Education Drivers

Subject Practice Elements

An evidence-based education model is designed to provide teachers, administrators, and decision makers with practice options that offer the greatest likelihood of success. In an evidence-based model, educators interpret research on a continuum of evidence to determine if the conclusions exceed the threshold required for making smart choices. Despite significant progress in creating a robust knowledge base, much remains to be studied, forcing educators to make decisions based on limited evidence. Fortunately, most practices and commercial curricula consist of combinations of discrete elements. These practice elements are fundamental units, thoroughly vetted, and frequently used in practices and curricula required for success in a specific discipline or subject. Ample evidence supports practice elements in reading, mathematics, and other subjects. For example, in reading the practice elements identified by the National Reading Panel include phonemic awareness, phonics instruction, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. When selecting a reading curriculum for a school or classroom, educators must analyze the material to ascertain if it is constructed of these elements.

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement?

This analysis compares the effectiveness of differing approaches to teaching science.

States, J. (2013). Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from which-approaches-teaching-science944.

Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance?
This analysis examined the relationship between the number of pages students read and improved reading performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Reading Practice Correspond With Improved Reading Performance? Retrieved from does-reading-practice-correspond.
How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading?
This review lookes at teacher pre-service efforts to provide comprehensive instruction in the 5 critical practice elements identified for effective reading instruction.
States, J. (2011). How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading? Retrieved from how-effective-are-teacher.
What are the most effective ways for teachers to teach reading?
This analysis examines the critical practice elements for effective teaching of reading. The piece also looks at practices that have been shown to be less effective.
States, J. (2011). What are the most effective ways for teachers to teach reading? Retrieved from what-are-most-effective.
What does science tell us about teaching reading?
This review examines the evidence that identifies the critical practice elements for effective reading instruction.
States, J. (2011). What does science tell us about teaching reading? Retrieved from what-does-science-tell.
What Is the Effect of Formative Evaluation on Student Achievement?
This review examines the effect size of the practice elements that comprise formative assessment.
States, J. (2011). What Is the Effect of Formative Evaluation on Student Achievement? Retrieved from what-is-effect-of869.
What are the components of effective mathematics instruction?
This analysis looks at a practice guide from The What Works Clearing House that provides practitioners with essential practice elements for effective instruction in mathematics.
States, J. (2012). What are the components of effective mathematics instruction? Retrieved from what-are-components-of.
Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement?
This review looks at research on how to effectively teach science.
States, J. (2014). Which approaches to teaching science have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from which-approaches-teaching-science914.
Does suspension impact student achievement and dropout rates?
The inquiry examines the impact of different forms of student suspension on student achievement and student drop out rates.
States, J. (2015). Does suspension impact student achievement and dropout rates? Retrieved from does-suspension-impact-student.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. They compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers.

Cantrell, S., Fullerton, J., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (No. w14608). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Strategies for Teaching Writing: An ASCD Action Tool

This book provides strategies for teaching writing. It provides a step-by-step approach to teaching the writing process. The tools include complete how-to-use instructions, suggestions, classroom examples and cross-curricular activities.

Caswell, R., & Mahler, B. (2004). Strategies for teaching writing. ASCD.

 

Learning to be learning disabled.

Argues that learning disabled (LD) children in reading, writing, and spelling are inadequately distinguishable from low-achieving children, based on behavioral evidence, achievement batteries, or tests of organic functioning.

Clay, M. M. (1987). Learning to be learning disabled. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies.

Examining the Impact of Inference Instruction on the Literal and Inferential Comprehension of Skilled and Less Skilled Readers: A Meta-Analytic Review.

This research suggests a strong relationship between inference generation and reading comprehension. The study finds inference instruction was effective for increasing general comprehension (d 0.58), inferential comprehension (d 0.68), and literal comprehension (d 0.28).

Elleman, A. M. (2017). Examining the Impact of Inference Instruction on the Literal and Inferential Comprehension of Skilled and Less Skilled Readers: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Educational Psychology

Teaching needy kids in our backward system: 42 years of trying

This study designed to discover which models were superior in teaching basic skills and which excelled in teaching higher-order thinking skills, also which models had kids with the strongest sense of personal responsibility and which kids had the highest self-images.

