Education Drivers

Active Supervision

Active supervision is a behavior management practice designed to teach and reinforce appropriate behavior and to prevent and reduce misconduct. To maximize situational awareness, the practice emphasizes constant scanning and moving around the classroom and other potential trouble spots for disruptive behavior, such as hallways, playground, and field trips. Active supervision enables teachers to more effectively deliver feedback to students. By frequently interacting with students, they increase opportunities to build positive relationships, provide encouraging feedback for appropriate behavior, and more swiftly and consistently respond to inappropriate behavior. Teachers should constantly scan the entire area looking for appropriate behavior, problem behavior, and dangerous activities, paying special attention to areas, activities, and groups where problems have occurred in the past. They can use this time to reinforce expectations by reminding students of rules and routines, prompt appropriate behavior, and deliver corrective consequences as needed.

Active Supervision Overview

Active Supervision PDF

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Introduction

Active supervision is a behavior management strategy that involves both proactive and reactive components to support appropriate behavior and discourage inappropriate behavior. This intervention can be applied in classrooms and other school environments that are identified as potentially challenging, such as transitions from one activity or environment to another. Active supervision can be implemented independently, as part of an overall classroom management system, or as a component of a multitiered system of support (MTSS).

MTSS has been shown effective in supporting appropriate behavior and discouraging inappropriate behavior among all types of students in a school community. Each tier of the multitiered system incorporates proactive strategies to prevent inappropriate behavior as well as reactive strategies when inappropriate behavior occurs. Further, MTSS is applied not only in the classroom environment, but also across non-classroom environments such as hallways, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Transitioning through these areas may be particularly challenging for students and likely to evoke inappropriate behavior (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997).

 

What Is Active Supervision?

Active supervision can be implemented by any school personnel, including teachers, paraprofessionals, and administrators. It consists of four major components:

  1. Move around. Avoid standing in one place (Colvin et al., 1997) and remain visible to students (Gage, Haydon, MacSuga-Gage, Flowers, & Erdy, 2020).
  2. Look around. Regularly scan the environment, looking for examples of both appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
  3. Interact with students. Provide greetings, gestures, and comments while avoiding lengthy conversations with individual students as this could interfere with overall situational awareness (Colvin et al., 1997).
  4. Reinforce appropriate behavior. Provide praise for appropriate academic and social behavior (De Pry & Sugai, 2002).

Precorrection is an additional component frequently incorporated into active supervision (Colvin et al., 1997; De Pry & Sugai, 2002; Lewis, Colvin, & Sugai, 2000). It involves providing instructions or reminders of expectations, modeling, and role-playing appropriate behaviors before entering a situation where there is a behavioral expectation (Gage et al., 2020). For example, if students frequently engage in inappropriate behavior when transitioning from the classroom to the cafeteria, the teacher can verbally remind students of the expectations (e.g., walk quietly), demonstrate what the behavior looks like, and help the students practice before the transition.

 

Why Is Active Supervision Important?

Active supervision facilitates a high level of interaction between teachers and students, which can aid in the development of positive relationships. In turn, more positive student-teacher relationships correlate with greater student engagement (Martin & Collie, 2019; Roorda, Koomen, Spilt, & Oort, 2011). In addition, strategies to increase appropriate behavior (e.g., praise) and to decrease inappropriate behavior (e.g., time-out) are most effective when implemented immediately after the behavior occurs (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). By promoting a high level of situational awareness (i.e., awareness of students’ locations and behaviors), active supervision allows school staff to respond to students more effectively.

 

Research on Active Supervision

The effectiveness of active supervision has been repeatedly demonstrated across a variety of school environments and student populations (Allen et al., 2020; Gage et al., 2020).

During transitions. Colvin et al. (1997) implemented active supervision on a schoolwide scale and evaluated its effects across three different transitions: entering school, entering the cafeteria, and exiting school. The intervention resulted in 50% to 80% reductions in problem behaviors such as pushing, running, and shouting across all three types of transitions.

