Education Drivers

Standardized Tests

A standardized achievement test is administered and scored using equivalent tests under the same conditions, permitting equal time for completion, and using the same scoring criteria. By controlling for significant variables such as testing conditions, the results can be compared across schools, districts, or states. There are two primary types of standardized achievement tests: norm referenced and criterion referenced. Norm-referenced tests rank individual student achievement compared with a statistically representative sample of peers, allowing educators to discriminate between high and low achievers. Criteria-referenced tests measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or standards. Because criterion-referenced tests evaluate whether students have acquired a specific body of knowledge or skills, scores are frequently used as indicators of the effectiveness of instruction. When results are aggregated, criterion-referenced tests can help decision makers determine what is working and where adjustments can be made to improve instruction from one year to the next. Standardized achievement tests are referred to as high-stakes tests when consequences are attached to the results. Consequences range from affirming student promotion to assigning teacher compensation to determining funding for schools. Despite high expectations for these tests, research on high-stakes test accountability and achievement finds only a small effect size for improving student achievement.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Would a student rated 'Proficient' in Reading in one state be rated 'Proficient' in Reading in another state?
The inquiry compares student performance between state proficiency standards and the National Assessment Education Progress proficiency standards.
Gibson, S. (2009). Would a student rated 'Proficient' in Reading in one state be rated 'Proficient' in Reading in another state? Retrieved from would-student-rated-'proficient.
What are the costs and benefits of five common educational interventions?
This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education.
States, J. (2010). What are the costs and benefits of five common educational interventions? Retrieved from what-are-costs-and.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, MB. (2011). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-mary-beth-celio.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Is the three-term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction?

Two experiments are reported which test the effect of increased three-term contingency trials on students' correct and incorrect math responses. The results warrant further research to test whether or not rates of presentation of three-term contingency trials are predictors of effective instruction.

Albers, A. E., & Greer, R. D. (1991). Is the three-term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction?. Journal of Behavioral Education1(3), 337-354.

High-Stakes Testing, Uncertainty, and Student Learning

This study evaluated the relationship between scores on high stakes test and scores on other measures of learning such as NAEP and SAT scores.  In general,  there was no increase in student learning as a function of high stakes testing.

Amrein, A. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). High-Stakes Testing, Uncertainty, and Student Learning. Education Policy Analysis Archives.

The Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance

The purpose of this study is to assess whether academic achievement in fact increases after the introduction of high-stakes tests. The first objective of this study is to assess whether academic achievement has improved since the introduction of high-stakes testing policies in the 27 states with the highest stakes written into their grade 1-8 testing policies.

Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). The Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance.

Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales: Results From the 2015 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments

Standardized tests play a critical role in tracking and comparing K-12 student progress across time, student demographics, and governing bodies (states, cities, districts). One methodology is to benchmark the each state’s proficiency standards against those of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test.  This study does just that.  Using NAEP as a common yardstick allows a comparison of different state assessments. The results confirm the wide variation in proficiency standards across states.  It also documents that the significant majority of states have standards are much lower than those established by the NAEP.

Bandeira de Mello, V., Rahman, T., and Park, B.J. (2018). Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto NAEP Scales: Results From the 2015 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments (NCES 2018-159). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.

High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning

A brief history of high-stakes testing is followed by an analysis of eighteen states with severe consequences attached to their testing programs.

Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10.

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Reconsidering the impact of high-stakes testing.

This article is an extended reanalysis of high-stakes testing on achievement. The paper focuses on the performance of states, over the period 1992 to 2000, on the NAEP mathematics assessments for grades 4 and 8.

Braun, H. (2004). Reconsidering the impact of high-stakes testing. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(1).

International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

This paper review the main (four) critiques that have been made of international tests, as well as the rationales and education policy analyses accompanying these critiques. This brief also discusses a set of (four) critiques around the underlying social meaning and educational policy value of international test comparisons. These comparisons indicate how students in various countries score on a particular test, but do they carry a larger meaning? This paper also have some recommendations based on their critiques. 

Carnoy, M. (2015). International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques. National Education Policy Center.

Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis.

