Education Drivers

Soft Skills (Executive Functioning)

A teacher’s success is predicated on effective mastery of two requisite skill categories: technical competencies and personal competencies (soft skills). Technical skills are the specific skills and factual knowledge intrinsic to a specific job. Technical competencies elemental to teaching include instruction, assessment, and classroom management. Personal competencies, on the other hand, are skills broadly applicable to almost all professions; they create the foundation that enables a person to effectively use technical skills. Personal competencies basic to teaching include high expectations, love of learning, active listening, ability to adapt to novel situations, empathy, cultural sensitivity, positive regard for students, and good time management. Personal competency research shows large effect sizes, ranging from 0.72 to 0.87, for effective teacher-student relations that increase student academic performance and improve classroom climate. Unfortunately, teacher preparation and on-the-job staff development neglect this important training. To remedy the situation, more research is required to better define the field of personal competencies, and expanded training, including coaching, must be adopted during pre-service and induction.

Teacher Soft Skills (Executive Functioning Skills) Overview

Teacher Soft Skills PDF

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

Table of Contents

  1. Communicating high expectations
  2. Communicating clearly
  3. Instilling a love of learning or motivating students
  4. Persevering
  5. Adapting to novel situations
  6. Showing empathy and cultural sensitivity
  7. Being an effective problem solver
  8. Working well with others and being a member of a team
  9. Managing time and personal productivity

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school (Laker & Powell, 2011; Schulz, 2008). Key technical competencies for teachers include instruction, assessment, and classroom management. Commonly cited technical competencies for school principals include budget administration, organizational management, and knowledge of effective teaching skills (Hattie, 2009; Heckman & Kautz, 2012; Whitehurst, 2016). Soft skills, in contrast, are skills broadly applied across all the disciplines in school (Matteson, Anderson, & Boyden, 2016). Communicating high expectations, instilling a love of learning, persevering, adapting to novel situations, conveying empathy, demonstrating cultural sensitivity, being an effective problem solver, working well with others, and efficiently managing time are attributes often linked to teachers who are effective in the classroom (Hattie, 2009). Soft skills associated with being an effective school principal are generally the same, with the addition of skills such as organizational management, assertive communication, and leadership (Horng, Klasik, & Loeb, 2010; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). Other soft skills central to a principal’s success are the ability to prioritize demands on his or her time to accomplish critical tasks and maintaining a calm, unflappable temperament under pressure. These skills are important for the success of both teachers and principals. These same skills have been identified in the professional development literature as central to success across the spectrum of occupations and human endeavors (Robles, 2012).For the purposes of this overview, the focus will be on teacher soft skills.

Technical competencies in education are job-specific technical skills and indispensable knowledge core to teacher training curricula and imbedded in standards required for professional licensing (States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2012). The existing educational research is filled with evidence supporting technical competencies specific to teaching (States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2017).In spite of the substantial body of research supporting technical competencies, anecdotal reports abound of teachers proficient in technical competencies failing on the job because they lacked essential soft skills (Davis, 1998; Wragg, Haynes, Wragg, & Chamberlin, 2005). In 2015, Pew Research Center asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?” Those surveyed listed communication skills as the most important, followed by reading, math, teamwork, writing, and logic (Goo, 2015). Two soft skills (communication and teamwork) made it into the top 10 list of skills suggesting that, in the general public’s opinion, some soft skills are highly valued as necessary for success.

To better understand the causal relationship between soft skills and student success, it is important to examine both the quality and quantity of evidence for a link between teacher soft skills and student outcomes. With this information, policymakers can more confidently commit to expending the necessary time and money on soft skill training and to developing a working curricula for teacher preparation pre-service and for in-service training.

What Does the Research Tell Us About Teacher Soft Skills?

At the heart of teacher soft skills is the relationship that teachers develop with their students. Large effect sizes ranging from 0.72 to 0.87 have been reported for the impact of positive teacher-student relations on student achievement (Cornelius-White, 2007; Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2003). Enhanced teacher-student relations likewise have improved the classroom climate and reduced disruptive student behavior, resulting in an effect size of 0.52 (Hattie, 2009). If we are to discover what is essential in establishing positive student relations, it is necessary to empirically identify the specific skill sets that contribute to a positive teacher-student relationship that results in student success.

What the Research Says About Specific Soft Skills

  1. Communicating High Expectations

Either consciously or unconsciously, teachers form expectations about a student’s abilities or skills that impact the student’s achievement (Rubie, 2004; Rubie-Davies, 2006). The primary question is, Do teacher expectations have an impact on student achievement?Research attempting to answer this question goes back more than 40 years. A meta-analysis by Rosenthal and Rubin in 1978 established an effect size of 0.70 for self-fulfilling prophecies. The study found that teachers were more likely having them meet expectations regardless of the accuracy of these expectations based on student past history. Harris and Rosenthal, in a 1985 meta-analysis, reported an effect size of 0.26 supporting student sex, age, and ethnicity as the most important factors in influencing ateacher’s expectations about how a student will perform. In a 1980 study, Smith reported that when teachers were provided data outlining a student’s abilities, the teacher reliably rated ability, achievement, and behavior according to the label that was provided.

Other factors influencing teacher expectations found a 0.30 effect size for student physical attractiveness affecting performance (Dusek & Joseph, 1983). A study in Switzerland found that when achievement levels were identical, evaluators would place students labeled as having a lower socioeconomic status (SES) in a lower track and students labeled with a higher SES in a higher track (Batruch, Autin, Bataillard, & Butera, 2018).Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Lipsey, and Roberts (2002) found an effect size of -0.61 when teachers were given a label for a student having a disability in reading as opposed to when no label was provided the teacher. Rubie-Davies, Hattie, and Hamilton (2006) found that negative expectations influenced a teacher’s expectations beyond one student and generalized to lower expectations for the entire classroom. Hattie (2009) found an overall 0.43 effect size for a teacher’s positive expectations about student achievement.

In summary, there is evidence that teacher expectations can influence student achievement. This research suggests that teachers need to be trained in emphasizing high expectations for students, and they need further training in how to identify implicit biases that can have a negative impact on student performance.

  1. Communicating Clearly

Anecdotally, teachers spend much of the day communicating with students through talking. Research on effective verbal communication suggests that clearly communicated lessons along with explicitly announced expectations have a positive impact on student performance (Fendick, 1990). In education, clarity has been defined as the methods by which teachers and principals effectively communicate expectations and instruction through verbal and nonverbal messaging (Chesebro & McCrosky 1998). It is how teachers facilitate the intended lesson using a precise selection of terms and the way they organize the presentation of the content; they offer examples to support the intended lesson, provide guided practice, and then assess the effectiveness of the instruction by sampling student learning (Fendick, 1990).

A meta-analysis examining the impact ofteacher clarity on student achievement gains found an effect size of 0.35 (Fendick, 1990). When teachers are not clear, students can become anxious and frustrated, and their acquisition of material and skills is reduced (Chesebro & McCrosky, 1998). Hattie (2009) reported a 0.75 effect size for teacher clarity on achievement. It is not surprising that vaguely communicated lessons produce poorer results and that explicit, clear instruction benefits learning. To maximize the impact of clarity of communication that benefits students, teacher and principal preparation programs need to incorporate these skills into their curricula.

  1. Instilling a Love of Learning or Motivating Students

Motivating students to enjoy learning is essential if the primary goal of education is to prepare students for success in life. Having a positive teacher-student relationship is an important ingredient in effective teaching (Marzano et al., 2003). A meta-analysis of six studies found that motivation had an effect size of 0.48 on student achievement (Hattie, 2009). As a rule, teachers should maintain a ratio of four or five positive interactions for every negative interaction if they are to sustain a positive relationship with students (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009; Gottman, 1994; Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007).

Students who are motivated tend to excel and, conversely, students who are not motivated perform more poorly (Hattie, 2009; Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992). Fundamentally, we can infer students are motivated when they engage in an activityand they are unmotivated when they avoid or escape the activity. Student motivation in a subject is highest when students are competent, have autonomy to act, and receive affirmation for having successfully accomplished a task (Dörnyei, 2001). Motivation is low when students have insufficient knowledge or the skills to successfully complete the task assigned to them (Hattie, 2009). Students who consistently fail, encounter public embarrassment, or do notexperience positive acknowledgment for their efforts will most likely not develop a long-term interest in the subject area. It is imperative that teachers find ways to build positive relationships with students to motivate them to be successful.

The value of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been debated for more than 50 years (Deci, 1971; Skinner, 1953). By 1970, hundreds of studies within the operant tradition established that extrinsic rewards can influence behavior. Still, many have argued that extrinsic reinforcement has a negative impact on student development. Some have even described extrinsic reinforcement strategies as bribery (Kohn, 1993). Despite this clash, ample data in the fields of psychology and economics since the 1960s support the use of external contingencies (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Lazear 2000). Although studies show mixed results, there is evidence that extrinsic motivation not only is not harmful but, when used appropriately, can increase intrinsic motivation (Cameron & Pierce, 1996; Eisenberger & Cameron, 1996). A 1992 meta-analysis on extrinsic motivation suggested that in many of the reviewed studies, the procedures were poorly operationalized (Wiersma, 1992). This is important as the outcome of a study depends on the specificity of the intervention’s procedures as well as how effectively the intervention is implemented. It is not surprising that vaguely defined interventions produce ambiguous results. In education, it is common to see very different practices promoted under the same label, resulting in confusion about the power of the intervention to produce positive outcomes for students (Wing Institute: Charter Schools; Wing Institute Paper: Induction).