Johnson-Gros, Lyons, and Griffin (2008) used active supervision to decrease tardiness in transitions between classes among students in a rural high school. Teachers were trained to remain at a designated location or “post” during hallway transitions, move toward groups of students congregating, guide students through the transition by walking beside them, and interact with students through brief nonverbal gestures (e.g., smiling). Although the intervention was not implemented consistently (see Training Teachers to Implement Active Supervision, below), it produced moderate decreases in the number of office disciplinary referrals for tardiness. Further, additional research suggests that simply greeting students at the door can increase on-task behavior and decrease disruptive behavior (Allday & Pakurar, 2007; Cook et al., 2018).

At recess. Lewis et al. (2000) evaluated the effects of active supervision on problem behavior such as arguing, misuse of playground equipment, and inappropriately touching others among elementary school students in kindergarten through fifth grade. The intervention included precorrection, or a review of rules and expectations, prior to recess each day. Active supervision involved training playground monitors to move around, look around, and interact with students. The intervention resulted in problem behavior decreasing from approximately 12 instances per minute to approximately 2 instances per minute across three recess periods during both structured and unstructured activities.

Franzen and Kamps (2008) evaluated the effects of active supervision and precorrection on inappropriate behavior at recess across second, third, and fourth graders. One week before the intervention was implemented on the playground, classroom teachers gave a lesson on recess expectations, including modeling and role-playing. During the intervention, teachers spent 5 minutes each day reviewing the expectations. In addition to active supervision, this intervention incorporated a reinforcement system in which students earned “loops” (i.e., a token) for appropriate behavior; once a gradewide goal was met, the students had a party. The intervention resulted in 50% to 67% decreases in problem behavior across the three grade levels.

In the classroom. DePry and Sugai (2002) examined the effects that an intervention consisting of precorrection, active supervision, and daily data review had on minor behavioral incidents (e.g., eating in the classroom, not following directions) in a sixth-grade classroom. In addition to the previously described elements of precorrection, this intervention also included training the teacher to identify gaps in skills and to teach appropriate behaviors through modeling and practice. The data review involved training the teacher to conduct a daily morning review of the previous day’s data on classroom behavior and to adjust his or her active supervision accordingly. The intervention resulted in decreases in minor behavioral incidents, and the classroom teacher agreed that the intervention was effective.

Haydon, DeGreg, Maheady, and Hunter (2012) added explicit timing to active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behavior in a middle school classroom. Explicit timing involves setting a time requirement for the completion of a task and alerting students when the time has expired (Van Houten & Thompson, 1976). In the Haydon et al. study, the teacher displayed a timer on an overhead projector and an alarm sounded after 2 minutes. The researchers found that active supervision and precorrection resulted in a decrease of transition times from an average of 6 minutes 40 seconds to 2 minutes 50 seconds, and a decrease in redirections from 10.6 to 6 per session. The addition of explicit timing resulted in even greater decreases; transitions averaged 1 minute 40 seconds and an average of only 1 redirection occurred per session.

Haydon and Kroeger (2016) extended the Haydon et al. (2012) study to an urban high school classroom. They found similar results: Precorrection and active supervision resulted in reductions in transition time and problem behavior, and the addition of explicit timing resulted in even further decreases.

Other settings. Schuldheisz and van der Mars (2001) evaluated the effects of active supervision on physical activity levels in a middle school physical education class. The participants were students who had been identified as “low active” relative to their peers. The physical education teacher alternated between providing passive supervision (i.e., silent observation, no verbal interaction or modeling with students) and active supervision. Participants’ physical activity levels were consistently higher during active supervision than during passive supervision.

 

Training Teachers to Implement Active Supervision

Although school personnel may be familiar with the general concept of active supervision, they may not know all the elements be implemented for it to be effective (Menzies et al., 2018). Supporting teachers in implementing active supervision is vital to ensure that the intervention is applied consistently. Some of the studies described above provided information about how the teachers were trained to implement active supervision.

Johnson-Gros et al. (2008) conducted a 30-minute training at an after-school faculty meeting. They provided a rationale for the intervention and an explanation of the steps. Next, they provided verbal examples of what to do and what not to do, followed by modeling and role-playing of active supervision procedures. Lastly, the teachers were instructed that they would be observed implementing the intervention and receive verbal and written feedback. However, there was only a modest difference in active supervision before and after training. Across two groups of teachers, procedural integrity increased from an average of 46% and 53% before training to an average of 64% and 61% after training.