This study developed a zero-to-five index of the strength of accountability in 50 states based on the use of high-stakes testing to sanction and reward schools, and analyzed whether that index is related to student gains on the NAEP mathematics test in 1996–2000.

Carnoy, M., & Loeb, S. (2002). Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(4), 305-331.

Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

BURIED TREASURE: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes

High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.

Increasing Targeting, Flexibility, and Transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to help Disadvantages Students

This policy proposal I suggest (1) reforms to ensure that the Title I formula gets enough resources to the neediest areas, and (2) improvements in federal guidance and fiscal compliance outreach efforts so that local districts understand the flexibility they have to spend effectively. These are first-order issues for improving high-poverty schools, but so deeply mired in technical and bureaucratic detail that they have received little public attention in the re-authorization process.

Gordon, N. (2016). Increasing targeting, flexibility, and transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to help disadvantaged students. Policy Proposal1.

Testing High Stakes Tests: Can We Believe the Results of Accountability Tests?

This study examines whether the results of standardized tests are distorted when rewards and sanctions are attached to them.

Greene, J., Winters, M., & Forster, G. (2004). Testing high-stakes tests: Can we believe the results of accountability tests?. The Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1124-1144.

Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?

This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning. 

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education20(3), 265-275.

High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation

The report considers the appropriate uses and misuses of high stakes tests in making decisions for students.  The fundamental question is whether test scores lead to consequences that are educationally beneficial.

Heubert, J. P., & Hauser, R. M. (1998). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439151.pdf

The effectiveness of the SAT in predicting success early and late in college: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis examines issues of reliability and validity of SAT tests and student grades on student performance in college.

Hezlett, S., Kuncel, N., Vey, A., Ones, D., Campbell, J. & Camara, W. (2001). “The effectiveness of the SAT in predictive success early and late in college: A comprehensive meta-analysis.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education, Seattle, WA.

A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures.

A meta-analysis on the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and corresponding explicit self-report measures was conducted.

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(10), 1369-1385.

International surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS

In the last 20 years, international surveys assessing learning in reading, mathematics and science have been headline news because they put countries in rank order according to performance. The three most well known surveys are TIMSS, PISA and PIRLS. The survey offer information about international performances for the use of others in order to drive up education standards everywhere. They also emphasise that their aim is to facilitate dissemination of ideas on which features of education systems lead to the best performances.

International surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS. (2017). Cambridge Assessment international Education. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271193-international-surveys-pisa-timss-pirls.pdf

Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools

This study evaluated the effects of high stakes testing on the achievement levels of students in Chicago Public Schools.  The data suggests that even though scores went up on the high stakes tests scores on “low stakes” achievement tests did not improve.  This suggests increases in scores was a function increases in test-specific skills rather than a general improvement in student learning.  These findings give credence to the “teaching to the test” criticisms.

Jacob, B. A. (2005). Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of public Economics. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.401.6599&rep=rep1&type=pdf

ACT Scores Drop as More Take Test

This article show evidence of ACT scores drop on 2016. ACT officials attribute the drop to the increasing percentage of high school seniors who have taken the test. Generally, when a larger share of students take a test - in some cases encouraged by state requirements more than the students necessarily being college ready - scores go down.

Jaschnik, S. (2016, August). ACT Scores Drop as More Take Test. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/08/24/average-act-scores-drop-more-people-take-test

Do Students Show What They Know on Standardized Tests

Standardized testing has increasingly been used to hold educators accountable. Incentives are often offered as a way to improve student test performance. This study examines the impact incentives for students, parents and tutors on standardized test results. The researchers provided incentives on specially designed tests that measure the same skills as the official state standardized tests; however, performance on the official tests was not incentivized. This study finds substantial improvement for performance when there were incentives on the results did not generalize to the official test. This calls into question how to effectively use incentives so they will actually produce desired outcomes.

John A. List, Jeffrey A Livingston and Susanne Neckermann. “Do Students Show What They Know on Standardized Tests?” working papers (2016) Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jeffrey_livingston/19/

 

Evidence-Based treatments: Challenges and Priorities for Practice and Research

This article discusses key issues in identifying evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents. Among the issues discussed are obstacles in transporting treatments from research to clinical services, the weak criteria for delineating whether a treatment is evidence based, and barriers to training therapists.

