Education Drivers

Planning

Lesson planning is essential for effective teaching. It organizes the depth and breadth of daily lessons so they align with long-range goals as well as state and national standards. Effective teachers develop instructional objectives that establish measurable outcomes of what a learner will do as a result of instruction. Objectives must be organized around major themes that connect content and learning, leading to concepts and skills used in higher order thinking. Careful preparation is required to ensure that students have the prerequisite skills to master new lessons. Planning is needed to effectively sequence content in a logical order for learning that builds on past knowledge and skills needed in future lessons. Successful instruction requires teachers to procure resources in advance and allot sufficient time for students to master assignments. Effective teachers need to include previously mastered content in future lessons so that skills and knowledge are maintained. They must incorporate formative assessment in lessons to ensure that students are progressing and that enrichment and remediation opportunities are made available as necessary.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Improving Educational Outcomes in America: Can A Low-Tech, Generic Teaching Practice Make A Difference

Heward and Wood consider a range of instructional practices that were identified by participants of the eighth Wing Institute summit and make an argument that Active Student Responding (ASR) has the potential to significantly improve student learning. The authors consider ASR in the context of the positive benefits and the cost considerations including equipment/materials, training, logistical fit, and the fit with the teacher's belief about effective instruction.

Heward, W.L. & Wood, C.L. (2015). Improving Educational Outcomes in America: Can A Low-Tech, Generic Teaching Practice Make A Difference Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2013WingSummitWH.pdf.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategy designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance?
This analysis looks at meta-analyses on teaching strategies that have the largest effect on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance? Retrieved from what-teaching-strategies-make.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Why Money Matters for Improving Education

This article explore the relationship between per pupil spending and learning, particularly in developing countries that spend much lower levels in education than do OECD countries. Their findings suggest that, when education systems spend above $8,000, the association between student learning and per student spending is no longer statistically significant. Therefore, they find a threshold effect after this level of resources is met, indicating a declining relationship between resources and achievement at high levels of expenditure (consistent with other recent literature). There is a positive relationship between student learning and per pupil expenditure among the low-spending countries (below $8,000 per student), but a flat relationship among high-spending countries. 

 Vegas, E. (2016).Why Money Matters for Improving Education. Brooking Institutions. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2016/07/21/why-money-matters-for-improving-education/

The Comparative Costs and Benefits of Programs to Reduce Crime

This report describes the “bottom-line” economics of programs that try to reduce crime. This report also provides a snapshot of the Institute’s cost-benefit findings as of May 2001. 

Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, R., Leib, R. The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime: a review of national research findings with implications for Washington StateWashington State Institute for Public PolicyOlympia (WA)1999

Best Practices in Collaborative Problem Solving for Intervention Design.

This chapter describes a process, collaborative problem solving, that can guide decision making and intervention planning for improving academic and behavior outcomes for students. The primary focus is on the two basic components of the term collaborative problem solving.

Allen, S. J., & Graden, J. L. (2002). Best Practices in Collaborative Problem Solving for Intervention Design.

Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom

Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.

 

Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.

Increasing Active Student Responding and Improving Academic Performance Through Classwide Peer Tutoring

Classwide Peer Tutoring is a powerful instructional procedure that actively engages all students in a classroom and that promotes mastery, accuracy, and fluency in content learning for students with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss Classwide Peer Tutoring as an effective instructional procedure.

Arreaga-Mayer, C. (1998). Increasing active student responding and improving academic performance through classwide peer tutoring. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(2), 89-94.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Comparing Closed For-Profit Colleges to Public College Sector

This research compare for-profit college networks with the public sector. The author emphasize economic criteria for evaluating colleges and the need to consider many such criteria to make a valid comparison. In conclusion, public colleges are much cheaper than for-profit colleges. From a student perspective, this difference would have to be offset by a much superior performance of for-profit colleges to be advantageous. However, the evidence tends to point in the opposite direction. While ITT’s post-enrollment student earnings are comparable to those of many public colleges, on the whole the outcomes of public colleges appear to be better than those of the two closed for-profit networks of colleges.

Belfield, C. (2016). Comparing Closed For-Profit Colleges to Public College Sector. CAPSEE. Retrieved from https://capseecenter.org/comparing-closed-for-profit-colleges-to-public-college-sector/

Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration.

This book delivers teaching practice highlights and some strategies introduced in schools to give educators, evaluators, and researchers comprehensive evidence found on the best instructional strategies schools could use to improve student outcomes significantly.