Similarly, Franzen and Kamps (2008) began with a 30-minute introductory meeting with teachers of all three grade levels (second, third, and fourth) in which they described the intervention. Next, separate 15- to 20-minute meetings were held with teachers at each grade level to discuss the intervention in more detail. Follow-up meetings were held throughout the intervention period to review data and to continue encouraging teachers to engage in active supervision. However, only modest increases in frequencies of active supervision were observed across the three grade levels of teachers (e.g., second grade teachers’ range of active supervision was 0 to 7 instances during baseline and 1 to 8 instances after the intervention).

However, as mentioned previously, both of these studies resulted in decreased problem behavior despite inconsistent application of active supervision. It is possible that perfect implementation is not be required for active supervision to be effective. More research is needed on the relationship between the effectiveness of active supervision and the consistency of its implementation.

Alternatively, Schuldheisz and van der Mars (2001) achieved a high level of procedural integrity during their evaluation of the effect of the intervention on a middle school physical education class. Although they did not describe their teacher training procedures in detail, it should be noted that only one teacher implemented the intervention so it is possible that the single interventionist received more extensive training. DePry and Sugai (2002) also achieved a high degree of procedural integrity in their study of a sixth-grade classroom. They trained the teacher on all components of their intervention in one 30-minute session. The authors noted that this particular teacher had a background in using direct instruction strategies and more than 20 years of teaching experience, which may account for successful implementation after such a brief training period. Also, as with the Schuldheisz and van der Mars research, this study involved training a single teacher rather than multiple teachers across a grade level or school.

Additional research is needed on how to effectively train teachers in active supervision, for example, applying empirically supported strategies such as teacher coaching and performance feedback (see Teacher Coaching) to the skill of active supervision. Regular monitoring is a key component of ensuring consistent implementation of active supervision. Collier-Meek, Johnson, and Farrell (2018) developed and evaluated the Measure of Active Supervision and Interaction (MASI) to facilitate monitoring. MASI is a method of systematic direct observation that produces an objective measure of an individual’s implementation of active supervision. The observer takes momentary time samples, or periodic checks at points in time, on whether or not a behavior is occurring, of the teacher’s movement, scanning, and interactions with students. The observer also records the frequency of reinforcement, correction, and statement of behavioral expectations. This tool can be used to provide school personnel with data-based performance feedback as well as to identify individuals who may require additional training or support.  

 

Effective Implementation of Active Supervision

Menzies et al. (2018) described eight steps for planning and implementing an effective active supervision program:

  1. Identify the activity or transition period that would benefit most from active supervision. For many students, transitions between activities and locations are challenging and set the occasion for inappropriate behavior. Active supervision has been demonstrated to be effective at increasing appropriate behavior during transitions (Colvin et al., 1997; Johnson-Gros et al., 2008), in physical education (Schuldheisz & van der Mars, 2001), in classrooms (DePry & Sugai, 2002; Haydon et al., 2012; Haydon & Kroeger, 2016), and at recess (Franzen & Kamps, 2008; Lewis et al., 2000).
  2. Establish routines and expectations. Ensure that students are aware of the behavior they are expected to engage in during the activity or transition. Appropriate behavior could include walking instead of running, talking quietly, or cleaning up materials or belongings.
  3. Provide the cue to begin the activity. Signal the beginning of the activity or transition with a clear instruction (Menzies et al., 2018). This also provides an opportunity for teachers to implement precorrection (Gage et al., 2020), including reminding students of expectations, providing examples of appropriate and inappropriate behavior, and role-playing.
  4. Scan and monitor the area. Move around the area to monitor the students’ actions.
  5. Signal awareness of students’ actions. Remain in close proximity to students. Descriptive praise (e.g., “I like how everyone has a quiet voice!”) and nonverbal signals (e.g., making eye contact with students) can serve as additional prompts for appropriate behavior.
  6. Manage infractions efficiently. If a student does not meet an expectation (i.e., engages in inappropriate behavior), corrective feedback is warranted. Provide feedback in a calm and objective manner, and, if possible, deliver feedback one-on-one to avoid disrupting other students (Menzies et al., 2018). If other consequences for inappropriate behavior are part of the school’s behavior management plan, such consequences can be delivered at this point.
  7. At the end of the activity or transition, reinforce appropriate behavior. Provide praise for meeting the stated expectations. If the classroom management plan includes other types of reinforcers such as points or prizes, these can be incorporated. For example, Haydon et al. (2012) provided students with free time at the end of class if they completed their transitions in under 2 minutes.
  8. Provide students with an opportunity to give feedback. Soliciting input from students on the effectiveness of active supervision can promote both involvement and accountability from students (Menzies et al., 2018). Feedback can be gathered through informal conversations or more formally through a survey.