Kazdin, A. E. (2004). Evidence-based treatments: Challenges and priorities for practice and research. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics13(4), 923-940.

The Effects of High-Stakes Testing on Achievement: Preliminary Findings about Generalization across Tests.

This study evaluated the generalization from high stakes tests to other mesures of achievement.  The results suggest that there is little generalization suggesting that improvement in high stakes test scores are the result of emphasis placed on the tests and time spent in test preparation rather than actual increase in student learning.

Koretz, D. M. (1991). The Effects of High-Stakes Testing on Achievement: Preliminary Findings about Generalization across Tests. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340730.pdf

Scientific Formative Evaluation: The Role of Individual Learners in Generating and Predicting Successful Educational Outcomes

what does it mean to take a scientific approach to instructional productivity? This chapter hopes to contribute to that discussion by examining the role scientific assessment can play in enhancing educational productivity.

Layng, T. J., Stikeleather, G., & Twyman, J. S. (2006). Scientific formative evaluation: The role of individual learners in generating and predicting successful educational outcomes. The scientific basis of educational productivity, 29-44.

The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance

This paper explore the power of behavioral economics to influence the level of effort exerted by students in a low stakes testing environment. This paper find a substantial impact on test scores from incentives when the rewards are delivered immediately. There is suggestive evidence that rewards framed as losses outperform those framed as gains. 

Levitt, S. D., List, J. A., Neckermann, S., & Sadoff, S. (2016). The behavioralist goes to school: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve educational performance. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy8(4), 183-219.

No, The Sky is Not Falling: Interpreting the Latest SAT Scores

The College board was recently released SAT scores for the high school graduating class of 2015. Both math and reading scores declined from 2014, continuing a steady downward trend that has been in place for the past decade. Pundits of contrasting political stripes seized on the scores to bolster their political agendas. Petrilli argued that falling SAT scores show that high schools needs more reform. For Burris, the declining scores were evidence of the failure of policies her organization opposes. This articles pointing out that SAT was never meant to measure national achievement and provide detail explanation. 

Loveless, T. (2015). No, the sky is not falling: Interpreting the latest SAT scores. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2015/10/01/no-the-sky-is-not-falling-interpreting-the-latest-sat-scores/

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International test Scores, Foreign Exchange Students, and School Suspensions

This Brown Center Report (BCR) on American Education is the sixth and final edition in the third volume and the 16th issue overall. The series began in 2000. As in the past, the report comprises three studies. Also in keeping with tradition, the first section features recent results from state, national, or international assessments; the second section investigates a thematic topic in education, either by collecting new data or by analyzing existing empirical evidence in a novel way; and the third section looks at one or more education policies.

Loveless, T. (2017). How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International test Scores, Foreign Exchange Students, and School Suspensions.  The 2-17 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-brown-center-report-on-american-education.pdf

The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data.

This paper is an examination of the impact of high stakes testing on minority students.  The outcomes suggest that high stakes testing does not have a positive impact on minority students and in some instances there is negative effects from high stakes testing.

Madaus, G. F., & Clarke, M. (2001). The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450183.pdf

Is Performance on the SAT Related to College Retention?

This study examines the relationship between scores on the SAT and retention to second year of college using student level data from the freshman class of 2006 at 106 four-year institutions.

Mattern, K. D., & Patterson, B. F. (2009). Is performance on the SAT related to college retention?.

Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students.

This study investigated communicative strategies for helping female students cope with ‘‘stereotype threat’’. The results demonstrate that priming a positive achieved identity (e.g., private college student) can subdue stereotype threat associated with an ascribed identity (e.g., female).

McGlone, M. S., & Aronson, J. (2007). Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students. Communication Education56(2), 119-133.

A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment

The goal of this guide is to provide useful information about standardized testing, or assessment, for practitioners and non-practitioners who care about public schools. It includes the nature of assessment, types of assessments and tests, and definitions.

Mitchell, R. (2006). A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment. Center for Public Education. 

Analysis of the predictive validity of the SAT and high school grades from 1976 to 1983

This study examines validity data for SAT scores and student grades enrolling classes of 1976 to 1985.

