Education Drivers

Professional Coaching

Research provides convincing evidence that teachers wield great influence over student outcomes. Our knowledge base tells us that how teachers teach is instrumental to their success. To leverage this fact, pre-service and in-service programs must use pedagogical techniques offering the greatest likelihood that teachers will master and apply these critical competencies on the job. Research shows that coaching is the most efficacious way to accomplish this goal. By far, coaching outperforms didactic instruction, the most commonly used technique. Coaching is essential to mastering complex skill sets required of every teacher. It improves treatment integrity of practices taught and, unlike other methods, makes more likely that the practices will actually be used in the classroom. Coaches instruct trainees in standards, demonstrate skills, and observe the application of these skills in real-world classroom settings. Coaches provide feedback to trainees, and, based on observation, instruct the trainees in how to improve their performance. Given the disappointing track record of current in-service programs, coaching offer schools a viable alternative for improving services.

Teacher Coaching

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Teacher Coaching Overview PDF

Coaching teachers is an established professional development practice in schools and has been a focus of research (Wood, Goodnight, Bethune, Preston, & Cleaver, 2016). Teacher coaching is a method of professional development that incorporates providing feedback and support, often through modeling of a focused practice and classroom observations followed by reflection conversations (Raney & Robbins, 1989; Wesley & Buysse, 2006). The goal is to change teacher behavior with the ultimate goal of improving student achievement.

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Why is Teacher Coaching Important?

What teachers do in the classroom matters; teacher behavior and classroom practices impact student achievement (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockhoff, 2011). Professional development has been one way that districts have tried to impact teacher practice with the idea that it can shape teacher behavior in ways that impact student knowledge (Yoon, Duncan, Scarloss, & Shapley, 2007). Put another way, professional development may influence student achievement by increasing teacher skill, which improves teachers’ ability to make decisions that positively impact student achievement (Yoon et al., 2007).

When it comes to professional development, quality is important. Federal laws (e.g., No Child Left Behind, Every Student Succeeds Act) have outlined a need for high-quality professional development that improves teacher knowledge and provides effective instruction in research based strategies (U. S. Department of Education, 2001). Specifically, the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) maintains support for evidence based practices in the classroom, funding for effective strategies, and efforts to promote the use of evidence based practices to improve student achievement (ESSA, 2015). Under federal law, high-quality professional development is:

  1. Sustained, intensive, and focused around content,
  2. Aligned with standards and assessments,
  3. Designed to improve teacher knowledge,
  4. Designed to improve teacher use of evidence-based practices, and
  5. Evaluated for its effect on teachers and students (NCLB, 2002).

Even with the focus on professional development that has been in place since the 2000s, there is a range of professional development experiences, including one-day workshops, classes, and coaching. The New Teacher Project (TNTP) found that most professional development does not have the intended impact of improving teacher practice (2015). Coaching, however, stands out as a way to influence teacher practice (Wood et al., 2016). This is important because coaching, in general, is a common and increasingly practiced in schools (L’Allier, Elish-Piper, & Bean, 2011). There are different methods of teacher coaching that have shown to be effective.  

Methods of Teacher Coaching

There are various models of teacher coaching, including supervisory, side-by-side, remote coaching, and multi-level. Each one provides a different level of interaction between the coach and teacher, but all provide the same focus on observation, feedback, and reflection around a focus practice or behavior.  

Peer Coaching

            Peer coaching occurs when teachers are provided with observation, feedback, and coaching by a fellow teacher. The instruction may also involve modeling a focus practice as in a study that engaged teachers in peer coaching around teacher conducted shared reading with think aloud. Compared to teachers in the control group who did not receive coaching, teachers who worked with a peer coach changed their practice around think-alouds, which resulted in an improvement in student comprehension (Fisher, Frey, & Lapp, 2011). An important aspect of the peer coaching approach was the trust relationships established and maintained by teachers during the coaching work.

Side-by-Side Coaching

            Side-by-side coaching occurs when a coach provides in the moment feedback that is directly connected to a focus practice (Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010). Side by side coaching is characterized by being led by another staff member, and provides an opportunity to learn together, reflection, cooperation, and a relationship that aligns the coach and teacher as equals (Akhavan, 2015).

