Education Drivers

Teacher-Student Relationships

Research shows that a category of teacher skills called personal competencies has a powerful impact on teacher effectiveness. The foremost of these competencies is the teacher-student relationship. Evidence finds that teachers who create a positive relationship have a large effect on increased student achievement; they also have fewer discipline problems, office referrals, and related conduct issues. Qualities of a teacher’s personal competencies with the largest impact include being consistent, providing structure, having an assertive presence, showing empathy, exhibiting warmth, encouraging learning, setting high standards, being adaptable, displaying awareness of high-needs students, being culturally sensitive, and showing respect for students. It is important to understand that simply caring about students isn’t enough. A teacher who shows warmth but lacks the other qualities will founder. Establishing an effective teacher-student relationship requires a balance of these competencies. These skills do not necessarily come naturally to new teachers, who must be trained in their use. Many pre-service and in-service programs fail to emphasize the importance of these soft skills and to operationalize them and support teachers in using them in the classroom.

 

Teacher-Student Relationships

Teacher-Student Relationships PDF

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships

Sound teacher-student relationships are an important component of student success (Hattie, 2009; Klem & Connell, 2004). This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships. Successful teacher-student bonds are frequently characterized as ones in which the teacher earns the student’s trust and in which the student feels emotionally safe, feels supported by the teacher, and is challenged to excel academically (Cornelius-White, 2007; Gregory & Ripski, 2008). It is a relationship that emphasizes constructive guidance sustained by praise rather than persistent criticism (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003). Effective teacher-student relationships minimize disruptive conduct that interferes with instruction, consequently creating a climate favorable to learning for all students in the classroom (Alderman & Green, 2011; Parsonson, 2012). Such positive relationships reduce student anxieties that can lead to a desire to escape an environment perceived as aversive and to higher rates of absenteeism and academic failure (Miller, 2000; Moos, & Moos, 1978). Positive teacher-student relationships are associated with increases in student achievement and quality of life outcomes.

What soft skills have the ability to improve teacher-student relationships?

Studies reveal that students with positive and supportive interpersonal relationships with teachers report enhanced positive academic attitudes and values, and more satisfaction with school (Brophy & Good, 1984). Large effect sizes ranging from 0.72 to 0.87 have been reported for positive teacher-student relations improving student achievement (Cornelius-White, 2007; Marzano et al., 2003). Teachers who support students in learning can positively impact critical long-term success in life (Barile et al., 2012;Krane, Karlsson, Ness, & Kim, 2016).

On the other hand, the consequences of non-constructive teacher-student relationships on academic success are also significant and long lasting (Civil Rights Project, 2000). Relationships identified as negative or ineffective frequently result in increased disruptive behavior (Marzano et al., 2003). Students who exhibit disruptive behavior impede classmates as well as hinder their own learning opportunities. Students with severe behavior issues are more likely to be suspended, to be held back, and to drop out of school(Baker et al., 2001). These students lag behind peers in achieving important education milestones and perform more poorly on standardized tests (Arcia, 2006). Overcoming these serious impediments to academic success requires teachers to adjust unproductive practices to strategies associated with positive teacher-student relationships and with favorable outcomes for both students and teachers.

If we are to discover what is essential in establishing positive teacher-student relationships, it is necessary to empirically identify the specific skill sets that contribute to student success. It is not enough to understand that teachers who establish positive relationships experience fewer behavioral disturbances and have classrooms in which students learn more. Teachers need the tools to establish and maintain positive relationships. Positive teacher-student relationships happen when teachers create and nurture a classroom culture that expects and rewards excellence from all students; use explicit instructional practices; and monitor student performance frequently through formative assessment. Such practices allow teachers to more effectively adjust and adapt instructional practices to aid and support all students. When teachers master positive teacher-student relationships and implement the essential technical competencies and soft skills, both students and teachers prosper.

This overview examines a combination of five soft skills that offer practical steps teachers can adopt to ensure positive teacher-student relationships.

  1. Managing the Classroom

Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1990) found that classroom management played a critical role in boosting student performance. Classroom management is how teachers control conduct and influence student behavior to create an environment conducive to learning. The primary aims of effective classroom management are to increase socially adaptive conduct (learned behavior that enable a student to function effectively in the classroom) and institute practices to minimize student misbehavior. Ineffective classroom management results in a chaotic classroom climate, disrupted instruction, and damage to teacher morale (Marzano et al., 2003). When instructional control is poor, neither teacher nor student wins. A substantial body of research supports the power of evidence-based behavior management to improve student academic performance with an overall positive effect size of 0.52 (Hattie, 2012; Marzano et al., 2003). 