Bennett, B., Rolheiser, C., & Normore, A. H. (2003). Beyond monet: The artful science of instructional integration. Alberta Journal of Educational Research49(4), 383.

The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

This paper is a research review which explores factors that can be controlled or influenced by teachers and that are known to affect student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. Pre-instructional factors include decisions about content, time allocation, pacing, grouping, and activity structures. 

Berliner, D. C. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS).

Blonigen, B. A., Harbaugh, W. T., Singell, L. D., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. S. (2008). Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5–19. doi: 10.1177/1098300707311366

Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder

Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic44(5), 259-267.

Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities

In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.

Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences35, 9-14.

Improving America's Schools through Standards-Based Education. Introduction

This article provides some historical background for the standards-based education movement and introduces essays exploring the movement from various perspectives. Although some educators remain skeptical, standards-based education may be a powerful school-improvement tool.

Buttram, J. L., & Waters, T. (1997). Improving America's Schools through Standards-Based Education. Introduction. NASSP Bulletin, 81(590), 1-6.

Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.

Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability39(1), 73-85.

Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.

This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda

Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children74(3), 351-371.

Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.

A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect was performed to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles.

Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological bulletin132(3), 354.

The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching

The author argues that there is a body of evidence that shows quite clearly how to teach so that students will learn far more than they are learning today. This reader-friendly volume provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching.

Chance, P. (2008). The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching.Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. 

Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading.

The oral reading of 65 first-graders experiencing difficulties in beginning reading was observed during primary reading instructional time. Findings indicate most instruction for struggling readers was not aligned with recent research on preventing reading difficulties, and even struggling readers receiving reading instruction aligned with best practices are making minimal progress. 

Chard, D. J., & Kameenui, E. J. (2000). Struggling first-grade readers: The frequency and progress of their reading. The Journal of Special Education34(1), 28-38.

The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction.

This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design. 

Christle, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education12(3), 147-165.

Performance Feedback Overview

This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes. 

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.

Meta-Analysis of Mathematic Basic-Fact Fluency Interventions: A Component Analysis

Mathematics fluency is a critical component of mathematics learning yet few attempts have been made to synthesize this research base. Seventeen single-case design studies with 55 participants were reviewed using meta-analytic procedures.

Codding, R. S., Burns, M. K., & Lukito, G. (2011). Meta‐analysis of mathematic basic‐fact fluency interventions: A component analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice26(1), 36-47.

Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills

This study sought to investigate the impact of a supplemental program’s script on the rate of on-task and off-task instructional opportunities offered by the instructor for students to practice the specific skills targeted in lesson exercises.

Cooke, N. L., Galloway, T. W., Kretlow, A. G., & Helf, S. (2011). Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills. The Journal of Special Education45(1), 28-42.

Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary

Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.

Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(2), 155-173.

Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education.

The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.

Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education28(3), 356-367.

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Distribution Of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don't

This meta-analysis reviews 63 studies on the relationship between conditions of massed practice and spaced practice with respect to task performance, which yields an overall mean weighted effect size of 0.46.

Donovan, J. J., & Radosevich, D. J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don't. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 795.

Teacher and Shared Decision Making: The Cost and Benefits of Involvement

The authors conducted a study of teachers' perceptions of the potential costs and benefits of involvement in school decision making. The teachers interviewed rated the potential costs of decision making involvement as low and the potential benefits as high. Nevertheless, many were hesitant to become involved because they saw little possibility that their involvement would actually make a difference.

Duke, D. L., Showers, B. K., & Imber, M. (1980). Teachers and shared decision making: The costs and benefits of involvement. Educational Administration Quarterly16(1), 93-106.

Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology

The language of life as well as of science in attributing a memory to the mind attempts to point out the facts and their interpretation 

Ebbinghaus, H. (2013). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. Annals of Neurosciences, 20(4), 155–156. 

Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators

This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.

Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.

Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model

This evidence on effective literacy teaching, which includes small group instruction, differentiation, and a response to intervention, presents a challenge for many teachers and schools.

Fisher, D. (2008). Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model. Author Monographs, 1­–4. 

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

This meta-analysis examined the impact of lecturing as compared to active methods of instruction on learning and course performance. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies).

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.

Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis

In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.

Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: A report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education

A report entitled A Nation at Risk was published based on information distilled from commissioned research papers and public hearings. The report contains summaries of the papers and hearings; a list of findings in content, expectations, time, and teaching; a set of recommendations; and aspects of implementation related to con

Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W., Campbell, A., & Crosby, E. A. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform (p. 65). Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.