Side by side coaching is often led by another teacher or staff member and may involve co-teaching the lesson to model implementation of the focus practice. After side by side coaching a meeting provides for feedback, strengths, and weaknesses. This type of coaching has been shown to be important to support teachers’ use of newly learned strategies (Kretlow et al., 2011), has demonstrated positive impacts on student learning (Fisher et al., 2011) and is positively received by teachers (Akhavan, 2015).

Remote Coaching

            Coaching can also occur remotely through the use of technology, such as web cams and online chat platforms. In remote or virtual coaching, a coach observes a teacher remotely through a video feed and provides either immediate feedback through a “bug-in-ear” device (e.g., Almendarez et al., 2012) or through a follow-up conversation (e.g., Vernon-Faegans, Keinz, Amendum, Ginsberg, Wood, & Bock, 2012). Specifically, video-conferencing has been effective when implemented alongside an evidence-based practice (Amendum, Vernon-Faegens, & Ginsberg, 2011; Ruble, McGrew, Toland, Dalrymple, & June, 2013; Vernan-Faegans et al., 2012).

For example, Targeted Reading Instruction, a reading intervention that uses one-on-one instructional reading skill lessons has teacher coaching as part of the intervention. Virtual or in-person coaching is used to provide feedback and problem solve around student concerns (Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012). Using this method, students who receive the intervention scored higher on reading skills than those that do not (Amendum et al., 2011; Vernon-Faegans et al., 2012).

In another study, when teachers of students with autism were coached in the evidence-based practice, Collaborative Model of Prompting Competence and Success (COMPASS), teachers who received coaching either face-to-face or online demonstrated greater fidelity to the practice than the control group (Ruble et al., 2013). Furthermore, students demonstrated greater goal attainment in the three target domains (communication, social skills, and independence) with large effect sizes for both the in person group (ES = 1.41) and the web based coaching group (ES = 1.12), suggesting that results can be achieved through either in person or online coaching.

Differentiating Professional Development: Multilevel Coaching

Multilevel Coaching is coaching provided within a model of Multi-tiered System of Supports (e.g., Response To Intervention) that provides professional development with follow up supervisory coaching or side-by-side coaching for teachers to support full implementation (Simonsen et al., 2014; Wood et al., 2016). Within this model, teachers are provided with an initial professional development (e.g., a one-time workshop). Then, based on their ability to implement the focus practice, teachers are provided with coaching (Schnorr, 2013; Simonsen, Macsuga-Gage, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2014).

One study that examined teacher fidelity found that when teachers were provided with varying levels of professional development (in-service, supervisory coaching, and side-by-side coaching) based on the teacher’s initial treatment integrity of an instructional practice, not all teachers required coaching to produce positive changes in their practice (Schnorr, 2013). The focus of the professional development, including coaching, is to support teachers until they are all working at an acceptable level of fidelity, which may include providing some teachers with more coaching than others (Schnorr, 2013; Simonsen et al., 2014). In this model, teachers are provided with an initial training and their treatment integrity is recorded, if the teacher is not delivering the instruction at a high enough level of integrity, then they receive coaching until they reach the optimal level of integrity, which requires varying amounts of coaching depending on the teacher’s starting point and rate of learning.

Research on Coaching

Coaching has an established and growing research foundation including meta-analysis of research that brings multiple research studies together[RD1] [SC2] .

In one review, Kretlow and Bartholomew (2010) reviewed 13 studies conducted between 1989 and 2009 that involved teacher coaching. The review focused on 13 studies that specifically measured change in teacher practice using quantitative measures. The studies included 110 elementary-level teachers that received coaching (41 general and 69 special education teachers). All the studies incorporated a measure of teaching accuracy related to an evidence-based practice. All 13 studies found that the coaching increased the accuracy of teacher practice. Eight studies reported student outcomes, and of those, only three reported a positive change in student performance based on coaching provided. A lack of change in student performance may be because the studies were limited in length and it would take more time to see a change in student performance. Also, the student performance outcomes were limited (e.g., spelling tests, IEP goal completion) which may have contributed to the limited change in student performance.