The question is, How can teachers develop a teacher-student relationships designed to enhance effective classroom management? Teachers can employ an array of practices to establish the desired classroom climate conducive to learning (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008; States, Detrich, & Keyworth, 2017). Effective strategies include:

a) Classroom structure and predictability (rules and procedures)
b) Proactive management procedures
c) Effective and stimulating instructional practices
d) Procedures to deal with disruptive behavior

  1. Communicating High Expectations

There are two primary questions about teacher expectations: Do teacher expectations have an impact on student achievement. If so, how do you teach high expectations to teachers?

Research attempting to answer the first question goes back more than 40 years. A meta-analysis by Rosenthal and Rubin (1978) reported an effect size of 0.70 for self-fulfilling prophecies. Teachers were more likely to have students meet expectations regardless of the accuracy of these expectations based on a student’s past history. In a meta-analysis, Harris and Rosenthal (1985) reported an effect size of 0.26 associated with student sex, age, and ethnicity as factors in influencingteacher expectations about how a student would perform academically. Smith (1980) reported that when teachers were provided data depicting a student’s abilities, the teacher reliably rated student ability, achievement, and behavior.

Another factor influencing teacher expectations is student attractiveness. Teachers who perceived a student to be attractive consistently graded that student with higher scores. The effect size for attractiveness and student performance was found to be 0.30 (Dusek & Joseph, 1983). A Swiss study (Batruch, Autin, Bataillard, & Butera, 2018) found that when student achievement was identical, evaluators placed students labeled with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) in a lower track and students labeled with a higher SES in a higher track.Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Lipsey, and Roberts (2002) found an effect size of -0.61 for reading achievement when the teacher was informed that a student had a disability as opposed to when no label was provided to the teacher. Rubie-Davies, Hattie, and Hamilton (2006) found that a teacher’s negative expectation for one student generalized to lower expectations for the entire classroom. Whether consciously or unconsciously, teachers form expectations about a student’s abilities or skills. These biases have a significant impact both positively and negatively on student achievement (Rubie, 2003; Rubie-Davies, 2008).Hattie (2009) found an overall 0.43 effect size for a teacher’s positive expectations about student achievement.

Despite a growing knowledge base about associations between high teacher expectations and student learning (e.g., Rubie-Davies, 2008; Weinstein, Gregory, & Strambler, 2004), more experimental studies and replication research need to be conducted. Regardless, teacher preparation (pre-service) programs and school administrators have a responsibility to address the issue by examining the best available evidence as the basis for designing programs and training teachers to minimize negative biases and to maximize high expectations for all students.

The available strategies for communicating high expectations include:

a) Incorporating high expectations into teacher preparation (pre-service) programs.

    • Establish expectations for high standards and control for bias (Teaching Tolerance Anti-Bias Framework).
    • Implement recruitment best practices and enrollment protocols that will identify and enroll candidates who do not exhibit explicit bias. Although implicit attitude assessments have been developed to identify multicultural bias, the validity of such assessments remains in question (Hofmann, Gawronski, Gschwendner, Le, & Schmitt, 2005; Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, & Tetlock, 2013).
    • Educate candidates about the importance of setting high expectations for all students and the risks associated with low expectations (Lumsden, 1997).
    • Develop curricula targeted at remediating explicit and implicit bias. (Lin, Lake, & Rice, 2008).
    • Provide instruction to candidates on how to recognize and avoid negative attitudes based on common biases (Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012;Van Hook, 2002; Wasson & Jackson, 2002).

b) Making high expectations for all students a priority at each school.Setting high expectations starts at the top with the school board, superintendent, and principal.

    • Adopt a districtwide and school philosophy and cultural values that are complementary with the philosophy and promote equitable treatment of all students and combat bias. Such value statements along with concrete examples should be operationalized and clearly communicated to staff and parents (Gilbert, 2007).
    • Align school policies and procedures with the stated values. Communicate in clearly expressed, behaviorally based terms the roles of teachers and other personnel in establishing high expectations and avoiding explicit and implicit bias.

c) Providing ongoing teacher professional development. School administrators should develop and implement training to foster appropriate teacher conduct regarding explicit and implicit bias (Aguado, Ballesteros, & Malik, 2003). Training should be designed to raise awareness and to change behavior in the classroom.

