cigarette purchase success by youth, and on adolescents' perceptions of availability and self-reported smoking behavior.

Forster, J. L., Murray, D. M., Wolfson, M., Blaine, T. M., Wagenaar, A. C., & Hennrikus, D. J. (1998). The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco. American Journal of Public Health88(8), 1193-1198.

Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report on Department of Education Staffing

A recently released report from the GAO finds that overall staffing in the Department of Education has fallen from a high of 6,391 in 1981 to 4,077 in 2015, while contracting levels have remained relatively stable. It is important to note that the workload for Department of Education has grown as the budget for the department has increased significantly during this same period. More eliminations of personnel are expected as the Trump administration has called for a further 13.5% reduction. It is interesting to note that the entire federal workforce has experienced a 4% reduction in staffing from 1991 through 2015, while the Department of Education lost 12% of it’s personnel.


Foxx, V., Guthrie, B., Rokita, T. and Rothmam, G. (2107). Department of Education: Staffing Levels Have Generally Decreased Over Time, While Contracting Levels Have Remained Relatively Stable. US Government Accountability Office GAO-17-669R.

Harming Our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown

The publication of this report marks the 65th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case declaring racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. This report shows that the growth of racial and economic segregation that began then has now continued unchecked for nearly three decades, placing the promise of Brown at grave risk. Research shows that segregation has strong, negative relationships with the achievement, college success, long-term employment and income of students of color. 

Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J. B., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown.

Perceptions of teacher characteristics and student judgments of teacher effectiveness

This study examined the relationship between perceived teacher attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness and student judgment of teacher effectiveness. The results also suggested that it may be useful to conceptualize teaching as a social influence process.

Freeman, H. R. (1988). Perceptions of teacher characteristics and student judgments of teacher effectiveness. Teaching of Psychology15(3), 158-160.

Educational inequalities at the school starting gate

Using data from two academic cohorts, the kindergarten classes of 1998 and 2010, this study examines the relationship between children’s socioeconomic status (SES) and their cognitive and noncognitive skills when starting school.

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. (2017). Educational inequalities at the school starting gate. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from

Community intervention trial for smoking cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention

The primary hypothesis of COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) was that a community-level, multi-channel, 4-year intervention would increase quit rates among cigarette smokers, with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) of priority.

Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention. American journal of public health85(2), 183-192.

Community intervention trial for smoking cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence

COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) investigated whether a community-level multichannel intervention would decrease the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking and increase quitting with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) receiving the highest priority. 

Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health85(2), 193-200.

The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life.

Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”

Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.

Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores

Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores. This Paper examines the use of value-added modeling as a tool to identify effective teachers from ineffective instructors.

Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series. Educational Testing Service.

A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement.

Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.

Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.

Community Treatment for Youth: Evidence-Based Interventions for Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.

Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.

The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore

In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police officers, employment recruiters, and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in organizational behavior29, 39-69.

Implicit bias in the courtroom.

What, if anything, should we do about implicit bias in the courtroom? The authors comprises legal academics, scientists, researchers, and even a sitting federal judge who seek to answer this question in accordance with behavioral realism.

Kang, J., Bennett, M., Carbado, D., & Casey, P. (2011). Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLa L. rev.59, 1124.

Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Directions for Research and Practice

By focusing on clinical practice and what can be changed, this book offers suggestions for improvement of patient care and advises how clinical work can contribute directly and in new ways to the accumulation of knowledge. 

Kazdin, A. E. (2000). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Directions for research and practice. Oxford University Press.

Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force.

The authors presents the conceptual, philosophical, and methodological basis for the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions

Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force. School Psychology Quarterly17(4), 341.

Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights

Begun in 1982, the Algebra Project is transforming math education in twenty-five cities. The Project works with entire communities-parents, teachers, and especially students-to create a culture of literacy around algebra, a crucial stepping-stone to college math and opportunity.

Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.

Has Public Policy Exceeded Our Knowledge Base? A Review of the Functional Behavioral Assessment Literature

The authors examined the literature on functional behavioral assessment according to external validity and assessment with regard to its cost-benefits (i.e., its effectiveness relative to other approaches, time, and effort). 