In a recent meta-analysis, Kraft, Blazar, and Hogan (2018) examined 66 studies that involved teacher coaching across the grades (PreK-grade 12) and that had a causal design, such as a random controlled trial, or that included teachers who were and were not coached so that a comparison could be drawn. The studies also examined the effects of coaching on instruction and student achievement. The researchers combined the results from the studies for an effect size of 0.49 on instruction and 0.18 on student achievement[RD3] [SC4] (the[MOU5] [SC6] effect size is a way to show the difference between two groups, the smaller the effect size, the smaller the difference between groups that received, in this case, coaching and the group that did not). These effects were found for content-specific coaching, not for general coaching. And, coaching was equally effective across grade levels and for virtual compared to in-person coaching. (However, data provided for virtual coaching were less reliable.) In addition, they found that coaching must be provided in high doses to be effective.

Together, these reviews (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010) support the use of coaching overall with a focus on content and that were intensive, or provided in high doses.

The Impact of Coaching on Teacher Practice and Student Outcomes

Teacher coaching has been shown to have an impact on teacher practice. In one study, teacher coaching had an impact on instruction in reading comprehension with a moderate effect size (0.64), meaning that teachers who received coaching delivered reading instruction that was much more aligned with the focus practice than teachers who did not (Sailors & Price, 2010).

Coaching has also had an impact on the classroom environment. In a study that focused on coaching teachers in Head Start programs, teachers improved in their classroom environment (e.g., the quality of the writing area) but not in their interactions (e.g., interactions that support language; Neuman & Wright, 2010; Powell et al., 2010). This indicates that teachers may change lower level behaviors, or those that require a one-time shift, like organizing a lesson, faster than higher level behaviors, or those that require processes and higher order skills, like questioning.

Furthermore, providing sustained coaching over time has shown to improve teacher practice, particularly when teachers have a low level of implementation fidelity when they use a new practice. In a study that trained teachers in a universal classroom management intervention (Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management system) with ongoing coaching, teachers who started with lower levels of fidelity of implementation received more coaching and demonstrated an increase in fidelity over time. In comparison, teachers who started with higher levels of fidelity but received less coaching demonstrated a decrease in implementation fidelity over time. This supports the practice of maintaining coaching with all teachers to support high levels of fidelity (Reinke et al., 2013).

Teacher practice can be improved through coaching (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010), which is important because professional development on the whole does not always produce the intended changes (Guskey & Yoon, 2009). However, though coaching has a strong impact on teacher behaviors in the classroom, studies indicate smaller effects (0.18; Kraft et al., 2018) on the impact of teacher coaching on student achievement. The hypothesis that improving teacher fidelity of evidence based practices will influence student achievement outcomes is a focus of future research.

Implications for Practice

First, coaching must be implemented well to see the results found in research.

Kretlow and Bartholomew (2010) identified critical aspects of coaching that produced changes in teacher practice:

  1. Teachers were involved in a highly engaging initial training that incorporated modeling and small group practice.
  2. Teachers received follow up observations that were repeated and frequent. The number of observations ranged from two to daily for multiple weeks. This is key because teachers are not regularly observed after initial training (Yoon et al., 2007).
  3. Teachers received specific feedback that incorporated individualized observation data and self-evaluation.

Kraft et al. (2018) identified qualities of effective coaching. It provides:

  1. Individualized support, or coaching was provided through one-on-one coaching sessions,
  2. Teachers received intensive support with regular interactions (every two weeks),
  3. Coaching was sustained over an extended period of time, such as a school year,
  4. Teachers were coached on practices that they implemented in their own classrooms, and
  5. Coaching focused on specific skills.

Considerations for Implementation  

Teacher coaching is a method of adult learning, so efforts should be focused on implementing teacher coaching programs that are focused on teachers as adult learners. To that end, coaches should be able to:

  1. Focus on data to support instruction,
  2. Demonstrate adult learning practices to mirror classroom practice,
  3. Construct and apply knowledge and skills in classroom contexts,
  4. Focus on teacher content knowledge and leadership,
  5. Connect and align with the larger system, and
  6. Engage in data-driven decision making (measure, document, reflect, and adjust; Annenburg Institute for School Reform, 2004).

To be effective, Grabacz, Lannie, Jeffrey-Pearsall, and Truckenmiller (2015) identified that coaches should:

  1. Set clear goals for the coaching that provide teachers with an understanding of the outcomes for the coaching work,
  2. Model skills and provide teachers with opportunities to practice skills outside of the classroom (behavioral rehearsal) and within the classroom context,
  3. Provide feedback on skills either in the moment through bug-in-ear technology or hand signals, or immediately afterwards,
  4. Provide effective feedback that is timely, concrete, and specific (Veenman & Denneson, 2001), and
  5. Provide reinforcement and encouragement as teachers develop skill.