Ultimately, teachers are mandated to work with all students, even those who are not excited or inspired. Not all students are equally motivated by the subjects mandated in education standards. To be successful, teachers need evidence-based methods to engage these students. Building a positive teacher-student relationship is a powerful first step. Using an external reinforcer is a practical and efficient next option for strengthening the relationship and boosting student motivation. Best practices indicate that extrinsic reinforcement programs should be time limited, with the goal of scaling back tangible reinforcement (awards, activities, stickers, token economy, edibles, etc.), and moving to social praise as students achieve success (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987).

  1. Persevering

Being successful in most endeavors requires persistence. Failure is commonin life. Distractions are inevitable. Everyone must experience and effectively adjust to challenges and frustrations to thrive. The Oxford Dictionary defines perseverance as steadfastness and resilience in doing something despite difficulty or delay in achieving success. It means staying with the task and not giving up. Being persistent in elementary schooland high schoolstrongly correlates with post-secondary education and a person’s occupation and income level after leaving school (Choy, 2002; Laube, 1992). Although few studies on the subject of teacher perseverance exist, there is research on practices that teachers can use to increase student persistence.  (How can teachers increase student perseverance?)

  1. Adapting to Novel Situations

The classroom is a very dynamic environment. It has been widely quoted that teachers make between 1,200 and 1,500 decisions a day (Jackson, 1990). The majority of the issues requiring decisions are unplanned and unpredictable, requiring teachers to use their judgment based on training, available evidence, and experience.Teacher decisions entail responding to student questions, managing student behavior, responding to administration requests, adjusting to changes in the schedule, addressing safety issues, ensuring that choices are compliant with policies and regulations, and managing countless miscellaneous student matters.

Only on rare occasions does the available evidence perfectly match the service context of concern. To bridge the gap between research and local circumstances, the educator must make a series of judgments such as defining the problem, determining which evidence is relevant, and deciding which features of the local context are likely to require adaptations to the selected evidence-based intervention (Spencer, Detrich, & Slocum, 2012). The end result is that teachers must think on their feet, be flexible, and adjust planning and lessons to meet the often changing and unique needs of students. One of the most common teaching failures is an overreliance on academic and behavior management interventions and an underreliance on adjusting to and managing interventions to meet the needs of the moment (VanDerHeyden, 2013;VanDerHeyden & Harvey, 2013).

Recognizing the complex character of schools requires teachers to be adaptable to the demands of the moment. Planning is indispensable, but knowing how to adjust to the unexpected is essential to survival as an educator as well as necessary for making informed choices based on the best available evidence (Spencer et al., 2012). Dwight D. Eisenhower said, “Plans are worthless but planning is everything”(Eisenhower, 1957).This has relevance to educators, who must have a plan, but the fluid nature of the classroom also requires them to be flexible and prepared to adapt to the inevitable challenges of each new day.

  1. Showing Empathy and Cultural Sensitivity

An empathic disposition is considered a desirable trait in educators. Empathy is also linked to the effectiveness of teachers working in diverse settings with students of differing cultural backgrounds (McAllister & Irvine, 2002). Being able to recognize and comprehend the feelings of another is at the heart of empathy.Behaving empathetically is taking the perspective of another. This is important in an ethnically and culturally diverse society in which teachers must look beyond their own cultural values to effectively understand and respond to the perspectives of a diverse study body (Gay, 2000). For over 50 years, key education performance data including achievement scores, graduation rates, special education placement, school discipline, and juvenile justice consistently have reported lower outcomes for students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Differences between home and school cultures likely have contributed to these outcomes (Sugai, O’Keeffe, & Fallon, 2012).

Being culturally responsive can mollify this picture. This requires incorporatingcultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students (Gay, 2002). When knowledge and skills being taught are positioned within the experiences of a student, instruction become more meaningful, relevant, and interesting, and hence students are more motivated to excel and achieve (Gay, 2002). Because culture strongly influences the attitudes, values, and behaviors that students and teachers bring to the instructional process, being culturally sensitive has a major role in bridging the tenacious achievement gap for students from ethnic, socioeconomic, and racial populations that differ from the Eurocentric culture that predominates within the United States (García, 1999; Lipka, Mohatt, & the Ciulisetet Group, 1998; Moses & Cobb, 2001). Discrimination is deeply embedded in U.S. culture. It is present in the labor market, in policing, in the courts, and in education (Bertrand, Chugh, & Mullainathan, 2005; Greenwald, & Krieger, 2006; Jost et al., 2009; Levinson, 2007; Quillian, Pager, Hexel, & Midtbøen, 2017). Explicit and implicit ethnic, racial, and cultural biases affect the way students are taught.

Teacher preparation programs must actively increase the diversity of applicants and graduating teachers (Holinside, 2017). Teacher preparation programs must train teachers in curricula and instructional strategies that will address racial, ethnic, and cultural issues. Lessons must be developed to include culturally relevant examples and context when teachers are implementing prescribed curricula and developing teacher developed lessons (Ladson-Billings, 1995). It is important to increase teacher knowledge of the diversity of cultures they will encounter in the classroom. Teachers should be trained to have high expectations for all students. They should be instructed in the impacts of bias; in how to build a classroom climate that is conducive to and supports a culturally diverse student population; and in methods for opening cross-cultural communication among students. This type of teacher preparation requires knowledge of the specific cultures of ethnic groups, how these cultural values impact learning, and how to adjust curriculum and instruction in a way that respects and values our differences as people (Gay, 2002). School recruitment and hiring practices should be designed to identify and avoid candidates who are explicitly biased. Finally, a combination of strategies available for teacher pre-service and in-service training are designed to mitigate the impact of implicit and explicit bias. These include stereotype replacement, counterstereotype imaging, individualization, perspective taking, increasing opportunities for positive engagement of people outside the teacher’s culture, and feedback when bias is observed (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012).

  1. Being an Effective Problem Solver

Being an effective problem solver is viewed as an important skill set across many professions (Snyder & Snyder, 2008).Having a mastery of problem solving has been identified as best practice for school psychologists (Deno, 1995; Thomas & Grimes, 1995). Problem solving is seen as fundamental to building effective evidence-based practices in schools (Tilly, 2008).Response to Intervention (RtI), an education decision-making framework, has been described as "synonymous with problem solving" (Fuchs, Fuchs, et al., 2003).

Teaching is awash with opportunities for teachers to solve problems.Given the complex nature of the job and the need for teachers to make more than a thousand decisions a day, accomplishing the fundamental responsibilities of the profession requires effective problem solving. Two key problem-solving strategies are generally employed in schools: (1) problem solving independently managed by a teacher throughout the school day, and (2) problem solving conducted as a member of an interdisciplinary team (Vaccarello, 2012).

Over the years numerous models of problem solving have evolved. Although each model offers its own specific procedures and protocols, the underlying components are remarkably similar (Bartels & Mortenson, 2005; Fuchs, Mock, Morgan, & Young, 2003).Effective problem solving includes a collection of core practice components: defining the problem, reading and interpreting data, establishing the cause of the problem, identifying possible solutions, assessing the viability of solutions, examining possible unintended consequences associated with possible solutions, designing effective implementation plans, and evaluating a solution’s impact on solving the problem (Hattie, 2009).

Notwithstanding general agreement on what constitutes effective problem solving, there is a dearth of research supporting the acceptance of including problem-solving training in teacher preparation curricula[C2] or for systematic in-service training in the field. Preliminary research has shown promising outcomes of professional development in improving problem-solving effectiveness, but little evidence exists that schools are spending adequate time and effort to establish practice components or to invest in problem-solving protocols, provide feedback and coaching to teachers, and assess the implementation of teacher or team-based problem-solving solutions (Burns, Peters, & Noell, 2008; Lundahl, 2010). Establishing such systems is one the most effective ways to increase teacher problem-solving skills required to address the academic, behavioral, and social-emotional challenges of students.

  1. Working Well With Others and Being a Member of a Team

Teams are not a new phenomenon; they have been in use for over 2,000 years and have been a basic building block of military organizations (Shuffler, Pavlas, & Salas, 2012). Shuffler et al. found that when utilized in the military, teams have shown importance in accomplishing challenging goals, developing solutions to vexing problems, and overcoming obstacles to achieving critical missions. In business, teams have been shown to increase both quality and productivity (Daniels & Whitener, 2000; Rummler & Brache, 2012). Teams have been used extensively in the field of medicine to improve patient outcomes (Kozlowski, & Bell, 2003; Meltzer, et al., 2010). Research on team effectiveness in various fields has found an overall positive effect in improving performance outcomes and staff attitudes (Richter, Dawson, & West, 2011; Mathieu, Maynard, Rapp, & Gilson, 2008).An abundance of research has found a positive effect for teams on various outcomes; however, most of these studies have come from outside the field of education (Clark, 2003; Delise, Allen Gorman, Brooks, Rentsch, & Steele‐Johnson, 2010; Devine & Phillips, 2000; Gully, Incalcaterra, Joshi, & Beaubien, 2002;Salas, Stagl, and Burke, 2004; Webber & Donahue, 2001).Although fewer studies have been education based, a sufficient body of research exists to suggest that teams can be an effective strategy for accomplishing critical educational goals (Gully et al., 2002; Joshi & Jackson, 2003).