Incentives in organizations

The author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. The author concludes by suggesting two avenues for further progress in agency theory: better integration with organizational economics, and cross-pollination with other fields that study organizations. 

Gibbons, R. (1998). Incentives in organizations. Journal of economic perspectives12(4), 115-132.

Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education

Using the teacher‐centered systemic reform model as a framework, the authors explore the connection between chemistry instructors’ beliefs about teaching and learning and self‐efficacy beliefs, and their enacted classroom practices. 

Gibbons, R. E., Villafañe, S. M., Stains, M., Murphy, K. L., & Raker, J. R. (2018). Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching55(8), 1111-1133.

Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions Fall 2016; and Financial Statistic and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2016

The purpose of this report is to introduce new data through tables containing descriptive information, such as totals, averages, and percentages. The findings presented here demonstrate the range of information available through IPEDS; they include only a sample of the information collected and are not meant to emphasize any particular issue. While only a small amount of the data included in the spring 2017 collection are displayed in this

Ginder, S. A., Kelly-Reid, J. E., & Mann, F. B. (2017). Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2016; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2016. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2018-002. National Center for Education Statistics.

Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion

This paper provides students with an opportunity to improve their reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The activity, which can be used with intermediate and advanced learners, is ideal for English language learners in content classes and is particularly useful for building foundational knowledge of a new topic.

Giovacchini, M. (2017). Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion. In English Teaching Forum (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 36-39). US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037.

The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, choral responding, the response card) on student participation and ontask behavior in preschool children with attending problems. 

Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The Effects of Three Techniques on Student Participation with Preschool Children with Attending Problems. Education & Treatment of Children26(3).

A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails.

This paper confirms the predominance of lecture and adds to the existing literature by asking why principles instructors have selected their particular teaching methods.

Goffe, W. L., & Kauper, D. (2014). A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails. The Journal of Economic Education45(4), 360-375.

Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice.

A brief perspective is offered on the development and validation of one enabler—engagement in academic responding—and recent findings are provided of an effort to bridge the gap between research and practice by employing this knowledge in Title 1 elementary schools to improve instruction.

Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives in research and practice. School Psychology Review31(3).

Sustainability: An Enduring Commitment to Success

The infrastructure supporting organizational transformation to a problem-solving system occurred on two levels, global and local. The reform effort is described in four phases.

Grimes, J., Kurns, S., Tilly, W. D., & II, I. (2006). Sustainability: An enduring commitment to success. School Psychology Review35(2), 224.

Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies

This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.

Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.

Empowering students through speaking round tables

This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.

Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia4(1), 39-59.

The Rise of Universities

The Rise of Universities goes far beyond its central subject to offer a broad description of the social conditions in which universities took root and flourished. 

Haskins, C. H. (2017). The rise of universities. Routledge.

A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.

This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.

Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.

A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content.

The purpose of this article is to examine research on the effectiveness of guided notes. Results indicate that using guided notes has a positive effective on student outcomes, as this practice has been shown to improve accuracy of note taking and student test scores.

Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth55(4), 226-231.

A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature

This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.

Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth57(4), 181-188.

Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.

Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education.

This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.

Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education36(4), 186-205.

Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes

This paper briefly discuss some pros and con of lecturing as a teaching method, describe how a strategy called "guided notes" can make lecturing more effective, and offer some specific suggestions for developing and using guided notes.

Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes. Talking About Teaching.

Exceptional Children: An Introduction To Special Education.

This book for teachers in the area of Special Education looks at highly effective, research-based practices described in a very step-by-step, applied manner.

Heward, W. L. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Pearson.

Using choral responding to increase active student response.

There are numerous practical strategies for increasing active student response during group instruction. One of these strategies, Choral Responding, is the subject of this article. 

Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children21(3), 72-75.

The Problem with "Proficiency": Limitaions of Statistic and Policy Under No Child Left Behind

The Percentage of Proficient Students (PPS) has become a ubiquitous statistic under the No Child Left Behind Act. The author demonstrates that the PPS metric offers only limited and unrepresentative depictions of large-scale test score trends, gaps, and gap trends.  The author shows how the statistical shortcomings of these depictions extend to shortcomings of policy, from exclusively encouraging score gains near the proficiency cut score to shortsighted comparisons of state and national testing results. The author proposes alternatives for large-scale score reporting and argues that a distribution-wide perspective on results is required for any serious analysis of test score data, including “growth”-related results under the recent Growth Model Pilot Program.