In their study of teachers that implemented a questioning technique in the classroom, specifically Question-the-Author (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kugan, 1997), Matsumura, Garnier, and Spybrook (2012) identified aspects of their model that may contribute to positive results:

  1. The coach had a clear role in the classroom and that role was well understood,
  2. The coaches received extensive training, and
  3. The focus strategy had a strong evidence base.

From this, it would be important to choose a focus practice that is an evidence-based practice or one that has a strong research base, and provide strong coaching around that practice.

            Planning coaching as professional development necessitates identifying coaches. In a survey of teachers who had received coaching, Akhavan (2015) identified characteristics of effective coaches:

  1. They had strong people skills and developed good working relationships with the teachers they worked with,
  2. They focused on teacher development,
  3. They had time to be available to each teacher, and
  4. They were able to help teachers use data to plan instruction.

            Finally, as school leaders make decisions around how to allocate resources, it is important to keep in mind that not all teachers may require intensive coaching. Providing multi-level coaching based on a teacher’s level of implementation may help maximize resources while producing the same results in teacher implementation (Simonson eta al., 2014; Wood et al., 2016).

Need for Future Research in Teacher Development

The primary need in research on coaching is research that connects teacher coaching efforts to improvements in student performance (Kraft et al., 2018; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010), which requires research that draws a causal connection between coaching and student performance (Borko, 2004; Yoon et al., 2007).

While changes in teacher practice are an established outcome from coaching, the level of treatment integrity on student performance is another area for further development. Specifically, studies, like those on multi-level coaching, that focused on improving teacher treatment integrity, often focused more on advancing teacher practice from low to high integrity may produce different results than when a high level of integrity is followed by a decrease in integrity. Future research that examines how teachers implement evidence-based practices over time and how the level of treatment integrity impacts student performance

Finally, there are questions around the type of coaching, the dosage, and the interactions that occur during coaching that influence student outcomes that can help inform coach practice (Wood et al., 2016).

Cost/Benefit of Teacher Coaching Compared to Professional Development

The cost of coaching will vary depending on the district and goals (e.g., the cost of an on-site staff coach will differ from a one-time project-based coach). One study (Knight, 2012) attempted to define the cost of coaching. The study found an average cost-per-teacher for coaching across three schools to range from $3,620 to $5,220, a cost that is six to 12 times more expensive than traditional professional development. However, considering that teachers do not generally use practices that are taught through one-time in-service sessions (Farkas, Johnson, & Duffett, 2003) it may be worth the extra cost to influence teacher practice.

Conclusion

Teacher coaching is one way to improve teacher practice, specifically related to evidence-based practices. When incorporated thoughtfully into a professional development strategy, coaching can provide the intensive support that teachers need to deepen their knowledge of a practice and improve their ability to implement it in the classroom.

Citations

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(2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

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Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2013WingSummitSF.pdf.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/Accountability%20and%20Autonomy.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions?
This analysis examined the impact of performance feedback on the quality of implementation of interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How does performance feedback affect the way teachers carry out interventions? Retrieved from how-does-performance-feedback.
How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research?
This analysis examined the frequency that treatment integrity is reported in studies of research-based interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How often are treatment integrity measures reported in published research? Retrieved from how-often-are-treatment.
How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings?
This analysis examined two studies to understand the reliability of self-reporting of practitioners implementing interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). How well are Interventions Implemented in Educational Settings? Retrieved from how-well-are-interventions.
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training
Staff training is often seen as the solution to all performance problems. This paper discusses the choices that have to be made when designing effective staff training.
Detrich, R. (2007). A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-aba-decision-matrix-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Designing a Culture: From Walden II to Classroom Consultation
This paper discusses the challenges of overcoming school cultural obstacles in the context of a public school teacher training and support program operated by Spectrum Center in the 1990's.
Detrich, R. (2014). Designing a Culture: From Walden II to Classroom Consultation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective
This paper presents a model for building a school organizational culture that trains and supports teachers in an effective, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Fitch, S. (2013). Thirty years of Getting Teachers to be More Effective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-suzanne-fitch.
ROKs: Remote Observation Kits
This paper presents a teacher coaching model using high quality audio and video technology to address the needs of teacher training in remote areas.
Hager, K. (2013). ROKs: Remote Observation Kits [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-karen-hager.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
The paper examines one of the most critical components of teach training: an on-the-job, ongoing system of coaching and performance feedback to improve skill acquisition, generalization and maintenance.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Teacher Induction: Where the Rubber Meets the Road [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed
This analysis reviews the ongoing failure of school reform efforts in the context of poor teacher preparation and performance feedback.
Keyworth, R. (2012). School Reform and Culture Change: What We Missed [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2012-wing-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.
Project AIM: Assess, Improve & Maintain Effective Teaching Practices
This paper shared a model for teacher assessment and professional development that address theneeds of large school districts in an effective and efficient manner.
Lewis, T. (2013). Project AIM: Assess, Improve & Maintain Effective Teaching Practices [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-teri-lewis.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices.