Morgan, R. (1989). “Analysis of the predictive validity of the SAT and high school grades from 1976 to 1983.” College Board Report No. 89-7. New York: College Board.

SAT Scores Take a Dip

This article describe about the drop down of SAT score in 2016. 

Mulhere, K. (2016, September). SAT Scores Take a Dip. Money. Retrieved from http://money.com/money/4508286/average-sat-scores-class-2016/

Understanding DALYs

The measurement unit disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), used in recent years to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors on human populations, is grounded on cogent economic and ethical principles and can guide policies toward delivering more cost-effective and equitable health care. 

Murray, C. J., & Acharya, A. K. (1997). Understanding DALYs. Journal of health economics16(6), 703-730.

High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation

This book looks at how testing affects critical decisions for American students. The text focuses on how testing is used in schools to make decisions about tracking and placement, promotion and retention, and awarding or withholding high school diplomas. This book examines the controversies that emerge when a test score can open or close gates on a student's educational pathway.

National Research Council. (1999). High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

The Inevitable Corruption of Indicators and Educators through High-Stakes Testing.

The paper examines Campbell’s law-the more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making the more likely the measure will corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.”  In education, high stakes testing has resulted in widespread cheating, exclusion from low performing students from testing, encouraging students to drop out,  and narrowing the curriculum.

Nichols, S. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2005). The Inevitable Corruption of Indicators and Educators through High-Stakes Testing. Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508483.pdf

The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps

The authors estimate racial/ethnic achievement gaps in several hundred metropolitan areas and several thousand school districts in the United States using the results of roughly 200 million standardized math and English language arts (ELA) tests administered to public school students from 2009 to 2013. They show that the strongest correlates of achievement gaps are local racial/ethnic differences in parental income and educational attainment, local average parental education levels, and patterns of racial/ethnic segregation, consistent with a theoretical model in which family socioeconomic factors affect educational opportunity partly through residential and school segregation patterns.

Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., & Shores, K. (2019). The geography of racial/ethnic test score gaps. American Journal of Sociology124(4), 1164-1221.

Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility

In this paper, we analyze racial differences in the math section of the general SAT test, using publicly available College Board population data for all of the nearly 1.7 million college-bound seniors in 2015 who took the SAT. The evidence for a stubborn race gap on this test does meanwhile provide a snapshot into the extraordinary magnitude of racial inequality in contemporary American society. Standardized tests are often seen as mechanisms for meritocracy, ensuring fairness in terms of access. But test scores reflect accumulated advantages and disadvantages in each day of life up the one on which the test is taken. Race gaps on the SAT hold up a mirror to racial inequities in society as a whole. Equalizing educational opportunities and human capital acquisition earlier is the only way to ensure fairer outcomes.

Reeves, R. V., Halikias, D. (2017). Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/race-gaps-in-sat-scores-highlight-inequality-and-hinder-upward-mobility/

Race Gap in SAT Math Score are as big as Ever

This article show the evidence for a race gap on the SAT math score and some big issues at stake including: the value of the SAT itself; the case for broader policies to take into account socioeconomic background in college admissions; the obsession with four-year college degrees; and the danger of college as a “bottleneck” in the American opportunity structure. 

Reeves, Richard. (2017, February). Race Gap in SAT Math Score are as big as Ever. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/02/01/race-gaps-in-sat-math-scores-are-as-big-as-ever/

SAT® Percentile Ranks for 2012 College-Bound Seniors: Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Percentile Ranks by Gender and Ethnic Groups

This table allows you to compare a student’s SAT® scores with the performance of other 2012 college-bound seniors who took the test some time in high school. Please keep in mind that relationships between test scores and other factors are complex and interdependent. Other factors do not directly affect test performance; rather, they are associated with educational experiences both on tests and in schoolwork.

SAT® Percentile Ranks for 2012 College-Bound Seniors: Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Percentile Ranks by Gender and Ethnic Groups. (2012). The College Board. Retrieved from http://secure-media.collegeboard.org/digitalServices/pdf/research/SAT-Percentile-Ranks-by-Gender-Ethnicity-2012.pdf

Curriculum-based Measurement: Assessing Special Children

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.