 

Conclusions and Implications

Active supervision is an effective, universal intervention to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior in a variety of school settings. Further, active supervision facilitates the delivery of other effective behavior management strategies, such as behavior-specific praise and corrective feedback, as school personnel can “catch” students engaging in appropriate (or inappropriate) behavior. Active supervision can be applied during transitions, in the classroom, or at recess. Additional procedures such as precorrection, explicit timing, or positive reinforcement can be incorporated into active supervision.

Teachers need support to effectively implement active supervision. Beyond initial training, regular follow-up and monitoring are necessary to ensure consistency. Observation tools such as MASI (Collier-Meek et al., 2018) can facilitate objective evaluation of active supervision practices, delivery of performance feedback, and identification of school personnel requiring additional support. Although additional research is needed to determine the best strategies for supporting school staff in implementing active supervision, effective interventions to help school staff in implementing other behavior change tactics (e.g., Performance Feedback) may be a good place to start.

 

 

 

Citations

Allday, R. A., & Pakurar, K. (2007). Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.86-06

Allen, G. E., Common, E. A., Germer, K. A., Lane, K. L., Buckman, M. M., Oakes, W. P., & Menzies, H. M. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision in Pre-K–12 settings. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742919837646

Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(4), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508417737516

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., & Lee, Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344–363.

Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., Thayer, A. J., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

De Pry, R. L., & Sugai, G. (2002). The effect of active supervision and pre-correction on minor behavioral incidents in a sixth-grade general education classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(4), 255–267. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021162906622

Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 10(3), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300708316260

Gage, N. A., Haydon, T., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., Flowers, E., & Erdy, L. (2020). An evidence-based review and meta-analysis of active supervision. Behavioral Disorders, 45(2), 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742919851021

Haydon, T., DeGreg, J., Maheady, L., & Hunter, W. (2012). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in a middle school classroom. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 13(1), 81–94.

Haydon, T. & Kroeger, S. D. (2016). Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.977213

Johnson-Gros, K. N., Lyons, E. A., & Griffin, J. R. (2008). Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0012

Lewis, T. J., Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (2000). The effects of pre-correction and active supervision on the recess behavior of elementary students. Education and Treatment of Children, 23(2), 109–121.

Martin, A. J., & Collie, R. J. (2019). Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 861–876. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000317

Menzies, H. M., Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Ruth, K., Cantwell, E. D., & Smith-Menzies, L. (2018). Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success. Beyond Behavior, 27(3), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074295618799343

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–592. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793

Schuldheisz, J. M., & van der Mars, H. (2001). Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(1), 75–90.

Van Houten, R., & Thompson, C. (1976). The effects of explicit timing on math performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 227–230. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-227

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Restructuring Environmental Contingencies and Enhancing Self-Managed Supervision

Laura Kern submitted the selected study that examines the effects of a brief training on active supervision and self-management and the use of a simple strategy of self-management (e.g., checklist and Direct Behavior Rating Scales to change adult behavior).Three research questions were addressed related to recess supervisor and student behaviors: (1)What are the effects of a brief training on self-management on recess supervisors’ active supervision behaviors? (2) What are the effects of increasing active supervision on students’ problematic behavior during recess? (3)Will any increase in recess supervisor’s use of self-management be maintained with the sole use of direct behavior rating scales as part of a self-management strategy of the adult active supervision. The results of this dissertation suggest that a brief training combined with self-management may increase the positive interactions of recess supervisors, which is a component of active supervision.