    • Train teachers to identify bias and to implement an evidence-based curriculum that increases teacher tolerance and focuses on maintaining high expectations for all students (Cantor, Kester, & Miller, 2000).
    • Offer teacher training in methods to increase high expectations and avoid common pitfalls (McDonald et al., 2016).
    • Provide training opportunities that go beyond didactic presentations and include coaching in actual classroom settings (Cleaver, Detrich, & States, 2018; Knight, 2009).

d) Assessing teacher performance. Formal and informal assessment of teacher performance should occur throughout the school year. Incorporate evidence-based assessments that include teacher-student interactions as well as student outcome performance data as key components of teacher assessment (Allen et al., 2013).

    • Adopt an assessment tool for evaluating teacher performance (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Conduct formative assessment of teachers utilizing teacher observation, performance feedback, and performance improvement training.
    • Include setting high expectations into formal teacher evaluation instruments. Research suggests that evaluation systems that include student input on teacher-student relationships can have a positive impact on outcomes (Barile et al., 2012).
    • Develop and implement a schoolwide key indicator reporting system that includes critical process and outcome measures for high expectations and bias (Celio, 2011).
  1. Showing Empathy and Cultural Sensitivity

Empathetic behavior has been seen as a desirable trait for educators (Hattie, 2009). It has also been linked to the effectiveness of teachers working with students of differing cultural backgrounds (McAllister & Irvine, 2002). Being able to recognize and comprehend the feelings of another is at the heart of empathy.Behaving empathetically is taking the perspective of another. This is important in an ethnically and culturally diverse society in which teachers must look beyond their own cultural values to effectively understand and respond to the perspectives of a diverse study body (Gay, 2000).

For more than 50 years, key education performance data including achievement scores, graduation rates, special education placement, school discipline, and juvenile justice consistently have shown lower outcomes for students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (Hegedus, 2018; Keyworth, 2015; Orfield et al., 2004; U.S. GAO, 2018). Differences between home and school cultures likely contributed to these outcomes (Sugai et al., 2012). Being culturally responsive can help to mollify this picture. This requires incorporatingcultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students (Gay, 2002). When knowledge and skills being taught are positioned within the experiences of a student, instruction becomes more meaningful, more relevant, and more interesting, and thus students are more motivated to excel and achieve (Gay, 2002). Because culture strongly influences the attitudes, values, and behaviors that students and teachers bring to the instructional process, cultural sensitivity and empathy have been linked (Bruneau et al., 2017).

Empathy has an important role to play in bridging the tenacious achievement gap for students from ethnic, socioeconomic, and racial populations that differ from the Eurocentric culture predominant in the United States (Aghion et al., 1999; Lipka et al., 1998; Moses & Cobb, 2001). Discrimination is deeply embedded in U.S. culture. It is present in the labor market, policing, the courts, and education (Bertrand et al., 2005; Greenwald, & Krieger, 2006; Jost, et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2011; Quillian et al., 2017). Explicit and implicit ethnic, racial, and cultural biases affect the way students are taught and decrease the likelihood of their long-term life success.

Teacher preparation programs should train teachers to show more empathy and offer strategies, through curricula and instruction, to address racial, ethnic, and cultural issues. To increase cultural sensitivity in teachers, it is important to increase knowledge of the diverse cultures teachers will encounter in the classroom. Teacher preparation should be charged with instructing candidates on maintaining high expectations for all students and on the impact of bias. Training should focus on how to build a classroom climate that is conducive to and supports a culturally diverse student population. Teachers should be proficient in methods of opening cross-cultural communication among the students they will encounter in the classroom. This type of teacher preparation requires a knowledge of the specific cultures of ethnic groups, how these cultural values impact learning, and how to adjust curriculum and instruction in a way that respects and values our differences as people (Gay, 2002).