Nelson, J. R., Roberts, M. L., Mathur, S. R., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1999). Has public policy exceeded our knowledge base? A review of the functional behavioral assessment literature. Behavioral Disorders24(2), 169-179.

Equality and Quality in U.S. Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief

This paper enters debate about how U.S. schools might address long-standing disparities in educational and economic opportunities while improving the educational outcomes for all students. with a vision and an argument for realizing that vision, based on lessons learned from 60 years of education research and reform efforts. The central points covered draw on a much more extensive treatment of these issues published in 2015. The aim is to spark fruitful discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers.

O'Day, J. A., & Smith, M. S. (2016). Equality and Quality in US Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.

The place of “social justice” in the field of educational administration: A journal-based historical overview of emergent area of study

The purpose of this chapter was to trace the place of “social justice” in the field's discourse since the early 1960s, the decade in which the first academic journals of the field appeared. More specifically, the chapter aims at (1) presenting the emergence of “social justice” as an area of study in the field's journals from a historical perspective and (2) analyzing the major topics related to this area of study and its types of publication. 

Oplatka, I. (2014). The place of “social justice” in the field of educational administration: A journal-based historical overview of emergent area of study. In I. Bogotch & C. M. Shields (Eds.), International handbook of educational leadership and social (in)justice (pp. 15–35). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies

This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of personality and social psychology105(2), 171.

Testing lacks public support

Student engagement at school and whether students feel hopeful about their future are far better factors to consider when evaluating schools than using standardized test scores, according to the results of the 47th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools.

PDK/Gallup Poll (2015). Testing lacks public support. Phi Delta Kappan, 97(1), 8–10.

Standardized Testing

The Standardized Testing Primer provides non-specialists with a thorough overview of this
controversial and complicated topic. It eschews the statistical details of scaling, scoring, and
measurement that are widely available in textbooks and at testing organization Web sites,
and instead describes standardized testing's social and political roles and its practical uses-
who tests, when, where, and why.

Phelps, R. P. (2007). Standardized testing primer (Vol. 21). Peter Lang.

Altruism: A review of recent theory and research

Research in social psychology during the 80’s had a decreased emphasis on situational determinants of helping. Rather, it has focused mainly on the following topics: the existence and nature of the altruistic personality, the debate concerning the nature of the motivation underlying helping behavior, and the nature of the process of the development of altruism in children and adults

Piliavin, J. A., & Charng, H. W. (1990). Altruism: A review of recent theory and research. Annual review of sociology16(1), 27-65.

Status of education in rural America

NCES activities are designed to address high-priority education data needs; provide
consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and
report timely, useful, and high-quality data to the US Department of Education, the Congress,
the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public.

Provasnik, S., KewalRamani, A., Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L., Herring, W., & Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in rural America. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences.

The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps

The authors estimate racial/ethnic achievement gaps in several hundred metropolitan areas and several thousand school districts in the United States using the results of roughly 200 million standardized math and English language arts (ELA) tests administered to public school students from 2009 to 2013. They show that the strongest correlates of achievement gaps are local racial/ethnic differences in parental income and educational attainment, local average parental education levels, and patterns of racial/ethnic segregation, consistent with a theoretical model in which family socioeconomic factors affect educational opportunity partly through residential and school segregation patterns.

Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., & Shores, K. (2019). The geography of racial/ethnic test score gaps. American Journal of Sociology124(4), 1164-1221.

The Effect of Linguistic Comprehension Training on Language and Reading Comprehension

This review considers whether language-supportive programs are effective. The research aims to examine the immediate and long-run effects of such programs on generalized measures of linguistic comprehension and reading comprehension.

Rogde, K., Hagen, Å. M., Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2019). The Effect of Linguistic Comprehension Training on Language and Reading Comprehension: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

Exploration of a blended learning approach to reading instruction for low SES students in early elementary grades.

This study investigated the potential benefits of a blended learning approach on the reading skills of low socioeconomic status students in Grades 1 and 2.

Schechter, R., Macaruso, P., Kazakoff, E. R., & Brooke, E. (2015). Exploration of a blended learning approach to reading instruction for low SES students in early elementary grades. Computers in the Schools32, 183–200.