Kern, L. (2016). Project RECESS: Restructuring Environmental Contingencies and Enhancing Self-Managed. Oakland, CA. The Wing Institute. 

A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention.

Systematically applied W. R. Jenson's (1990, unpublished; see also G. Rhode et al, 1992) Mystery Motivator (MM) across 9 Ss (5 3rd-grade boys and 4 5th-grade boys) from 2 classrooms.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., Witt, J. C., et al. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106–118.

 

Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior.

A multiple baseline design across participants was used to determine how teacher greetings affected on‐task behavior of 3 middle school students with problem behaviors.

Allday, R. A., & Pakurar, K. (2007). Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.86-06

A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision

To examine the evidence base of this strategy, the authors applied the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education to the body of research exploring the impact of active supervision with Pre-K–12 students in traditional school settings. This systematic literature review identified seven peer-reviewed, single-case design, treatment-outcome studies meeting inclusion criteria.

Allen, G. E., Common, E. A., Germer, K. A., Lane, K. L., Buckman, M. M., Oakes, W. P., & Menzies, H. M. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision in Pre-K–12 settings. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742919837646

 
Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom

Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.

 

Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.

Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork.

This well-written book on assertiveness clearly describes the non assertive, assertive, and aggressive styles of supervision. Each chapter provides numerous examples, practice exercises, and self-tests. The author identifies feelings and beliefs that support aggressiveness, non aggressiveness, or non assertiveness which help the reader "look beyond the words themselves."

Black, M. K. (1991). Assertive Supervision-Building Involved Teamwork. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing22(5), 224-224.

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

Performance Feedback and Teachers' Use of Praise and Opportunities to Respond: A Review of the Literature

This review of the literature examines the impact of performance feedback on two evidence-based classroom management strategies: praise and opportunities to respond (OTRs).

Cavanaugh, B. (2013). Performance feedback and teachers' use of praise and opportunities to respond: A review of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children, 111-137.

An Assessment of the Evidence-Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.

Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children35(1), 1-24.

Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction.

Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(4), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508417737516

 
Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy

The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation of the Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy to improve middle school students’ classroom behavior. 

 

Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., Thayer, A. J., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831

 
Peer Management Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review of Single-Case Research

This meta-analysis of single-case research synthesized the results of 29 studies examining the effectiveness of school-based peer management interventions. 

Dart, E. H., Collins, T. A., Klingbeil, D. A., & McKinley, L. E. (2014). Peer management interventions: A meta-analytic review of single-case research. School Psychology Review43(4), 367-384.

A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation

A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin125(6), 627.

Self-Graphing of On-Task Behavior: Enhancing the Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring on On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance

This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.

DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly14(3), 221-230.

The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of a tootling intervention, in which students report on peers' appropriate behavior, modified to incorporate ClassDojo technology, on class-wide disruptive behavior and academically engaged behavior. 

Dillon, M. B. M., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dart, E. H., Barry, C. T., & Codding, R. (2019). The Effects of Tootling via ClassDojo on Student Behavior in Elementary Classrooms. School Psychology Review48(1).

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

This guide explores the challenges involved in providing the optimum climate for learning and provides recommendations for encouraging positive behavior and reducing negative behavior.

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, K. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide20(8), 12-22.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher- vs. student-management classroom interventions.

The review contains a comprehensive evaluation of studies that have directly compared school‐based, teacher‐ vs. student‐management interventions.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Polite, K., Cook, D. M., & Quinn, G. (1988). An evaluation of the effectiveness of teacher‐vs. student‐management classroom interventions. Psychology in the Schools25(2), 154-163.

Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.

The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five. 

Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction17(1), 2-15.

Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes

Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research84(4), 546-571.

The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground.

The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive student behavior and teacher supervision on the playground in an urban elementary school

Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(3), 150-161.

An Evidence-Based Review and Meta-Analysis of Active Supervision.

This paper synthesizes and evaluates 12 studies to calculate the effect size on Active Supervision and student conduct.