Ho, A. D. (2008). The problem with “proficiency”: Limitations of statistics and policy under No Child Left Behind. Educational researcher37(6), 351-360.

Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services

The authors review the status, strength, and quality of evidence-based practice in child and adolescent mental health services.

Hoagwood, K., Burns, B. J., Kiser, L., Ringeisen, H., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2001). Evidence-based practice in child and adolescent mental health services. Psychiatric services52(9), 1179-1189.

Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping

This study aimed to examine active instruction and engagement across elementary, middle, and high schools using a large database of direct classroom observations. 

Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(1), 30-39.

Seven Trends: The Transformation of the Teaching Force—Updated October 2018

This study examines the most recent data from staffing surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as well as those going back to 1987. Its concludes that over the last three decades the teaching force has become: 1) larger, 2) grayer, 3) greener, 4) more female, 5) more diverse by race-ethnicity, 6) consistent in academic ability, and 7) unstable.  It also calls for more research as to the reasons for these trends and their implications and consequences.

Ingersoll, Richard M.; Merrill, Elizabeth; Stuckey, Daniel; and Collins, Gregory. (2018). Seven Trends: e Transformation of the Teaching Force – Updated October 2018. CPRE Research Reports.

The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities.

An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.

Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology20(3), 13-23.

Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: a sustainability planning model

This article presents an informed definition of sustainability and an associated planning model for sustaining innovations (pertinent to both infrastructure and interventions) within organizational, community, and state systems.

Johnson, K., Hays, C., Center, H., & Daley, C. (2004). Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: a sustainability planning model. Evaluation and program planning, 27(2), 135-149.

Why incentive plans cannot work

This paper discusses about reasons for the failure of incentive programs. Studies show the ineffectivity of incentive plans to boost productivity. 

 

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with several suggestions for creating and using guided notes to enhance other effective teaching methods, support students’ studying, and promote higher order thinking.

Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in school and clinic46(3), 131-140.

Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.

Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.

Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices.

This paper provides a review of the theoretical discussions and practical studies relating to fluency instruction and reading development.

Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of educational psychology95(1), 3.

Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.

The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.

Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(2), 88-99.

Sustainability Planning Workbook

This workbook helps program developers and community leaders identify basic issues in: sustaining promising initiatives, addressing strategic details, and developing a comprehensive plan. It includes a guide and five step-by-step modules that help initiative leaders identify specific resources and strategies that are needed to successfully sustain effective programs and services.

Langford, B. H., & Flynn, M. (2003). Sustainability planning workbook. Finance Project.

The Birth and Death Cycles of Educational innovations

A study of 27 promising programs reveals 8 common reasons that educational innovations fail, including disenchanted practitioners; departure of innovation supporters; lack of personnel training; disappearing funding; inadequate supervision; and lack of accountability, administrative support, and termination consequences. Innovations succeed by avoiding overload, complementing school mission, and securing board approval

Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal68(1), 41-43.

Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read.

Headsprout Early Reading™ is a new engaging, Internet-based reading program that effectively teaches the essential skills and strategies required for rapid reading success.

Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral technology today3(7), 20.

Performance pay and productivity

Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346-1361.

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability is a letter written by United States Department of Education. This letter was meant to call people attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin (This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI). This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic.

Lhamon, C. E. (2014). Dear colleague letter: Resource comparability. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www2. ed. gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410. pdf.

Common Core’s Major Political Challenges for the Remainder of 2016

This article elaborate on a topic "What to expect in Common Core immediate political future". Here, they discuss four key challenges that CCSS will face between now and the end of the year. Common Core is now several years into implementation.  Supporters have had a difficult time persuading skeptics that any positive results have occurred. The best evidence has been mixed on that question. The political challenges that Common Core faces the remainder of this year may determine whether it survives.

Loveless, T. (2016). Common Core’s Major Political Challenges for the Remainder of 2016. Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2016/03/30/common-cores-major-political-challenges-for-the-remainder-of-2016/

Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: A quantitative synthesis.

The overall effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on classroom learning are estimated. The constancy of effects of these instructional qualities were explored across characteristics of students, and educational and contextual conditions. The results confirm the Dollard-Miller-Carroll-Bloom theory that has evolved during the past four decades. 

Lysakowski, R. S., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis. American Educational Research Journal19(4), 559-78.

Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis research cover all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated in search of empirical evidence. The authors conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.

Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological science25(8), 1608-1618.

Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice

In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.

Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly22(1), 65-89.

A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class

Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class. 

Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education25(1), 55-70.

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd

Effects of The Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension.

The effects of a cloze procedure developed from transfer feature theory of processing in reading on immediate and delayed recall of good and poor readers were studied

Mcgee, L. M. (1981). Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior13(2), 145-156.

Ensuring Equitable Access to Strong Teacher: Important Elements of an Effective State Action Plan

This short guide, based on what we have learned from two decades of work on this issue, provides a few ideas on what could be included in a good plan. Our recommendations are grouped into three categories: Analyze, Build, and Create.

Metz, R. (2015). Ensuring Equitable Access to Strong Teachers: Important Elements of an Effective State Action Plan. Education Trust.

Should U.S. Students Do More Math Practice and Drilling?

Should U.S. students be doing more math practice and drilling in their classrooms? That’s the suggestion from last week’s most emailed New York Times op-ed. The op-ed’s author argued that more practice and drilling could help narrow math achievement gaps. These gaps occur in the U.S. by the primary grades.

Morgan, P. L. (2018). Should U.S. students do more math practice and drilling? Psychology Today.Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/children-who-struggle/201808/should-us-students-do-more-math-practice-and-drilling 

Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.

The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design. 

Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(4), 483-490.

The Nation’s Report Card, 2017

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a national assessment of what America's students know in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history.

Nation’s Report Card. (2017). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from the NAEP Data Explorerhttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/

Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?

This synthesis is described under the rubric of functional outcome analysis (FOA) and is organized around an examination of classroom resources. Various methods of assessing intervention costs and benefits, as well as their distribution, are described. 

Noell, G. H., & Gresham, F. M. (1993). Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?. School Psychology Quarterly8(3), 200.

The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.

In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.

Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record107(5), 895-934.

PISA 2015 Results in Focus

Over the past decade, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA, has become the world’s premier yardstick for evaluating the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems. This special issue of the PISA in Focus series highlights the results of the first two volumes of the PISA 2015 initial report: Excellence and Equity in Education; and Policies and Practices for Successful Schools.

OECD Publishing (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. PISA in Focus,67. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/aa9237e6-en.

Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research

The school year and day length have varied over time and across localities depending on the particular needs of the community. Proponents argue that extending time will have learning and nonacademic benefits. Opponents suggest increased time is not guaranteed to lead to more effective instruction and suggest other costs. 

Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Allen, A. B. (2010). Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research (1985–2009). Review of educational research80(3), 401-436.

Active Student Response Strategies

a written guide for Active Student Response Strategies.

Pearce, A. R. (2011). Active student response strategies. CDE Facilities Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/facilityschools/download/pdf/edmeetings_04apr2011_asrstrategies.pdf 

 

The effects of active participation on student learning.

The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. t was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.

Pratton, J., & Hales, L. W. (1986). The effects of active participation on student learning. The Journal of Educational Research79(4), 210-215.

Report Urges Educators to Avoid Using International Test to Make Policy

This articles suggest policymakers to focus less on the international test and more on how states compare to each other when trying to improve schools. This article also shows how it's not worthwhile to compare school in countries where the conditions are different. 

Rabinovitz, j. (2015, October). Report urges educators to avoid using international tests to make policy. Standford Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://ed.stanford.edu/news/national-test-superior-international-ones-assessing-us-schools-says-report

Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading

The terms cloze procedure and cohesion are associated with reading development. Specifically, doze applies to the testing and teaching of reading while cohesion applies to a description of how the way in which reading material is written can affect reading development. 

Raymond, P. (1988). Cloze procedure in the teaching of reading. TESL Canada Journal, 6(1), 91–97. 

Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness

The authors extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing their work on processing experiences. This research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience.

Reber, R., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Winkielman, P. (2002). Processing fluency as the source of experiences at the fringe of consciousness. Psyche8(10), 1-21.

Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.

This article discuss about automaticity theory and attempt to do 2 things: 1. describe automaticity theory and its practical applications; and 2. explain some of the new ideas about automaticity. 

Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited.

When Bad Things Happen to Good NAEP Data

The National Assessment of Educational Progress is widely viewed as the most accurate and reliable yardstick of U.S. students’ academic knowledge. But when it comes to many of the ways the exam’s data are used, researchers have gotten used to gritting their teeth.

Sawchuk, S. (2013). When bad things happen to good NAEP data. Education Week32(37), 1-22.

Teacher-centered instruction: The Rodney Dangerfield of social studies.