The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective

In this paper, student-level indicators of opportunity to learn (OTL) included in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment are used to explore the joint relationship of OTL and socioeconomic status (SES) to student mathematics literacy. This paper suggest that in most countries, the organization and policies defining content exposure may exacerbate educational inequalities.

Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher44(7), 371-386.

Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches.

The purpose of this special issue is to address current issues, challenges, and promising approaches for providing Tier 2 behavioral interventions in school settings. Articles solicited for this issue address gaps in the literature and implementation needs and challenges specifically for Tier 2.

Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology29(2), 121-125.

The consequences of dropping out of high school.

This paper outlines the consequences that these young people face after leaving high school. 

Sum, A., Khatiwada, I., McLaughlin, J., & Palma, S. (2009). The consequences of dropping out of high school. (Paper 23). Retrieved from Center for Labor Market Studies Publications website:

How principals and peers influence teaching and learning

This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly46(1), 31-56.

Abstract of the United States: 2012

The Statistical Abstract of the United States is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Abstract of the United States: 2012 (131st Edition). [Table 232]. Retrieved from

U.S. Education in 2017 in 10 Charts

This article provide charts, graphs, maps, and visualizations of all feature data that Education Week released in 2017 and convey some big takeaways about U.S. schools, students, and teachers in 2017.


U.S. Education in 2017 in 10 Charts. Education Week, December. (2017). Retrieved from

Race, Class, and Americans’ Perspectives of Achievement Gaps

The authors surveyed the U.S. public about test score gaps between students of different races and classes. They found much greater concern about wealth-based gaps than race-based gaps. A large portion of the American public remains generally unconcerned about test score gaps between white and minority children, and many Americans attribute the gaps that exist exclusively to minority parents and children rather than to broader social or historical causes.  In reality, we may need much broader changes in public attitudes toward educational inequities before we should expect policymakers to feel much pressure from the public to close today’s test score gaps.


Valant, J., Newark, Daniel. Race, Class, and Americans’ Perspectives of Achievement Gaps. Brookings Institutions. Retrieved from

The System-of-Care Model: Implementation in Twenty-seven Communities

The purpose of this study was to document system-of-care development following the receipt of federal funds to establish and support a system of care, and to assess the extent to which system-of-care principles were realized

Vinson, N. B., Brannan, A. M., Baughman, L. N., Wilce, M., & Gawron, T. (2001). The system-of-care model: Implementation in twenty-seven communities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders9(1), 30-42.

Do Test Score Gaps Grow Before, During, or Between the School Years? Measurement Artifacts and What We Can Know in Spite of Them.

This research looked at test score gaps for a range of populations: between boys and girls; between black, white, and Hispanic children; between the children and the mother’s education; between children in poor and nonpoor families; and the gaps between high-poverty and low-poverty schools. They wanted to know whether gaps grow faster during summer or the school year. They were unable to answer this question as the results were inconclusive. Although, von Hippel and Hamrock did find the total gap in performance from kindergarten to eighth grade, is substantially smaller than the gap that exists at the time children enter school. The conclusion is that gaps happen mostly in the first five years of life. study suggests students who are behind peers at the time they enter kindergarten should receive early remedial instruction as the most efficacious way to improve overall performance.

von Hippel, P. T., & Hamrock, C. (2019). Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between the school years? Measurement artifacts and what we can know in spite of them. Sociological Science, 6, 43-80.

Minimum Drinking Age and Alcohol Availability to Youth: Issues and Research Needs

This article discusses the effects of minimum drinking age on alcohol use, effects of minimum drinking age on traffic crashes, effect of minimum drinking age on other health and social problems. In the end, the author calls for research needs on youth alcohol availability. 

Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 175-200.

Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol Lessons and Result from a 15-Community Randomized Trial

Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA) is a 15-community randomized trial designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a 2¹⁄₂ year community organizing intervention to change policies and practices of major community institutions.

Wagenaar, A. C., Gehan, J. P., Jones‐Webb, R., Toomey, T. L., Forster, J. L., Wolfson, M., & Murray, D. M. (1999). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Lessons and results from a 15‐community randomized trial. Journal of Community Psychology27(3), 315-326.