Engelmann, S. (2007). Teaching needy kids in our backward system: 42 years of trying. ADI Press.

Could John Stuart Mill have saved our schools

This book compares what actually occurred since publication of A System of Logic with some of the more probable scenarios of what could have happened if education had been framed as a science that resides on a logical-empirical base.

Englemann, S., & Carnine, D. (2016). Could John Stuart Mill have saved our schools?. Attainment Company Inc.

The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: Ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research.

This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.

Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society7(2), 246-259.

Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and the foundation of education.

Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers. 

Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) guide recommends practices to be in the repertoire of mathematics instructors for maximizing the effectiveness of mathematics instruction.

Gersten, R., Beckman S., Clarke B., Foegen A., Marsh L., Star J., and Witzel B. (2009). Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools (NCEE 2009-4060) Washington D.C.: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Effect of feedback and remediation on students' achievement in junior secondary school mathematics

This study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics.

James, A.O. & Folorunso, A.M. (2012). Effect of feedback and remediation on students' achievement in junior secondary school mathematics. International Education Studies, 5(5), 153-162.

Critical Conceptual and Methodological Considerations in Reading Intervention Research

This article identifies a number of conceptual and methodological issues that should be considered when conducting and interpreting reading intervention research.

Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of learning disabilities30(6), 578-588.

Escalante: The best teacher in America

Jaime Escalante is an outstanding example of excellence and dedication. This is the story of his entire career, including the development of the teaching techniques that got such brilliant results from the desperate students of gang-ridden Garfield High in East Los Angeles.

Mathews, J. (1989) Escalante: The best teacher in America. New York:Henry Hold and Co

This study is a meta-analysis to identify the subject matter practice elements required to effectively teach reading to children

This study is a meta-analysis to identify the subject matter practice elements required to effectively teach reading to children

National Reading Panel (US), National Institute of Child Health, & Human Development (US). (2000). Report of the national reading panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.

The Effect of Linguistic Comprehension Training on Language and Reading Comprehension

This review considers whether language-supportive programs are effective. The research aims to examine the immediate and long-run effects of such programs on generalized measures of linguistic comprehension and reading comprehension.

Rogde, K., Hagen, Å. M., Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2019). The Effect of Linguistic Comprehension Training on Language and Reading Comprehension: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

A conceptual model for evaluating system effects of response to intervention

This paper will describe a set of five measure-able indicators from three domains of evaluation that schools can use to obtain frequent feedback on the impact of their RTI system on reading instruction and achievement. 

Shapiro, E. S., & Clemens, N. H. (2009). A conceptual model for evaluating system effects of response to intervention. Assessment for Effective Intervention35(1), 3-16.

Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to
improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction
(CAI), and instructional process programs.

Slavin, R. E., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of educational research78(3), 427-515.

Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief.

This paper pointed out three prominent points of impact in addressing the poor performance of America’s fourth-graders on national examinations of reading proficiency. 

Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom.

In this book the author describes six teaching myths that prevent reform in education. 

Snider, V. (2006). Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706.

Research on instructional strategies for teaching science

This research synthesis of is a comprehensive examination new and emerging research perspectives for the effective teaching of science. The volume is organized around six themes: theory and methods of science education research; science learning; culture, gender, and society and science learning; science teaching; curriculum and assessment in science; science teacher education.

 

Tobin, K., Tippins, D. J., & Gallard, A. J. (1994). Research on instructional strategies for teaching science. Handbook of research on science teaching and learning, 45, 93.

Individual Differences in Response to Early Interventions in Reading: The Lingering Problem of Treatment Resisters

Five recent studies of methods to prevent reading difficulties were examined in light of the goal that every child should acquire adequate word reading skills during early elementary school. 

Torgesen, J. K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice15(1), 55-64.

Phonological Coding, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Ability: Evidence from a Longitudinal and Experimental Study

Two studies are reported that provide correlational and experimental evidence for causal relationships between linguistic coding deficits and reading disability.

Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological awareness, and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 321-363.

What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what Elementary teachers aren't learning.

In this study, the National Council on Teacher Quality makes a unique effort to learn what aspiring teachers are taught about reading instruction. 

Walsh, K., Glaser, D., & Wilcox, D. D. (2006). What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what Elementary teachers aren't learning. National Council on Teacher Quality.

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