Gage, N. A., Haydon, T., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., Flowers, E., & Erdy, L. (2020). An Evidence-Based Review and Meta-Analysis of Active Supervision. Behavioral Disorders, 0198742919851021.

A new role emerges for principal supervisors: Evidence from six districts in the Principal Supervisor Initiative

This report presents analyses of data from semistructured interviews with central office personnel, principal supervisors, and principals, as well as data from surveys of supervisors and principals in each of the six PSI districts.

Goldring, E. B., Grissom, J. A., Rubin, M., Rogers, L. K., Neel, M., & Clark, M. A. (2018). A new role emerges for principal supervisors: Evidence from six districts in the Principal Supervisor Initiative. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/A-New-Role-Emerges-for-Principal-Supervisors.pdf

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Supporting Appropriate Behaviors

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior Overview.

This overview describes strategies for how school personnel can respond when disruptive behavior occurs, including (1) negative consequences that can be applied as primary interventions, (2) functional behavior assessment, and (3) function-based, individualized interventions characteristic of the secondary or tertiary tiers of a multitiered system of support. 

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Decreasing Inppropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-inappropriate-behaviors.

Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training

The authors evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Thompson, R. H. (2001). Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(1), 17-38.

Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior.

This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting.

Haydon, T. & Kroeger, S. D. (2016). Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.977213

Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study.

Teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion while teaching in classrooms with too much student misbehavior. This situation created a negative learning environment in which the teachers were not able to complete their lesson plans on a daily basis. Fortunately, a simple strategy was used to effectively respond to these challenging behaviors.

Haydon, T., & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior-specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior20(2).

A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. 

Hollingshead, A., Kroeger, S. D., Altus, J., & Trytten, J. B. (2016). A case study of positive behavior supports-based interventions in a seventh-grade urban classroom. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth60(4), 1-8.

The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behavior in four British secondary school classes

Four secondary school teachers were systematically observed teaching four different classes. Measures of class on‐task behaviour and teacher use of praise and reprimand were made during each observation session. 

Houghton, S., Wheldall, K., Jukes, R. O. D., & Sharpe, A. (1990). The effects of limited private reprimands and increased private praise on classroom behaviour in four British secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology60(3), 255-265.

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). 

Kamps, D., Wills, H. P., Heitzman-Powell, L., Laylin, J., Szoke, C., Petrillo, T., & Culey, A. (2011). Class-wide function-related intervention teams: Effects of group contingency programs in urban classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions13(3), 154-167.supp

Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention

This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator—an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention—as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. 

Kowalewicz, E. A., & Coffee, G. (2014). Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. School Psychology Quarterly29(2), 138.

A comparison of the mystery motivator and the Get 'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors

This study examined the impact of two class‐wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and Get 'Em On Task interventions were implemented in an alternating treatments design with fifth grade participants to decrease off‐task behaviors.

Kraemer, E. E., Davies, S. C., Arndt, K. J., & Hunley, S. (2012). A comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the Get'Em On Task interventions for off‐task behaviors. Psychology in the Schools49(2), 163-175.

Self‐recording of attention versus productivity

The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.

Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis22(3), 315-32

Mystery Motivator as an Intervention to Promote Homework Completion and Accuracy

This study investigated the effectiveness of the mystery motivator intervention as a means to remediate mathematics homework accuracy and completion problems in five fifth-grade students.

Madaus, M. M., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International24(4), 369-377.

Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching

The authors show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops. 

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Ascd.

Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition from Middle School to High School

Given the increased risk factors in the transition from middle school to high school, this study tracked academic and school discipline records for students receiving general and special education services as they transitioned from Grade 8 to Grade 9

McIntosh, K., Brigid Flannery, K., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(4), 243-255.

Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success.

This article describes a step-by-step process for using active supervision, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article we offer lessons from the field featuring the perspectives of practitioners who have used active supervision in classrooms that include students with challenging behavior.