Functional curriculum for elementary, middle, and secondary age students with special needs

The chapters in this book deal with areas of expertise that most students will need. For example, self-determination skills, functional academics, transportation, home and community living, as well as work preparation and socialization.

Wehman, P., & Kregel, J. (2004). Functional curriculum for elementary, middle, and secondary age students with special needs. PRO-ED, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin, TX 78757.

Find Out If Your Job Will Be Automated

Bloomberg has published an interactive graphic that reveals valuable information on the probability of a particular employment path being impacted by automation. The graphic also provides information on average annual wage, number of people employed in the sector, and academic degree required for the job. This data is especially important as schools consider models for preparing students’ future careers. As schools are increasingly held accountable for career preparation, how can educators use this data to create career pathways that will adequately equip students with the skills and knowledge required for well-paying jobs obtainable when they graduate?


Whitehouse, M., & Rojanasakul, M. (2017). Find out if your job will be automated. Retrieved from

Social Validity: The Case for Subjective Measurement or How Applied Behavior Analysis is Finding its Heart

This manuscript was presented as an invited address to the Division of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., September, 1976. 


Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate Socially Complex Services: Problems, Challenges and Recommendations

The paper questions whether the simple randomized controlled trial (RCT) paradigm as applied in clinical trials can be used ‘off the rack’ to evaluate socially complex service (SCS) interventions

Wolff, N. (2000). Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate socially complex services: problems, challenges and recommendations. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics3(2), 97-109.

Alliance for Excellent Education
This organization is a national policy and advocacy organization dedicated to ensuring that all students graduate from high school ready for success in college, work, and citizenship.
Annenberg Institute for School Reform

The Annenberg Institute for School Reform is a national policy-research and reform support organization that promotes quality education for all children, especially in urban communities.

Brookings Institution
The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization that conducts in-depth research regarding problems facing a society at the local, national and global level.
Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA)
CEPA is a research center focusing education policy issues including Poverty and Inequality; Federal and State Education Policy; Technological Innovations in Education; and Teaching and Leadership Effectiveness.
Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)
CPRE looks at issues of teacher compensation, school finance, and principal evaluation for PK20.
Council of the Great City Schools

The Council’s mission is to promote the cause of urban schools and to advocate for inner-city students through legislation, research and media relations.


The Education Digest is monthly publication that scans hundreds of publications so it can select the most critical, most newsworthy articles. They are then condensed for quick reading.

EdSource works on key education challenges in California by�providing timely, useful and accurate information to key education stakeholders and the larger public.
Education Next
This web site focuses on American K-12 school reform across a wide range of issues and topics.
Education Trust
The Education Trust is a national non-profit advocacy organization that promotes high academic achievement for all students at all levels, particularly for students of color and low-income students.
Frameworks Institute
FrameWorksdesigns, conducts and publishes communications research to prepare nonprofit organizations to expand their constituency base, to build public will, and to further public understanding of specific social issues.
Institute of Education Sciences
IES is the statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the U.S. Department of Education. Its mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, parents, policymakers, researchers, and the public.
National Institute of child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
The NICHD conducts and supports research, that explore health processes; examines the impact of disabilities, diseases, and variations on the lives of individuals.
National School Climate Center
NSCC works to translate research into practice by establishing meaningful and relevant guidelines, programs and services that support a model for whole school improvement with a focus on school climate.
National Science Foundation
NSF is a federal agency created to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense.
National Urban Alliance
The National Urban Alliance for Effective Education (NUA) provides professional development, advocacy and organizational guidance that transform urban and suburban schools.
OECD - Education
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an international organization that focuses works with governments from around the world to seek solutions to common problems, such as education.
Pew Research Center's Internet and American Life Project
Pew Research Center informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world through public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research.
Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE)
Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) is an independent, non-partisan research center based at Stanford University, the University of Southern California, and the University of California
Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education (SCOPE)
The Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education (SCOPE) was founded in 2008 to foster research, policy, and practice to advance high quality, equitable education systems in the United States and internationally.
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