The primary research questions that drove this study are as follows: (1) To what extent can PBPD help teachers gain knowledge and implement EBCM practices? (2) To what extent does teachers’ use of EBCM practices maintain after the PBPD? (3) To what extent does student engagement increase after a teacher attended EBCM PBPD? (4) To what extent do self-reports of novice teacher efficacy and burnout change after completing EBCM PBPD?

Hirsch, S.E. (2015). Professional Development in Practice: Improving Novice Teachers’ Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices. Retrieved from student-research-2015.

Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond.
This study evaluated a multi-tiered system of support for teachers to increase the rate of teacher presented opportunities to respond.
MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2012). Supporting teachers’ professional development: Investigating the impact of a targeted intervention on teacher’ presentation of opportunities to respond. Retrieved from student-research-2012.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.

This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).  It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.

Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.

This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?

States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers

This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning. 

Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected

teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.

 

Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom. 

Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention: The targeted reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal112(1), 107-131.

Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care. 

Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac

 

Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach

This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.

Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities

This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations. 

Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.

 

Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look

The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.

Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

The Long-Term Impacts Of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added And Student Outcomes In Adulthood

This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Teacher Coaching Overview

The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.

Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans, 2005

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of feedback on treatment integrity for implementing behavior support plans.

Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(2), 205-219.

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

Stand by me: What teachers say about unions, merit pay, and other professional matters

This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.

Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,

merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.

Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement
In an effort to improve student achievement, a group of middle-school teachers at an underperforming school developed a school-wide literacy plan. As part of the plan, they agreed to model their thinking while reading aloud. Eight teachers were selected for coaching related to thinking aloud in which they exposed students to comprehension strategies that they used while reading. 

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals

This study examines principals’ time spent on instructional functions. The results show that the traditional walk-through has little impact, but principals provide coaching, evaluation, and focus on educational programs can make a difference.

Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals. Educational Researcher, 42(8), 433-444.

Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems

This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. 

Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.

Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12

This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.

Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.

Can Principals Identify Effective Teachers? Evidence on Subjective Performance Evaluation in Education

This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.

Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. 

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence

This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research88(4), 547-588.

Using Coaching to improve the Fidelity of Evidence-Based Practices: A Review of Studies

The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.

Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education33(4), 279-299.

Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies

This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.

Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education33(6), 348-361.

Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.

This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.

Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education44(4), 234-246.

Training teachers to give effective commands: Effects on student compliance and academic behaviors.

This study examines the effects of effective command training with teachers on students' compliance rates and academic engagement.

Matheson, A. S., & Shriver, M. D. (2005). Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 202-219.

The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions

This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.

Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching

This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. 

Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).

Instructional Coaching Program and Practice Standards

The New Teacher Center has released guidelines and standards for the implementation of coaching as a powerful means of improving school, teacher, and ultimately student performance. The Instructional Coaching Program Standardsdefine the essential elements of a coaching program designed to accelerate teacher effectiveness. 

New Teacher Center (2018). Instructional Coaching Program and Practice Standards. New Teacher Center. https://newteachercenter.org

 

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

Professional growth and support through peer coaching

Describes a Sonoma County (California) school district's peer coaching program designed to meet the needs of new, probationary, and experienced teachers. The program succeeded because participation was voluntary, the training empowered teachers and improved their coaching skills, and teachers continued to meet as a group and learn from each other.