Menzies, H. M., Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Ruth, K., Cantwell, E. D., & Smith-Menzies, L. (2018). Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success. Beyond Behavior, 27(3), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074295618799343

 
Self-recording With Goal Setting: a self-management programme for the classroom

A within-subjects multiple baseline across subjects design was employed to assess the effects of a self-management intervention involving self-recording and goal setting on the academic behaviour of three Year 4 (8-year-old) boys during language (poetry and story writing) lessons

Moore, D. W., Prebble, S., Robertson, J., Waetford, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Self-recording with goal setting: A self-management programme for the classroom. Educational Psychology21(3), 255-265.

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures

Nolan, J. D., Houlihan, D., Wanzek, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2014). The Good Behavior Game: A classroom-behavior intervention effective across cultures. School Psychology International35(2), 191-205.

Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication.

The present report evaluates the accuracy of a reinforcer survey by comparing the survey results to the results of subsequent reinforcer assessments for 20 children using a concurrent-operants arrangement to assess relative reinforcer preference.

Northup, J. (2000). Further evaluation of the accuracy of reinforcer surveys: A systematic replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 335-338.syste

Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities

This research evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback
for maintaining direct‐service staff members' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities.

Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1995). Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(3), 317-322.

Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards.

This study sought to compare the differential effects of using student-selected rewards and mystery rewards while implementing the Mystery Motivator. Three elementary classes participated in the study. 

Robichaux, N. M., & Gresham, F. M. (2014). Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards. School Psychology Review43(3).

The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach.

A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) and students’ school engagement and achievement.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4)493–592. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793

 

A Systematic Review of Teacher-Delivered Behavior-Specific Praise on K–12 Student Performance

The authors conducted a systematic literature review to explore this low-intensity, teacher-delivered strategy, applying Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) quality indicators and standards to determine whether BSP can be considered an evidence-based practice (EBP).

Royer, D. J., Lane, K. L., Dunlap, K. D., & Ennis, R. P. (2019). A systematic review of teacher-delivered behavior-specific praise on K–12 student performance. Remedial and Special Education40(2), 112-128.

Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education

This study examined the effects of active supervision on the moderate to vigorous physical
activity (MVPA) levels of middle school students during fitness instruction.

Schuldheisz, J. M., & van der Mars, H. (2001). Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(1)75–90.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors.

In the current study, a withdrawal design was used to investigate a corollary system. Fourth-grade students were trained to observe and report peers’ prosocial behaviors (i.e., tootle), and interdependent group contingencies and public posting were used to reinforce those reports.

SkINNER, C. H., CASHwELL, T. H., & SkINNER, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.

Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

School-Wide Behavioral Support: Starting the Year Off Right

Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8).

Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., ... & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education7(1), 99-112.

The Good Behavior Game: 1969-2002

This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. I

Tingstrom, D. H., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Wilczynski, S. M. (2006). The good behavior game: 1969-2002. Behavior modification30(2), 225-253.

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

The U.S. Department of Education (ED) is issuing this resource guide to assist states, school districts, charter school operators, school staff, parents, students, and other stakeholders who are seeking to develop school climate and school discipline policies and practices that are both locally tailored and grounded in recognized promising practices and research. ED's

U. S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/guiding-principles.pdf.school cli

 
Effects of Specific Verbal Praise on Off-Task Behavior of Second-Grade Students in Physical Education

The effects of specific verbal praise by an experienced male physical education specialist on the off-task behavior of three second-grade students were studied.

Van der Mars, H. (1989). Effects of specific verbal praise on off-task behavior of second-grade students in physical education. Journal of teaching in Physical Education8(2), 162-169.

The effects of explicit timing on math performance.

The present experiment examined the effects on math performance of explicitly timing student for short intervals

Van Houten, R., & Thompson, C. (1976). The effects of explicit timing on math performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 227–230. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-227

 

The Effects of a Class-wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom

Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders42(1), 285-293.

Improving Behavior through Differential Reinforcement: A Praise Note System for Elementary School Students

This study had two primary purposes: first, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. 

Wheatley, R. K., West, R. P., Charlton, C. T., Sanders, R. B., Smith, T. G., & Taylor, M. J. (2009). Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: A praise note system for elementary school students. Education and treatment of children32(4), 551-571.

A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out

This systematic review synthesizes the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. 

Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., & Ross, S. W. (2016). A systematic review of the empirical support for check-in check-out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions18(2), 74-88.

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