Teacher-centered instruction implies a high degree of teacher direction and a focus of students on academic tasks. And it vividly contrasts with student-centered or constructivist approaches in establishing a leadership role for the teacher

Schug, M. C. (2003). Teacher-centereed instruction. Where did social studies go wrong, 94-110.

Replication

Replication has taken on more importance recently because the ESSA evidence standards only require a single positive study. To meet the strong, moderate, or promising standards, programs must have at least one “well-designed and well-implemented” study using randomized (strong), matched (moderate), or correlational (promising) designs and finding significantly positive outcomes. 

Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/

Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress.

A commentary on: Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress

Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science354(6315), 1046-1048.

How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?

The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program

Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.

How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategies that designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools.

This article presents an analysis of data collected across 35 general education classrooms in four elementary schools, assessing instructional variables associated with OTR. The relationship among opportunities to respond (OTR), measures of classroom management, and student work products was analyzed across Title and non-Title schools. 

Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high-and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions11(2), 68-81.

Qualities of effective teachers

Stronge synthesizes research to identify specific teacher behaviors that contribute to student achievement. Rather than look at outside factors like demographics, district leadership, and state mandates, Stronge focuses specifically on what teachers can control: their own preparation, personality, and practices.

Stronge, J. H. (2007). Qualities of effective teachers. ASCD.

Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics

This report provides state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information on trends in teacher mobility and on correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, offering a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning.

Sullivan, K., Barkowski, E., Lindsay, J., Lazarev, V., Nguyen, T., Newman, D., & Lin, L. (2017). Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics. REL 2018–283.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities.

A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.

Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities47(2), 178-195.

Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis.

The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.

Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(2), 109-119.

A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning.

The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.

Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.

Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.

This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning. 

Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..

Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.

This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction

Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education16(4), 355-367.

Enhancing engagement through active student response.

Student engagement is critical to academic success. High-Active Student Response (ASR) teaching techniques are an effective way to improve student engagement and are an important component of evidence-based practice. . This report provides techniques and strategies to enhance engagement through ASR. Key terms are appended.

Tincani, M., & Twyman, J. S. (2016). Enhancing Engagement through Active Student Response. Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University.

Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction

This experiment evaluated the effects of requiring overt answer construction in computer-based programmed instruction using an alternating treatments design.

Tudor, R. M. (1995). Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(3), 343-344.

Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application.

A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program. 

Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis24(2), 361-368.

How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?

This article show different approach that researcher took to answer questions on social gradient in education between the countries. Comparing some of these results highlights weak service delivery in many developing countries. Even where resources may be similar, social gradients are steep in some, indicating much worse educational outcomes for the poor. And public resources are often extremely poorly converted into learning. The differential ability of schools and school systems to convert resources into learning outcomes remains a major impediment to improving educational outcomes, and indeed life chances, for the poor.

Van Der Berg, S. (2015). How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/09/how-does-the-rich-poor-learning-gap-vary-across-countries/

Productive teaching

This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods

Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.

What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.

This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.

Practice makes perfect—but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection.

On the one hand, it seems obvious that practice is important. After all, "practice makes perfect." On the other hand, it seems just as obvious that practicing the same material again and again would be boring for students. How much practice is the right amount?

Willingham, D. T. (2004). Ask the Cognitive Scientist Practice Makes Perfect, But Only If You Practice Beyond the Point of Perfection. American Educator28(1), 31-33.

Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom

The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.

Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.

Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.

This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.

Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly28(2), 39-47.

Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction.

This study shows that gaps between opportunities to learn and students' appropriation of those opportunities are instructionally produced and socially distributed via mechanism that affect engagement and lead to alienation from instruction - the dissociation between students' physical presence in academic classes and their thoughts while in class. 

Yair, G. (2000). Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction. Sociology of Education, 247-269.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Active Student Responding: Supporting Student Learning and Engagement

This web site offers a clear and concise review of Active student responding.

Center for Research on Learning and Teaching

This web site provides strategies for effective lesson planning.

Ed Tech Teachers: Best of History Web Sites

Best of History Web Sites aims to provide quick, convenient, and reliable access to the best history-oriented resources online in a wide range of categories and has been designed to benefit history teachers and their students; however, general history enthusiasts will benefit from the site as well.

National Council of Teachers of English

This web site provides resources for teachers of English in lesson plans and other teaching resources.

National Council of Teachers of English

This web site provides resources for teachers of English in lesson plans and other teaching resources.

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

PISA is a triennial international survey that evaluates education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students.

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