Raney, P., & Robbins, P. (1989). Professional growth and support through peer coaching. Educational Leadership, 35(6), 35-38.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism

Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. 

Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction

In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students. 

Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.

 

Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers’ use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. 

Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).

Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches

This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. 

Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look

The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. 

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 201516 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers

This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.  

Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.

Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.

Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.

Making the case for evidence-based policy

U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways. 

Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.

Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education

 Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.

Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

Assessing The Value-Added Effects Of Literacy Collaborative Professional Development On Student Learning
This is a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a school-wide reform model that relies on coaching of teachers for improving student literacy learning.
Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal, 111(1), 7-34.
Using Implementation Intentions to Teach Practitioners: Changing Practice Behaviors via Continuing Education
This study evaluates the effectiveness of implementation on increasing the use of a practice behavior who attended a one-day continuing education class.
Casper, E. (2008). Using implementation intentions to teach practitioners: Changing practice behaviors via continuing education. Psychiatric Services, 59(7), 747-752.
Using Observational Data to Provide Performance Feedback to Teachers: A High School Case Study
This study provides promising information of effectiveness of classroom observation and performance feedback on 3 key variables: classroom instructional settings, instructional practice, and classroom student behavior.
Colvin, G., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Monegan, J. (2009). Using observational data to provide performance feedback to teachers: A high school case study. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 53(2), 95-104.
Developing District-wide Expertise in Leaders’ Ability to Analyze and Improve Instructional Practice
This manuscript reports on two district’s efforts to improve the instructional leadership of principals, and lead teacher coaches in collaboration with an external support provider.
Copland, M. A., & Blum, D. (2007). Developing District-wide Expertise in Leaders’ Ability to Analyze and Improve Instructional Practice.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Professional Development for Interdisciplinary Civic Education: Impacts on Humanities Teachers and Their Students.
This paper reports on a randomized controlled experiment examining the impact of a professional development intervention incorporating coaching and support to help teachers foster students' historical thinking skills, social and ethical reflection, and civic learning.
Gamse, B. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Professional Development for Interdisciplinary Civic Education: Impacts on Humanities Teachers and Their Students. Teachers College Record Volume 117 Number 4, 2015, p. - http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 17470, Date Accessed: 4/16/2014 12:51:12 PM
Supporting teacher use of interventions: effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention
This study examines the treatment integrity of teachers’ implementation of a peer tutoring intervention for five elementary students referred for consultation.
Gilbertson, D., Witt, J. C., Singletary, L. L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: Effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 311-326.
Timing of Feedback and Verbal Learning
A meta-analysis of findings on feedback timing and human verbal learning showed that applied studies using actual classroom quizzes and real learning materials have found immediate feedback to be more effective than delayed.
Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. L. C. (1988). Timing of feedback and verbal learning. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 79-97.
Improving discrete trial instruction by paraprofessional staff through an abbreviated performance feedback intervention
This study evaluates an abbreviated performance feedback intervention as a training strategy to improve discrete trial instruction of children with autism.
Leblanc, M. P., Ricciardi, J. N., & Luiselli, J. K. (2005). Improving Discrete Trial Instruction by Paraprofessional Staff Through an Abbreviated Performance Feedback Intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(1), 76-82.
The effects of pre-correction and active supervision on the recess behavior of elementary students.
This study examines the effectiveness of implementing a pre-correction and active supervision strategy on the rate of problem behavior during recess.
Lewis, T. J., Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (2000). The Effects of Pre-Correction and Active Supervision on the Recess Behavior of Elementary Students. Education and Treatment of Children, 23(2), 109-21.
The Use of Weekly Performance Feedback to Increase Teacher Implementation of a Pre-referral Academic Intervention
This study investigates the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a reinforcer-based classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review.
The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention.
Accurate implementation of an intervention is a pre-requisite to determining its effectiveness. The study examined the effects of weekly performance feedback on the accuracy of implementation of an academic intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 27, 613-627.
The Effects of Relative Performance Information and Framed Information Systems Feedback on Performance in a Production Task
This study investigates the impact of providing relative performance feedback and framing the feedback in a positive (good job) or negative (poor job) manner in a repetitive task.
Murthy, U. S., & Schafer, B. A. (2011). The effects of relative performance information and framed information systems feedback on performance in a production task. Journal of Information Systems, 25(1), 159-184.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
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