A team is defined as a minimum of two people who interact with one another in an interdependent and adaptive manner to reach a common goal (Salas, Dickinson, Converse, & Tannenbaum, 1992). The use of teams in education has expanded over the past 30 years (Somech, 2008), offering educators a tool with the capacity to accomplish certain tasks more efficiently and effectively than could be achieved by an individual(Chen, Kirkman, Kanfer, Allen, & Rosen, 2007; Wayman, Midgley, & Stringfield, 2006). Teams offer advantages by increasing member motivation, coordinating efforts toward a common goal, increasing creativity by maximizing diverse viewpoints, bringing together expertise from different disciplines, and increasing the buy-in from staff required to implement new practices (Drury, 1984; Kozlowski, & Bell, 2003).

Teams perform many functions in schools and fall into two general categories: permanent teams and temporary teams. Permanent teams are established for specialized functions such as improving curricula or coordinating services for students in RtI. Temporary teams are organized for a particular short-term purpose and are meant to be dissolved when the task is accomplished, such as implementing a schoolwide behavior management system (Oswald, 1996). Other types of teams used in education are horizontal grade-level teams and vertical teams, which work across grade levels. A vertical team generally includes a teacher from each grade level as well as a special education teacher or other specialist teachers. A grade-level team is composed of teachers and other specialists required for accomplishing specific tasks associated with the effective operation of systems and practices common within a specific grade.

Effective teams that are sustainable do not happen by chance; they require planning, organization, and training of participants. Key to the successful implementation of teams in school systems is training in two critical areas: (1) team infrastructure and (2) critical interpersonal skills for individual team members. Teams require instruction in developing an infrastructure that specifies policies, processes, roles, and expectations to increase team efficiency and productivity(Delise et al., 2010). An effective infrastructure for a team requires a clear mission, a formal agreement, defined roles (leader, note taker, etc.), budgetary parameters, decision-making protocols, coherent and measurable goals, time lines for goal completion, assignment of personnel responsible for completing assignments, and systems for holding people accountable (Kozlowski & Bell, 2003). Essential interpersonal skills include clear and assertive communication, competence in conflict resolution, project management capabilities, and knowledge of social influence (persuasion) methods (Drury, 1984; Gibert, Tozer, & Westoby, 2017; Gillard, 2009; Salas, Tannenbaum, Cohen, & Latham, 2013).

In summary, teachers and education specialists working together can have a significant impact on the effective and efficient running of schools. Working as member of a team has been shown to have a medium effect size on student achievement (Eells, 2011).

      9. Managing time and personal productivity

Teachers commonly express concern about having insufficient time to do the job (Collinson & Fedoruk Cook, 2001; Dibbon, 2004).The difficulty of balancing long hours of teaching with personal time is another complaint voiced by teachers (Clandinin et al., 2015). Teachers often report that their profession is highly demanding and stressful (Byrne, 1994; Kyriacou, 1987). Long hours were found to be a contributing factor in the persistently high rates of teacher turnover (Keigher, 2010). Effective time management has been suggested as an important strategy for teachers to more effectively manage the responsibilities of teaching and increase job satisfaction (Hung, Oi, Chee, & Man, 2007).

Time management is the process by which individuals organize their time to more effectively accomplish tasks and goals (Schuler, 1979).Effective time management has been associated with increased job satisfaction, reduced burnout, reduced stress, and increased productivity (Peeters, & Rutte, 2005).The vast majority of research on time management has been conducted in the field of business. Few rigorous studies directly address teacher time management. A study of college students conducted by Ocak and Boyraz (2016)found a moderate correlation student procrastination and poor and ineffective time management. Another study of college students found that time management skills were the leading factor in increased grade point averages and the second leading factor in a student’s personal success (George, 2012).

Literature reviews on the topic generally classify time management skills and activities into seven categories: time analysis, planning, setting goals, prioritizing, scheduling, organizing, and establishing new and improved time habits (Claessens, Van Eerde, Rutte, & Roe, 2007; Hellsten, 2012; Morris, 2001; Woolfolk & Woolfolk, 1986). Crutsinger (1994) wrote that time management involved setting goals, deciding which tasks were the most important and determining which needed to be scheduled for a later time (prioritizing), accurately estimating the amount of time needed for each task (time estimation), being flexible and adjusting to unanticipated events that inevitably interrupt the best made plans (problem solving), monitoring one’s own performance and adapting goals and priorities as necessary (evaluation), and observing patterns and trends in behavior.

The first step in effectively managing time is for an individual to clearly know the following: what he or she needs to accomplish, what tasks are expected by supervisors, and when assignments are to completed (Soucie, 1986). From this information, the individual can devise a plan for allocating time to complete the tasks. One of the greatest challenges is keeping to the plan. It is essential that a teacher develop the necessary strategies to minimize the inevitable distractions that disrupt his or her schedule, interfering with goal completion and diverting time away from established priority goals. Becoming distracted from the task at hand causes time lines to be missed and increases stress (Peeters & Rutte, 2005; Soucie, 1986).A keyfactor in increasing effective time management is performance feedback. Teachers work within a system that includes teams they are assigned to and the school’s administrative staff. The school principal and team members are important sources for holding a teacher accountable for assigned goals and tasks. If individuals in the work environment do not view on-time task and goal completion as vital, it is very likely these activities will not happen or will not be completed on time.

Summary

Much has been written about the importance of soft skills. There is a substantial body of research to support the need for being proficient in the key soft skills discussed in this overview. These skills are personal competencies that are valuable across most professions, including teaching. Although there is a large body of research on the topic, much needs to be done to increase both the quantity and the quality of research on soft skills specifically in education. Still, given the need to effectively prepare teachers today, the best available evidence is sufficient to guide those developing a curriculain soft skills for teacher pre-service and in-service training. These skills should be taught to every teacher and should become a part of every teacher’s repertoire. 

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Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice18(3), 157–171.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology95(2), 306–315.

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Gillard, S. (2009). Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology6, 723–729.

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Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

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Joshi, A., & Jackson, S. E. (2003). Understanding work team diversity: Challenges and opportunities. In M. West, D. Tjosvold, & K. Smith (Eds.), The international handbook of organizational teamwork and cooperative working(pp. 277–296). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in Organizational Behavior29, 39–69.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 20–27.

Keigher, A. (2010). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 teacher follow-up survey (NCES 2010-353). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review,71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf

Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (Vol. 12): Industrial and Organizational Psychology(pp. 333–375). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational Research29(2), 146–152.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American educational research journal32(3), 465-491.

Laker, D. R., & Powell, J. L. (2011). The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(1), 111–122.

Laube, M. R. (1992). Academic and social integration variables and secondary student persistence in distance education. Research in Distance Education, 4(1), 2–9.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346–1361.

Levinson, J. D. (2007). Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decision-making, and misremembering. Duke Law Journal57, 345–424.

Lipka, J., & Mohatt, G. V., & the Ciulistet Group.(1998). Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples. Mahwah, NY: Erlbaum.

Lundahl, A. (2010). Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes(Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ERIC Digest (ED522466).

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997–2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of management34(3), 410–476.

Matteson, M. L., Anderson, L., & Boyden, C. (2016). “Soft Skills”: A phrase in search of meaning. Portal: Libraries and the Academy16(1), 71–88.

McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of Teacher Education53(5), 433–443.

Meltzer, D., Chung, J., Khalili, P., Marlow, E., Arora, V., Schumock, G., & Burt, R. (2010). Exploring the use of social network methods in designing healthcare quality improvement teams. Social Science & Medicine71(6), 1119–1130. 

Morris, P. W. (2001). Updating the project management bodies of knowledge. Project Management Journal32(3), 21–30.

Moses, R. P., & Cobb, C. E., Jr. (2001). Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights. Boston, MA: Beacon. 

Ocak, G., & Boyraz, S. (2016). Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies4(5), 76–84.

Oswald, L. J. (1996). Work teams in schools.ERIC Digest, Number 103.

Peeters, M. A., & Rutte, C. G. (2005). Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology10(1), 64–75.

Quillian, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(41), 10870–10875.

Richter, A. W., Dawson, J. F., & West, M. A. (2011). The effectiveness of teams in organizations: A meta-analysis.International Journal of Human Resource Management22(13), 2749–2769.

Robinson, V., Lloyd, C., & Rowe, K. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635–674.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

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Rubie, C. M. (2004). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland, New Zealand,database (UoA1207968).

Rubie‐Davies, C. M. (2006). Teacher expectations and student self‐perceptions: Exploring relationships. Psychology in the Schools43(5), 537–552.

Rubie‐Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology76(3), 429–444.

Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Salas, E., Dickinson, T. L., Converse, S.A., & Tannenbaum, S. I. (1992). Toward an understanding of team performance and training. In R. W. Swezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their training and performance(pp. 3–29), Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Salas, E., Stagl, K. C., & Burke, C. S. (2004). 25 years of team effectiveness in organizations: Research themes and emerging needs. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology19, 47–91. 