Advanced Applications of Curriculum-based Measurement

Developed specifically to overcome problems with traditional standardized instruments--and widely used in both general and special education settings throughout the US--curriculum-based measurement (CBM) comprises brief assessment probes of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics that serve both to quantify student performance and to bolster academic achievement.

Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. Guilford Press.

Comparing TIMSS with NAEP and PISA in Mathematics and Science

The purpose of this document is to provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the 2007 results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) by comparing its design, features, framework, and items with those of the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress and another international assessment in which the United States participates, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The report found, because there are differences in the features, frameworks and items of the national and international assessments, direct comparisons among the assessments are not useful. Rather the results from different studies should be thought of as different lenses through which to view and better understand U.S. student performance.

Stephens, M., and Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing TIMSS with NAEP and PISA in Mathematics and Science. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from 

Comparing PIRLS and PISA with NAEP in Reading, Mathematics, and Science

This document provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the results from two key international assessments that are being released in November and December 2007 and in comparing these results with recent findings from the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress in similar subjects. In sum, there appears to be an advantage in capitalizing on the complementary information presented in national and international assessments. NAEP measures in detail the reading, mathematics and science knowledge of U.S. students as a whole, and can also provide trend information for individual states, different geographic regions, and demographic population groups. International assessments like PIRLS and PISA add value by providing a method for comparing our performance in the United States to the performance of students in other nations. However, their differences need to be recognized when interpreting results. 

Stephens, M., Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing PIRLS and PISA with NAEP in Reading, Mathematics, and Science (Working Paper). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/PISA/pdf/comppaper12082004.pdf

Can high stakes testing leverage educational improvement? Prospects from the last decade of testing and accountability reform.

This paper examines the use of high stakes testing such as end of course exams in American education.  The conclusions are that the exams do not produce substantive changes in instructional practices and the information is useful to measure school and system progress but has limited utility for instructional guidance.

Supovitz, J. (2009). Can high stakes testing leverage educational improvement? Prospects from the last decade of testing and accountability reform. Journal of Educational Change, 10(2-3), 211-227.

Improving Value Measurement in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

The study design was a declarative exposition of potential fallacies in the theoretical underpinnings of Cost-Effective Analysis (CFA).

Ubel, P. A., Nord, E., Gold, M., Menzel, P., Prades, J. L. P., & Richardson, J. (2000). Improving value measurement in cost-effectiveness analysis. Medical Care38(9), 892-901.

How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?

This article show different approach that researcher took to answer questions on social gradient in education between the countries. Comparing some of these results highlights weak service delivery in many developing countries. Even where resources may be similar, social gradients are steep in some, indicating much worse educational outcomes for the poor. And public resources are often extremely poorly converted into learning. The differential ability of schools and school systems to convert resources into learning outcomes remains a major impediment to improving educational outcomes, and indeed life chances, for the poor.

Van Der Berg, S. (2015). How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/09/how-does-the-rich-poor-learning-gap-vary-across-countries/

Comparing Alternatives in the Prediction of College Success

This study investigates the prediction of college success as defined by a student’s college GPA. We predict college GPA mid-way through and at the end of their college careers using high school GPA (HSGPA), college entrance exam scores (SAT/ACT) and an open-ended, performance-based assessment of critical thinking and writing skills (CLA). 3,137 college sophomores and 1,330 college seniors participated in this study.

Zahner, D., Ramsaran, L. M., & Steedle, J. T. (2012). Comparing alternatives in the prediction of college success. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada.

1 in 5 Public School Students in the Class of 2016 Passed an AP Exam

The number of students taking Advanced Placement (AP) tests has grown to more than 2.5 million students annually. Overall test scores have remained relatively constant despite a 60% increase in the number of students taking AP exams since 2006. In school year 2015–16, 20% of students taking an AP test passed and were eligible for college credit. The College Board also reports a continuing trend in the significant increase in the number of low-income students participating in the program. Unfortunately, this trend may be negatively impacted by changes in funding. The federal grant program subsidizing AP tests for low-income students has been replaced by block grants in the Every Student Succeeds Act. These funds may still be applied to subsidize low-income populations but are not mandated for this purpose as in the past.

Zubrzycki, J. (2017). 1 in 5 Public School Students in the Class of 2016 Passed an AP Exam. Education Week.

 

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