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S., Cohen, D., & Latham, G. (Eds.). (2013). Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines (Vol. 33). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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Schulz, B. (2008). The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge. Journal of Language and Communication, 2(1), 146–154.

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Spencer, T. D., Detrich, R., & Slocum, T. A. (2012). Evidence-based practice: A framework for making effective decisions. Education and Treatment of Children35(2), 127–151. 

States, J. Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. (2012). Effective teachers make a difference. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol2Ch1.pdf

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

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Vaccarello, C., A., (2012). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes(Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Cara%20Vaccarello%20Dissertation%20Final%20Deposit-1.pdf

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205–213.

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Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Are we making the differences that matter in education?

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, MB. (2011). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-mary-beth-celio.

Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field
This paper distills the research on effective teaching practices to basic assumptions and core practices. It presents a impact-cost paradigm for rating and prioritizing such practices.
Heward, W. (2013). Effective Teaching Practices: Narrowing the Field [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-william-heward.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.

Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement

This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented. 

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health74(7), 262-273.

Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples

This book share issues of equity and school transformation, and shows how one indigenous minority teachers' group engaged in a process of transforming schooling in their community. Documented in one small locale far-removed from mainstream America, the personal narratives by Yupík Eskimo teachers. 

 Lipka, J., & Ilutsik, E. (2014). Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup¡ k Eskimo Examples. Routledge.

The impact of communication factors on job satisfaction among Icelandic employees in the public sector

The main purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of communicative factors on job satisfaction and employee’s desired need for new ways of communicating.

Þorkelsson, J. The Impact of Communication Factors on Job Satisfaction Among Icelandic Employees in the Public Sector (Doctoral dissertation).

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis

This is a meta-analysis that examines teacher-student relations impact on student performance.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/1/113.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=sprer;77/1/113.

Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories

We analyze the relationship between inequality and economic growth from two directions. The first part of the survey examines the effect of inequality on growth. The second part analyzes several mechanisms whereby growth may increase wage inequality, both across and within education cohorts.

Aghion, P., Caroli, E., & Garcia-Penalosa, C. (1999). Inequality and economic growth: The perspective of the new growth theories. Journal of Economic literature37(4), 1615-1660.

Cultural Diversity and School Equity. A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

The main purpose of this research is to explore whether the proper strategies to deal with cultural diversity in school is being implemented, and to assess how cultural diversity is addressed in our school.

Aguado, T., Ballesteros, B., & Malik, B. (2003). Cultural diversity and school equity. A model to evaluate and develop educational practices in multicultural education contexts. Equity &Excellence in Education36(1), 50-63.

Distraction, privacy, and classroom design

Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored. 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior16(4), 437-454.

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system–secondary

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary.

Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher–student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.

Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching

This book gives special and general education teachers the tools to implement explicit instruction in any grade level or content area. The authors provide clear guidelines for identifying key concepts, skills, and routines to teach; designing and delivering effective lessons; and giving students opportunities to practice and master new material.

Archer, A., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Efficient and effective teaching. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

ACHIEVEMENT AND ENROLLMENT STATUS OF SUSPENDED STUDENTS: Outcomes in a Large, Multicultural School District

This article presents the results of longitudinal retrospective analyses on suspensions, achievement, and long-term enrollment status of students in a large, urban school district. Findings indicated that suspended students had substantially lower presuspension achievement than did students in the comparison group, gained considerably less academically throughout 3 years with suspensions, and had high drop-out rates.

Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education and Urban Society38(3), 359-369.

Improving Student Achievement by Extending School: Is It Just a Matter of Time?

This document explores ways in which time can be used as an education resource. It opens with an overview of studies that indicate that American students trail their counterparts in other leading industrialized nations in academic achievement. It discusses research on the relationship between time and learning.

 

Aronson, J., Zimmerman, J., & Carlos, L. (1999). Improving Student Achievement by Extending School: Is It Just a Matter of Time?.

Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand.

This research objective was to study soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. The data were collected from 60 purposive samples of new teachers by interviewing and questionnaires. The results of this study were informed that new teachers have all of soft skills at high level totally. Communicative skills were highest among seven of soft skills and next Life-long learning and information management skills, Critical and problem solving skills, Team work skills, Ethics, moral and professional skills, Leadership skills and Innovation invention and development skills were lowest in all skills. Based on the research findings obtained, the sub-skills of seven soft skills will be considered and utilized in the package of teacher development program of next research.

Attakorn, K., Tayut, T., Pisitthawat, K., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences112, 1010-1013.

 

Delayed reinforcement as an indiscriminable contingency in verbal/nonverbal correspondence training

The authors investigated the programming of generalization and maintenance of correspondence between verbal and nonverbal behavior in a preschool setting. Four children participated in a series of multiple‐baseline designs. In Experiment 1, delayed reinforcement of verbal behavior effectively controlled maintenance of correspondence with previously trained responses and also resulted in generalization of correspondence to one untrained response. As the latter effect was limited, Experiment 2 was a further assessment of the effects of delayed reinforcement of generalization of correspondence to untrained responses, and consistent generalization was shown. Experiment 2 also showed that generalization, if lost, could be recovered through use of “booster training,” in which the original contingencies were reinstated for a brief period. Experiment 3 provided replications, with two additional children, of the effects of delayed reinforcement on maintenance of correspondence. Results are discussed in terms of using delayed reinforcement as an indiscriminable contingency.

Baer, R. A., Williams, J. A., Osnes, P. G., & Stokes, T. F. (1984). Delayed reinforcement as an indiscriminable contingency in verbal/nonverbal correspondence training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17(4), 429-440.

The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school’s contribution to dropout and completion.

Using a structural perspective from organizational theory, the authors review aspects of schooling associated with dropout. They then briefly review selected reform initiatives that restructure the school environment to improve student achievement and retention.

Baker, J. A., Derrer, R. D., Davis, S. M., Dinklage-Travis, H. E., Linder, D. S., & Nicholson, M. D. (2001). The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school's contribution to dropout and completion. School psychology quarterly16(4), 406.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives

This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence41(3), 256-267.

Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach

This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.

Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.

School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities

Selection practices in education, such as tracking, may represent a structural obstacle that contributes to the social class achievement gap. The authors hypothesized that school’s function of selection leads evaluators to reproduce social inequalities in tracking decisions, even when performance is equal. 

Batruch, A., Autin, F., Bataillard, F., & Butera, F. (2018). School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167218791804.

A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades.

The later effects of the Direct Instruction Follow Through program were assessed at five diverse sites. Low-income fifth and sixth graders who had completed the full 3 years of this first- through third-grade program were tested on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (Intermediate level) and the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT).

Becker, W. C., & Gersten, R. (1982). A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction Model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal19(1), 75-92.

Implicit discrimination

What drives people to discriminate? Economists focus on two main reasons: "taste-based" and "statistical" discrimination. Motivated by a growing body of psychological evidence, the authors put forward a third interpretation: implicit discrimination. The authors argue that discrimination may be unintentional and outside of the discriminator's awareness.

Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review95(2), 94-98.

Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork.

This well-written book on assertiveness clearly describes the non assertive, assertive, and aggressive styles of supervision. Each chapter provides numerous examples, practice exercises, and self-tests. The author identifies feelings and beliefs that support aggressiveness, non aggressiveness, or non assertiveness which help the reader "look beyond the words themselves."

Black, M. K. (1991). Assertive Supervision-Building Involved Teamwork. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing22(5), 224-224.

Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice

This is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Human characteristics and school learning

This paper theorizes that variations in learning and the level of learning of students are determined by the students' learning histories and the quality of instruction they receive.

Bloom, B. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale

This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed.

Bolkan, S. (2017). Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education66(1), 19-36.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Research on Improving Teacher Time Management

The purpose of this action research was to explore how a new teacher could manage time while teaching third grade students.

Borek, J., & Parsons, S. (2004). Research on improving teacher time management. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(3), 27-31.

A review of the time management literature

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research.

Brigitte J.C. Claessens, Wendelien van Eerde, Christel G. Rutte, Robert A. Roe, (2007) "A review of the time management literature", Personnel Review, Vol. 36 Iss: 2, pp.255 – 276

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Parochial Empathy Predicts Reduced Altruism and the Endorsement of Passive Harm

This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern. 

Bruneau, E. G., Cikara, M., & Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science8(8), 934-942.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers

The study investigated the impact of organizational and personality factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one conceptual framework. 

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Educational Research Journal31(3), 645–673.

Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental stud- ies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. 

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational research, 64(3), 363-423.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.
 

In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.

Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

This paper describes a survey of teachers trained in Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA). The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues. 

Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

Direct Instruction Reading

This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English. 

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge

In this article, the author argues convincingly for a view of American's cultural diversity as a self-evident reality - one that must be effectively addressed by inservice and preservice teacher education programmes.

Carrington, V. (1999). Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy43(4), 386.

Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Buried Treasure: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data

This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.

Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Incentives Jointly Predict Performance: A 40-Year Meta-Analysis

More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance- salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k 􏰀 183, N 􏰀 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (􏰁 􏰀 .21– 45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a “crowding out” fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously.

Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 140(4), 980.

A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams

A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate-related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. 

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology92(2), 331–346.

 

The Development of The Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) to Measure Clear Teaching in The Classroom

This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity. 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The development of the teacher clarity short inventory (TCSI) to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports15(3), 262-266.

The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension

This study examined the impact of state receiver apprehension in the instructional context. Because of its negative relationship with information processing effectiveness, receiver apprehension is an experience which can act as a barrier to elective learning.

 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension. Communication Quarterly46(4), 446–456.

 

Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students

To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence. 

Choy, S. P. (2002). Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students.Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis.

 

Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a national summit on zero tolerance.

This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. 

Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research. The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress.

Claessens, B. J., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review36(2), 255–276.

Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning

This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual and contextual factors.

Clandinin, D. J., Long, J., Schaefer, L., Downey, C. A., Steeves, P., Pinnegar, E., ... & Wnuk, S. (2015). Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning. Teaching Education26(1), 1-16.

Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams

Solid evidence supports claims that motivational programs can increase the quality and quantity of performance from 20 to 40 percent. Motivation can solve three types of performance problems: 1) people are refusing to change; and/or 2) allowing themselves to be distracted and not persist at a key task; and/or 3) treating a novel task as familiar, making mistakes but not investing mental effort and taking responsibility because of overconfidence. After describing a number of general strategies for fostering individual motivation, the article focuses on the unique motivational issues faced by teams and how to overcome them.

Clark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement42(3), 21–29.

 

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

School climate and social-emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy.

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers’ perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers’ sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology104(4), 1189.

“I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change

This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information. The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC.

Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration39(3), 266–281.

Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.

The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures. 

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.

Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school

This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis.

The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research77(1), 113-143.

Educational time factors

The findings presented in this book are based on an analysis of 57 research studies concerned with the relationship between one or more of the educational time factors cited above and the student outcomes of achievement and attitudes. Twenty-nine are primary sources (studies or evaluations) and 28 are secondary source (reviews, syntheses, and meta-analyses).

Cotton, K., & Wikelund, K. (1990). Educational time factors. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

On the teachability of communication strategies.

This article describes what communication strategies are and provides an overview of the teachability issue, discussing the arguments for and against strategy instruction, and suggests three possible reasons for the existing controversy. 

Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL quarterly29(1), 55-85.

Motivational Strategies in the language classroom
This book is the first of its kind in the second/foreign language (L2) ®eldthat is entirely devoted to discussing
motivational strategies, that is, methods and techniques to generate and maintain the learners' motivation.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs

Few studies have examined factors relating to ineffective school leadership. Such knowledge can help principals refine leadership behaviors and enhance job security. This study used experiences and perceptions from 99 California public school superintendents to examine the reasons why some principals lose their jobs. 

Davis, S. H. (1998). Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs. Educational Administration Quarterly34(1), 58–90.

Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation

Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. 

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18,105–115.

The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis

A meta‐analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task‐based skill, objective task‐based skill, and teamwork skill.

Delise, L. A., Allen Gorman, C., Brooks, A. M., Rentsch, J. R., & Steele‐Johnson, D. (2010). The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis. Performance Improvement Quarterly22(4), 53–80.

School psychologist as problem solver

Deno, S. L. (1995). School psychologist as problem solver. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III(pp. 471–484). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Creating Healthy Schools: Ten Key Ideas for the Social and Emotional Learning and School Climate Community. The 10.

This brief evolved from a larger Robert Wood Johnson Foundation–funded project to examine the intersection of and alignment between social and emotional learning (SEL) and school climate.

Devaney, E., & Berg, J. (2016). Creating Healthy Schools: Ten Key Ideas for the Social and Emotional Learning and School Climate Community. The 10. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.

Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance

This study reports the results of several meta-analyses examining the relationship between four operational definitions of cognitive ability within teams (highest member score, lowest member score, mean score, standard deviation of scores) and team performance. 

Devine, D. J., & Phillips, J. L. (2000). Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

 

Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention

The authors developed a multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention to produce long-term reductions in implicit race bias. The intervention is based on the premise that implicit bias is like a habit that can be broken through a combination of awareness of implicit bias, concern about the effects of that bias, and the application of strategies to reduce bias.

Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(6), 1267–1278.

It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students

Studying teacher workload issues has become somewhat of a trend in recent years with studies having already been completed in most other Canadian provinces. The consistency in teacher workload across the country is remarkable (see Appendix 2), and many of the findings in this study are supported by research in other jurisdictions. However, this discussion of the findings will deal primarily with the issues in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Dibbon, D. C. (2004). It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students. St. John’s, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Implementation Quality: Lessons Learned in the Context of the Head Start REDI Trial

This study uses data collected in the intervention classrooms of Head Start REDI (Research- based, Developmentally Informed), a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a comprehensive preschool curriculum targeting children’s social-emotional competence, language, and emergent literacy skills delivered by teachers who received weekly coaching support.

Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Jones, D., Gill, S., & DeRousie, R. M. S. (2010). Implementation quality: Lessons learned in the context of the Head Start REDI trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly25(3), 284-298.

The bases of teacher experiences: A meta-analysis

Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. 

Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology75(3), 327.

Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement

This meta-analysis systematically synthesized results from 26 component studies, including dissertations and published articles, which reported at least one correlation between collective teacher efficacy and school achievement.

Eells, R. J. (2011). Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement.

Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?

An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that (a) detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; (b) mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and (c) positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory. 

Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist51(11), 1153.

Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?

Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction. 

Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education28(4), 291-329.

The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis

This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.

Fendick, F. (1992). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis.

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.

Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences between Low Achievers with and without the Label.

This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.

Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct.

The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then  review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 157-171.

Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis

In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.

Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies

The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (L. S. Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology95(2), 306–315.

Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited

Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations.  The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic44(4), 195-205.

Preparing for culturally responsive teaching.

In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.

Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education53(2), 106-116.

Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.

Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.

Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes

High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.

A practical application of time management

This chapter progresses four specific components of “a practical application of time management”.

George, D. (2012). A practical application of time management.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221928054_A_Practical_Application_of_Time_Management

Incentives in organizations

The author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. The author concludes by suggesting two avenues for further progress in agency theory: better integration with organizational economics, and cross-pollination with other fields that study organizations. 

Gibbons, R. (1998). Incentives in organizations. Journal of economic perspectives12(4), 115-132.

Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.

This paper provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on the authors own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. This paper also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.

Gibert, A., Tozer, W. C., & Westoby, M. (2017). Teamwork, soft skills, and research training. Trends in ecology & evolution32(2), 81-84.

Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement.

This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction. 

Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation1(2), 183-201.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers.

The article presents an overview of these tenets drawn from opinion positions, practical experiences, and empirical research studies. There is clear evidence that additional empirical research would be beneficial.

Gillard, S. (2009). Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers. Issues in informing science & information technology6.

When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.

This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.

Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives25(4), 191-210.

The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life.

Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”

Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.

Why marriages succeed or fail.

This breakthrough book guides you through a series of self-tests designed to help you determine what kind of marriage you have, where your strengths and weaknesses are, and what specific actions you can take to help your marriage.

Gottman, J., Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (1995). Why marriages succeed or fail: And how you can make yours last. Simon and Schuster.

Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers: A Practice Guide.

The report analyzes the evidence supporting those teaching methods commonly employed to increase student competency in becoming a fluent writer. The guide is for teachers, literacy coaches, principals, districts, and curriculum developers, and other educators.

Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Olson, C. B., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. (2012). Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers: A Practice Guide. NCEE 2012-4058. What Works Clearinghouse.

Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum

This study examined the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the emotional development of school-aged children. 

Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and psychopathology7(1), 117-136.

Implicit bias: Scientific foundations.

This Article introduces implicit bias-an aspect of the new science of unconscious mental processes that has substantial bearing on discrimination law.

Greenwald, A. G., & Krieger, L. H. (2006). Implicit bias: Scientific foundations. California Law Review94(4), 945-967.

Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom

This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority. 

Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review37(3), 337.

A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

The purpose of the current study was to test theoretically derived hypotheses regarding the relationships between team efficacy, potency, and performance and to examine the moderating effects of level of analysis and interdependence on observed relationships.

Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of applied psychology87(5), 819.

Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies

This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.

Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.

Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses.

Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. 

Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin97(3), 363.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die

This book reveal the anatomy of ideas that stick and explain ways to make ideas stickier, such as applying the human scale principle, using the Velcro Theory of Memory, and creating curiosity gaps. Along the way, we discover that sticky messages of all kinds draw their power from the same six traits.

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

Hard evidence on soft skills.

This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life.

Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour economics19(4), 451-464.

Evaluating the relationships between poverty and school.

This study examined the relationships between poverty and a school's academic performance (both student achievement and growth).

Hegedus, A. (2018). Evaluating the Relationships between Poverty and School Performance. NWEA Research. NWEA.

What do we know about time management? A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the existing time management literature.

Hellsten, L. M. (2012). What do we know about time management. A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech, 21-22.

A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures.

A meta-analysis on the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and corresponding explicit self-report measures was conducted.

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(10), 1369-1385.

Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention

The purpose of this study was to examine the workplace factors that positively and negatively impact Black K12 teacher retention. This study utilized a mixed-method approach to examine the qualitative and quantitative data.

Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

Principal’s time use and school effectiveness.

This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.

Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American journal of education116(4), 491-523.

How Principals in Public and Private Schools Use Their Time: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-054.

This brief examines the mean (average) percentage of time that principals reported spending on these activities in the 2011–12 school year, both overall and by selected school, staffing, and principal characteristics.

Hoyer, K. M., & Sparks, D. (2017). How Principals in Public and Private Schools Use Their Time: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-054. National Center for Education Statistics.

Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. 

Huber, C. R., & Kuncel, N. R. (2016). Does college teach critical thinking? A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research86(2), 431-468.

Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong.

This study have sought to investigate teacher success in Hong Kong. The study aims to achieve the following objectives: to acquire an initial understanding of how Hong Kong teachers conceptualize teacher success, to identify the factors hindering teacher success; to study the relationship between professional development and teacher success.

Hung, C. M., Oi, A. K., Chee, P. K., & Man, C. L. (2007). Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong. In Handbook of teacher education (pp. 415-432). Springer, Dordrecht.

Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis

This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.

Life in Classrooms.

Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions

Demonstrates the experimenting society model using data-based decision making and collaborative consultation to evaluate behavior-management intervention strategies in 25 seventh graders. Each intervention results in improved behavior, but active teaching of classroom rules was determined to be most effective. 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review25(2), 199-214.

The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore

In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police officers, employment recruiters, and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in organizational behavior29, 39-69.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Implicit bias in the courtroom.

What, if anything, should we do about implicit bias in the courtroom? The authors comprises legal academics, scientists, researchers, and even a sitting federal judge who seek to answer this question in accordance with behavioral realism.

Kang, J., Bennett, M., Carbado, D., & Casey, P. (2011). Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLa L. rev.59, 1124.

Identifying Specific Learning Disability: Is Responsiveness to Intervention the Answer?

Responsiveness to intervention (RTI) is being proposed as an alternative model for making decisions about the presence or absence of specific learning disability. The author argue that there are many questions about RTI that remain unanswered, and radical changes in proposed regulations are not warranted at this time.

Kavale, K. A. (2005). Identifying specific learning disability: Is responsiveness to intervention the answer?. Journal of Learning Disabilities38(6), 553-562.

Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 teacher follow-up survey

The objective of TFS is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K–12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Keigher, A. (2010). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-353. National Center for Education Statistics.

How Does Reading Proficiency Correlate With a Student's Socio-Economic Status?

This analysis examines the influence of poverty on student reading performance across grade levels.

Keyworth, R. (2015). How does reading proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status? Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/how-does-reading-proficiency

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

Instructional coaching

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. 

Knight, J. (2006). Instructional Coaching. School Administrator63(4), 36.

High-Impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching.

This book offers strategies that make a difference in student learning including: content planning, instructional practices, and community building.

Knight, J. (2013). High-impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching. Corwin Press.

Why incentive plans cannot work

This paper discusses about reasons for the failure of incentive programs. Studies show the ineffectivity of incentive plans to boost productivity. 

 

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Work groups and teams in organizations.

This review chapter examines the literature on work team effectiveness. This paper consider their nature, define them, and identify four critical conceptual issues—context, workflow, levels, and time—that serve as review themes and discuss the multitude of forms that teams may assume.

Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. Handbook of psychology, 333-375.

Teacher-student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school

The purpose of this literature search study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health.

Krane, V., Karlsson, B., Ness, O., & Kim, H. S. (2016). Teacher–student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review. Lærer-elev-relasjoner, elevers psykiske helse og frafall i videregående skole. En eksplorerende studie om samarbeid og den store betydningen av de små ting.

Teacher stress and burnout: An international review

This paper reviews studies on teacher stress and burnout conducted over the past decade. The range of studies considered indicates that this topic is now of major international concern.

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational research29(2), 146-152.

Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy.

This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macro analytic perspective

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American educational research journal32(3), 465-491.

The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer

This article discusses differences that are hypothesized to exist between hard‐ (technical) and soft‐ (intrapersonal and interpersonal) skills training that we believe impact the degree of training transfer achieved. 

Laker, D. R., & Powell, J. L. (2011). The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(1), 111-122.

Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction.

This study examined the effectiveness of social skills instruction for seven elementary-age students at risk for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to a school wide primary intervention program

Lane, K. L., Wehby, J., Menzies, H. M., Doukas, G. L., Munton, S. M., & Gregg, R. M. (2003). Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction. Behavioral Disorders28(3), 229-248.

Academic and social integration variables and secondary student persistence in distance education.

A survey of 351 secondary distance education students (181 responses) found significant relationships between 2 academic variables (educational goals and study time) and academic persistence;

Laube, M. R. (1992). Academic and Social Integration Variables and Secondary Student Persistence in Distance Education. Research in Distance Education4(1), 2-9.

Performance pay and productivity

Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346-1361.

Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment.

This study uses longitudinal administrative data to examine the relationship between third- grade reading level and four educational outcomes: eighth-grade reading performance, ninth-grade course performance, high school graduation, and college attendance.

Lesnick, J., Goerge, R., Smithgall, C., & Gwynne, J. (2010). Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment. Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 1, 12.

Cost-effectiveness and educational policy.

This article provides a summary of measuring the fiscal impact of practices in education
educational policy.

Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2002). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decision-making, and misremembering

In this article, the author claim that judges and jurors unknowingly misremember case facts in racially biased ways.  Drawing upon studies from implicit social cognition, human memory research, and legal decisionmaking, I argue that implicit racial biases affect the way judges and jurors encode, store, and recall relevant case facts. 

Levinson, J. D. (2007). Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decisionmaking, and misremembering. Duke LJ57, 345.

Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how.
In this article, the authors discuss what an anti-bias curriculum is, provide the theoretical framework and rationale for involving teacher candidates in certain activities that promote the anti-bias curriculum, and offer additional anti-bias strategies for teacher candidates and teacher educators to implement in their classrooms.

 

Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly35(2), 187-200.

The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders

The authors examined the effects of pullout small-group and teacher-directed classroom-based social skills instruction on the social behaviors of five third- and fourth-grade students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders.

Lo, Y. Y., Loe, S. A., & Cartledge, G. (2002). The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders27(4), 371-385.

Expectations for students.

The evidence in this paper suggest that schools can improve student learning by encouraging teachers and students to set their sights high.

Lumsden, L. S. (1997). Expectations for students.

Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process

Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of “uh,” “um,” or “er”; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word “like.” During post-intervention assessments, all 6 participants exhibited an immediate decrease in filled pauses.

Mancuso, C., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking. Journal of applied behavior analysis49(1), 188-192.

A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

This research synthesis examines instructional research in a functional manner to provide guidance for classroom practitioners.

Marzano, R. J. (1998). A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

 

Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher

How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do 
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting 
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools, 
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom 
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these 
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd

Team effectiveness 1997–2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future

The authors review team research that has been conducted over the past 10 years. They discuss the nature of work teams in context and note the substantive differences underlying different types of teams.

Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of management34(3), 410-476.

“Soft Skills”: A phrase in search of meaning

This literature review explores the definition of soft skills; contrasts skills with related concepts, such as personality traits, attitudes, beliefs, and values; and compares a set of soft skill typologies

Matteson, M. L., Anderson, L., & Boyden, C. (2016). " Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning. portal: Libraries and the Academy16(1), 71-88.

Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding.

This research examines the relationship between noise and preschool children's acquisition of prereading skills, environmental factors in preschool inclusive classrooms, and children's use of outdoorplay equipment.

Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.

The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs.

This study provides a description of 34 practicing teachers' beliefs regarding the role of empathy as an attribute in their effectiveness with culturally diverse students. Empathy involves cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that teachers believed were manifested in their practice.

McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of teacher education53(5), 433-443.

Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process.

This study describes the outcomes of an intervention focused on the strategies and practices of high expectation teachers. Findings revealed that teachers involved in the intervention refined and changed their practices by creating flexible grouping, enhancing the class climate, and supporting students’ goal setting. 

McDonald, L., Flint, A., Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E. R., Watson, P., & Garrett, L. (2016). Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process. Professional Development in education42(2), 290-307.

Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students.

This study investigated communicative strategies for helping female students cope with ‘‘stereotype threat’’. The results demonstrate that priming a positive achieved identity (e.g., private college student) can subdue stereotype threat associated with an ascribed identity (e.g., female).

McGlone, M. S., & Aronson, J. (2007). Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students. Communication Education56(2), 119-133.

Improving education through standards-based reform.

This report offers recommendations for the implementation of standards-based reform and outlines possible consequences for policy changes. It summarizes both the vision and intentions of standards-based reform and the arguments of its critics.

McLaughlin, M. W., & Shepard, L. A. (1995). Improving Education through Standards-Based Reform. A Report by the National Academy of Education Panel on Standards-Based Education Reform. National Academy of Education, Stanford University, CERAS Building, Room 108, Stanford, CA 94305-3084..

The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes.

The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on‐task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported. 

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology56(2), 209-215.

Exploring the Use of Social Media Network Methods in Designing Healthcare Quality Improvement Teams.

In this paper, the authors use tools from social network analysis (SNA) to derive principles for the design of effective clinical quality improvement teams and explore the implementation of these principles using social network data collected from the inpatient general medicine services at a large academic medical center in Chicago, USA

Meltzer, D., Chung, J., Khalili, P., Marlow, E., Arora, V., Schumock, G., & Burt, R. (2010). Exploring the use of social network methods in designing healthcare quality improvement teams. Social science & medicine71(6), 1119-1130.

Falling off track: How teacher-student relationships predict early high school failure rates

This paper examines the relationship between the climate of teacher-student relations within a school and individual student's likelihood of freshman year success.  Results find that teacher-student climate does have a significant effect.

Miller, S. R. (2000). Falling Off Track: How Teacher-Student Relationships Predict Early High School Failure Rates.

Classroom social climate and student absences and grades

this paper investigated the relationship between student and teacher perceptions of the social environments of 19 high school classes and student absenteeism rates and the average final grades given by the teacher. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263.

Updating the Project Management Bodies of Knowledge

This paper reviews the status of BOKs and reports research on what topics should be included in the BOK (1) conducted at the Center of Research in the Management of Projects (CRMP) using data from 117 companies and (2) through ongoing work on a Global framework sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and others.

Morris, P. W. (2001). Updating the project management bodies of knowledge. Project Management Journal32(3), 21-30.

Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights

Begun in 1982, the Algebra Project is transforming math education in twenty-five cities. The Project works with entire communities-parents, teachers, and especially students-to create a culture of literacy around algebra, a crucial stepping-stone to college math and opportunity.

Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables

Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research.

Ocak, G., & Boyraz, S. (2016). Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies4(5), 76-84.

Relating communication competence to teaching effectiveness: Implication for teacher education

This paper posits that teacher education should emphasize both content knowledge and communication skills. It follows up the contention by conceptualizing communication, exploring teacher communication competence, and finally suggesting the introduction of Teacher Communication Skills (TCS) course in the curricula of teacher education across levels.

Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating Communication Competence to Teaching Effectiveness: Implication for Teacher Education. Journal of Education and Practice8(3), 150-154.

Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1-55.

Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis

This report seeks to highlight some disparities to draw the public’s and policymakers’ attention to the urgent need to address this educational and civil rights crisis. Using a more accurate method for calculating graduation rates, they provide estimates of high school graduation rates, distinguished at the state and district level, and disaggregated by race.

Orfield, G., Losen, D., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Civil Rights Project at Harvard University (The).

Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies

This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of personality and social psychology105(2), 171.

Work Teams in Schools

"More is better"--this precept lies behind the burgeoning use of work teams to handle problem-solving and decision-making in schools and school districts. Teams are said to build stronger relationships among those involved in education and, ultimately, to benefit students because more people with broader perspectives help to shape a stronger educational program.

Oswald, L. J. (1996). Work teams in schools.

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms.

Parsonson, B. S. (2012). Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies. Kairaranga13(1), 16-23.

Time Management Behavior as a Moderator for the Job Demand-Control Interaction.

The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers.

Peeters, M. A., & Rutte, C. G. (2005). Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction. Journal of occupational health psychology10(1), 64.

A Good Beginning: Sending America's Children to School with the Social and Emotional Competence They Need To Succeed.

Recognizing that what, how, and how much children learn in school depends in large part on the social and emotional competence they developed as preschoolers, this monograph examines the current state of research regarding the social and emotional risk and protective factors that predict early school problems or success.

Peth-Pierce, R. (2000). A Good Beginning: Sending America's Children to School with the Social and Emotional Competence They Need To Succeed.

Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual

Positive teacher-student interactions are a primary ingredient of quality early educational experiences that launch future school success. With CLASS, educators finally have an observational tool to assess classroom quality in pre-kindergarten through grade 3 based on teacher-student interactions rather than the physical environment or a specific curriculum

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Assessment Scoring System™: Manual K-3. Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing.

Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets.

Quillian, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(41), 10870–10875.

DEVELOPING SOFT SKILLS IN STUDENTS THROUGH CO-CURRICULUM ACTIVITY: A CASE STUDY OF UiTM CAWANGAN KELANTAN.

Soft skills are all about skills, abilities and traits pertain to personality, attitude and behavior that help non-technical and non-domain skills. These are correlation of several skills such as communication, problem solving, team building and leadership. In this cut-throat competitive world, students need to possess soft skills. Being good at soft skills promotes better relations among the people and help students to become a successful person. Thus, this study aims to investigate the development of soft skills in students through co-curriculum activity in UiTM Cawangan Kelantan.

Rashidi, R. A. M. DEVELOPING SOFT SKILLS IN STUDENTS THROUGH CO-CURRICULUM ACTIVITY: A CASE STUDY OF UiTM CAWANGAN KELANTAN.

The effectiveness of teams in organizations: a meta-analysis

The proposed meta-analysis of 61 independent samples aims to identify whether, and if so under what conditions, team working in organizations is related to organizational effectiveness.

Richter, A. W., Dawson, J. F., & West, M. A. (2011). The effectiveness of teams in organizations: A meta-analysis.International Journal of Human Resource Management22(13), 2749–2769.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.

The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders11(4), 239-248.

Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies

This paper general purpose is to summarize the results of 345 experiments investigating interpersonal expectancy effects. These studies fall into eight broad categories of research: reaction time, inkblot tests, animal learning, laboratory interviews, psychophysical judgments, learning and ability, person perception, and everyday life situations. 

Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. (1978). Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 377–415.

Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes

The current study aimed to track the self‐perception outcomes of students (N = 256) whose teachers had high or low class‐level expectations. Students completed the Reading, Mathematics, Physical Abilities, and Peer Relations subscales of the Self Description Questionnaire‐1 (SDQ‐1; Marsh, 1990) at the beginning and end of 1 year.

Rubie, C. M. (2004). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland, New Zealand,database (UoA1207968).

Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes

This study aimed to explore differences in teachers’ expectations and judgments of student reading performance for Maori, Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students. A further objective was to compare teacher expectations and judgments with actual student achievement.

Rubie‐Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology76(3), 429-444.

Improving Performance: How To Manage The White Space On The Chart

Improving Performance has been a pivotal book in the creation of the performance management movement by showing how to bridge the gap between organization strategy and the individual. It can be used as guide for principals to link planning to action, implementation of organization change, and offering ways to redesign processes to overcome obstacles that impede implementation.

Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.

Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines

This latest volume in the SIOP Professional Practice Series was inspired by a Leading Edge Conference sponsored by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology to bring together leading-edge practitioners and academics to exchange views and knowledge about effective teams and help lead to better practice in that area.

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S., Cohen, D., & Latham, G. (Eds.). (2013). Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.

The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness

This book looks at research and theoretical models used to define educational effectiveness with the intent on providing educators with evidence-based options for implementing school improvement initiatives that make a difference in student performance.

Scheerens, J. and Bosker, R. (1997). The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness. Oxford:Pergmon

Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

This paper provides an overview of previous research results pertaining to the relation between interest and academic achievement. focus on the conceptualization and operationalization of interest.

Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States

This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. T

Schroeder, C. M., Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Lee, Y. H. (2007). A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching44(10), 1436-1460.

The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

This paper makes a survey of the importance of soft skills in students’ lives both at college and after college. It discusses how soft skills complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements of a job the student is trained to do.

Schulz, B. (2008). The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

How Personalized Learning Can Support Equity and Excellence

In our day-to-day roles as a school system leader and the CEO of the nonprofit curriculum publisher Zearn, we focus on the moments of learning that occur between students and teachers—and on how personalized learning can make those moments richer and more frequent. 

Sharma, S., & Kockler, R. (2018). How Personalized Learning Can Support Equity and Excellence. Retrieved from https://www.educationnext.org/how-personalized-learning-can-support-equity-excellence-problem-solving/

Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting.

The purpose of this article was to describe the developmental effects of one elementary physical education teacher's proactive teaching of prosocial behavior. An ABA (B) design coupled with a control group comparison across six matched urban physical education classes was used to assess the teaching strategy.

Sharpe, T., Crider, K., Vyhlidal, T., & Brown, M. (1996). Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting. Education & Treatment of Children19(4), 435.

Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches

As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.

Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.

Teams in the Military: A Review and Emerging Challenges

the purpose of this chapter is to review the science of teams and their effectiveness, extrapolate critical lessons learned, and highlight several future challenges critical for military psychology to address in order to prepare future military teams for success.

Shuffler, M. L., Pavlas, D., & Salas, E. (2012). Teams in the military: A review and emerging challenges. In J. H. Laurence & M. D. Matthews (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of military psychology(pp. 282–310). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion.

This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers’ feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and discipline problems.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and teacher education27(6), 1029-1038.

Science and human behavior

The psychology classic—a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled. 

Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and human behavior (No. 92904). Simon and Schuster.

A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers.

In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. 

Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The Elementary School Journal110(4), 567-584.

Teacher expectations.

The purpose of this paper is to integrate statistically the results of the literature on teacher expectations. 

Smith, M. L. (1980). Teacher expectations. Evaluation in Education4, 53-55.

Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Several barriers can impede critical thinking instruction. However, actively engaging students in project-based or collaborative activities can encourage students’ critical thinking development if instructors model the thinking process, use effective questioning techniques, and guide students’ critical thinking processes.

Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. The Journal of Research in Business Education50(2), 90.

Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness

The present study explores conflict management as a team phenomenon in schools. The author examined how the contextual variables (task interdependence, goal interdependence) are related to team conflict management style (integrating vs. dominating) and school team effectiveness (team performance).

Somech, A. (2008). Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness. Educational administration quarterly44(3), 359-390.

Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions.

Evidence-based practice is a decision-making framework.  This paper describes the relationships among the three cornerstones of this framework.

Spencer, T. D., Detrich, R., & Slocum, T. A. (2012). Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions. Education & Treatment of Children (West Virginia University Press), 35(2), 127-151.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support

This article considers culture within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The paper provides an overview of culture and working definitions to assist educators to more effectively implement evidence-based practices.

Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208. Can pd

Best practices in school psychology III.

Increasingly, school services are being guided by a problem solving approach and are evaluated by the achievement of positive outcomes. This shift is explored here in 96 chapters and 11 appendices. The volume provides a comprehensive reference relating contemporary research and thought to quality professional services

Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology III.Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model.

This chapter chronicles some of the major steps school psychology has taken toward adopting science as the basis of practice. Each step has yielded benefits for students as well as practice challenges to be overcome.

Tilly, W. D. (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology–5(pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning.

This article reports the findings of two meta-analyses that explored the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Combined, the results suggest that teacher clarity has a larger effect for student affective learning than for cognitive learning. However, neither the effects for cognitive learning nor affective learning were homogeneous. 

Titsworth, S., Mazer, J. P., Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Communication Education64(4), 385-418.

Preservice teachers’ perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum.

This study investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program.

Van Hook, C. W. (2002). Preservice teachers' perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 254-265.

Are we making the differences that matter in education?

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation

Keeping RTI on Track is a resource to assist educators overcome the biggest problems associated with false starts or implementation failure. Each chapter in this book calls attention to a common error, describing how to avoid the pitfalls that lead to false starts, how to determine when you're in one, and how to get back on the right track.

Vanderheyden, A. M., & Tilly, W. D. (2010). Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation. LRP Publications.

Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools

This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. This article describes the ways in which evidence-based practice (EBP) and  response to intervention (RtI) can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. 

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205-213.

Productive teaching

This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods

Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.

What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.

This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.

Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change

This study examined the social attitudes related to race, gender, age, and ability among senior level health education students at a mid-sized university in the southeast by means of a personally experienced critical incident involving a cross-cultural incident. 

Wasson, D. H., & Jackson, M. H. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 265-277.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis.

A meta-analysis of the data from empirical investigations of diversity in work groups was used to examine the impact of two types of diversity attributes, highly job-related and less-related, on work group cohesion and performance. 

Webber, S. S., & Donahue, L. M. (2001). Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of management27(2), 141-162.

Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education.

This journal discuss about inequality as a persistent problem in school. An educational system that sorts for differentiated pathways must be replaced with one that develops the talents of all. Psychology has a critical role to play in promoting a new understanding of malleable human capabilities and optimal conditions for their nurturance in schooling. 

Weinstein, R. S., Gregory, A., & Strambler, M. J. (2004). Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist59(6), 511.

How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance
Quantitative studies of school effects have generally supported the notion that the problems of U.S. education lie outside of the school. Yet such studies neglect the primary venue through which students learn, the classroom. The current study explores the link between classroom practices and student academic performance by applying multilevel modeling to the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress in mathematics. The study finds that the effects of classroom practices, when added to those of other teacher characteristics, are comparable in size to those of student background, suggesting that teachers can contribute as much to student learning as the students themselves.

 

Wenglinsky, H. (2002). How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(12).

A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education

Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students 
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be 
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to 
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups. 
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of 
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area. 

White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.

 

Hard Thinking on Soft Skill

A prudent way forward for educators given the many acknowledged unknowns in soft skills reform is to substantially enhance efforts that fall within traditional school practices and responsibilities rather than to boldly make risky bets on unproven programs and measures. This paper breakdown the steps for school and district administrators.

Whitehurst, G. J. (2016). Hard thinking on soft skills. Evidence Speaks Reports1(14), 1-10.

The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta‐analysis.

Results of this meta‐analysis research, testing for a moderator effect, show that support for the overjustification effect occurs only when intrinsic motivation is operationalized as task behaviour during a free‐time measure.

Wiersma, U. (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse.

This paper looks at scope and sequence as essential to effective instruction Instructional.

Wiley, D., & Waters, S. (2005). Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 1(1), 143-150.

How to teach critical thinking.

This paper considers what the research can tell us about how critical thinking is acquired, and the implications for how education might best develop young people’s critical thinking capabilities.

Willingham, D. (2019). How to teach critical thinking. New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education.

4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.

Help your students understand the perspectives of other people with these tried-and-tested methods.

Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2017). 4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-proven-strategies-teaching-empathy-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of? the independent variable

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.

Time management: An experimental investigation.

Four groups of preservice teachers participating in student teaching seminars were randomly assigned to one of three conditions to test the effectiveness of brief training in time-management techniques. 

Woolfolk, A. E., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1986). Time management: An experimental investigation. Journal of school Psychology24(3), 267-275.

Failing Teachers?

This book describes the research undertaken during the Teaching Competence Project, a two-year research project funded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. There were five interlinked studies in the research.

Wragg, E. C., Chamberlin, R. P., & Haynes, G. S. (2005). Failing teachers?. Routledge.

Failing Teachers?

This book describes the research undertaken during the Teaching Competence Project, a two-year research project funded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. There were five interlinked studies in the research.

Wragg, E. C., Chamberlin, R. P., & Haynes, G. S. (2005). Failing teachers?. Routledge.

Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream.
This chapter focuses on thin slices and illustrates the efficiency of thin slices in providing information about social and interpersonal relations. A thin slice is “a brief excerpt of expressive behavior sampled from the behavioral stream.”
Ambady, N., Bernieri, F. J., & Richeson, J. A. (2000). Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. Advances in experimental social psychology, 32, 201-271.
Interpersonal Sensitivity: Theory and Measurement.
This book examines the major theorists and researchers of interpersonal sensitivity and their approaches.
Hall, J. A., & Bernieri, F. J. (Eds.). (2001). Interpersonal sensitivity: Theory and measurement. Psychology Press.
Through the Student’s Eyes: and Practice Guide for Teachers
This paper expands upon the standard definition of personalized learning to assert a multidimensional role for the teacher and vivify the place of motivation, metacognition, and social and emotional competency in personalized learning. Although this more comprehensive approach to personalized learning may be facilitated by technology, its tenets may be applied without technology or, more likely, in a blended context. Following an explication of this broader view of personalized learning, a lesson plan format is provided as a structure for personalizing learning.
Redding, S. (2013). Through the Student’s Eyes: and Practice Guide for Teachers. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.centeril.org/publications/2013_09_Through_the_Eyes.pdf
Personal Competencies in Personalized Learning
This paper provides a personal competency framework for educators.
Redding, S. (2014). Personal Competencies in Personalized Learning. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.centeril.org/publications/Personalized_Learning.pdf
Personal Competency: A Framework for Building Students’ Capacity to Learn
This research synthesis examines complex issues that must be addressed in the building student personal competencies.
Redding, S. (2014). Personal Competency: A Framework for Building Students’ Capacity to Learn. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.centeril.org/publications/Personal_Compentency_Framework.pdf
The Something Other: Personal Competencies for Learning and Life
This paper examines the importance of personal competencies in education. Redding outlines four essential competency categories; Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, Motivational, and Social/Emotional.
Redding, S. (2014). The Something Other: Personal Competencies for Learning and Life. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.centeril.org/publications/The_Something_Other.pdf
Personal Competencies / Personalized Learning Lesson Plan Reflection Guide
This “Lesson Plan Reflection Guide” provides a framework to support educators with their lesson plans to support personal competencies and personalized learning. It may serve both as a rubric for evaluating how well a lesson plan personalizes and addresses personal competency, as well as a guide for strengthening lessons to foster personalization and enhance personal competencies.
Twyman, J. and Redding, S. (2015). Personal Competencies / Personalized Learning Lesson Plan Reflection Guide. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/Personalized%20Learning%20Lesson%20Plan%20Reflection(0).pdf
Personal Competencies / Personalized Learning Reflection on Instruction: A Peer-to-Peer Learning and Observation Tool
Reflection on Instruction is a peer-to-peer observation tool designed to help teachers support and learn from one another in the course of personalized learning, including enhancing personal competencies for each and all students and using technology to support instruction. Using the tool enhances the ability to review and reflect on the lesson with accuracy and specificity, with a focus on student benefits across both instructional goals and personal competencies.
Twyman, J. and Redding, S. (2015). Personal Competencies / Personalized Learning Reflection on Instruction: A Peer-to-Peer Learning and Observation Tool. The Center on Innovations in Learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/Peer%20to%20Peer(0).pdf
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Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation: Solve a Teaching Problem

This site provides practical strategies to address teaching problems across the disciplines. These strategies are firmly grounded in educational research and learning principles.

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