A combination of strategies are designed to mitigate the impact of implicit and explicit bias. These include stereotype replacement, counterstereotype imaging, individualization, perspective taking, increasing opportunities for positive engagement of people outside the teacher’s culture, and feedback when bias is observed (Devine et al., 2012; McGlone, & Aronson, 2007). Strategies to teach empathy include role playing, modeling, teaching point of view, perspective taking, reading emotions in others, practicing kindness, collaboration, and instruction in active listening (Borba, 2018; Wilson & Conyers, 2017). As of 2018, there is a dearth of high-quality studies and replication research to guide teacher preparation programs and schools in designing empathy training. Because of the importance of empathy, it is essential that educators examine the best available evidence in developing training, implementing practices, and monitoring performance for adjusting practices that have not proven effective based on a school’s key indicator data.

  1. Motivating Students

Motivating students is essential if the primary goal of education is to prepare students for success in life. Having a positive teacher-student relationships is an important ingredient in effective teaching (Marzano et al., 2003). A meta-analysis of six studies found that motivation had an effect size of 0.48 on student achievement (Hattie, 2009). As a rule, teachers should maintain a ratio of four or five positive interactions for every negative interaction if they are to sustain positive relationships with students (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009; Kalis, Vannest, & Parker, 2007).

Students who are motivated tend to excel and, conversely, students who are not motivated tend to perform more poorly (Hattie, 2009; Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992). Fundamentally, we can infer students are motivated to participate when they engage in an activity and are motivated to escape if they avoid engaging in an activity. The key is to understand what specifically motivates each child and then to increase the child’s motivation to engage and reduce his or her motivation to escape engagement. Student motivation in a subject is highest when the student is competent in the requisite skills, has autonomy to act, and receives affirmation for having successfully accomplished a task (Dörnyei, 2001). A student who consistently fails, encounters public embarrassment, and does notexperience positive acknowledgment for his or her effort will most likely not develop a long-term interest in the subject. Building positive relationships with students is one way to motivate students.

It is important for teachers to employ practices that increase a student’s motivation to succeed academically while reducing motivation to escape instruction. Methods for using extrinsic motivation to maximize learning exist; however, despite a preponderance of research supporting the use of extrinsic motivation, not all educators are in agreement. The value of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been debated for more than 50 years (Deci, 1971; Skinner, 1953). By 1970, hundreds of studies within the behavioral tradition established that extrinsic rewards can influence behavior. Still, many have argued that extrinsic reinforcement has a negative impact on student development. Some have even described extrinsic reinforcement strategies as bribery (Kohn, 1993). Despite this clash, ample data in the fields of psychology and economics since the 1960s support the use of external rewards (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Gibbons, 1998; Lazear 2000). Various studies show that extrinsic rewards not only are not harmful but, when used appropriately, can increase intrinsic motivation (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Eisenberger & Cameron, 1996), although some studies show mixed results (Gneezy, Meier, & Rey-Biel, 2011). A 1992 meta-analysis on extrinsic motivation (Wiersma, 1992)suggests that in many of the reviewed studies, the procedures were poorly operationalized and the results problematically interpreted. This is important as a study’s outcomes are dependent on clearing describing the intervention’s procedures as well as how effectively the intervention is implemented. It is not surprising that vaguely defined interventions produce ambiguous results and are extremely challenging to reproduce.

Ultimately, teachers are mandated to work with all students, even those who are not excited or inspired.Not all students are equally motivated by the subjects mandated in education standards. To be successful, teachers need evidence-based methods to engage these students. Having constructive and encouraging interactions is a powerful first step in building a positive relationship. Best practices indicate that extrinsic reinforcement programs should be time limited, with the goal of scaling back tangible reinforcement (awards, activities, stickers, token economy, edibles, etc.), and moving to social praise as students achieve success in the lesson being taught (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987).

  1. Communicating Clearly

Anecdotally, teachers spend much of the day communicating with students through verbal and written instructions. Research suggests that clearly communicating lessons along with explicitly announcing expectations has a positive impact on student performance (Fendick, 1990). In a survey of student opinions on what characterizes an effective teacher, the top three words used to characterize teachers were “interesting,” “approachable,” and “clarity” (Feldman, 1988). Clarity is the process by which an instructor is able to effectively transfer the desired meaning of lessons and processes to students through the use of appropriately structured vocal and non-vocal messaging (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998). It is how a teacher facilitates the intended lesson using a precise selection of terms and in the way he or she organizes the presentation of the content, offers examples to support the intended lesson, provides guided practice, and assesses the effectiveness of the instruction by sampling student learning (Fendick, 1990).

Teachers need to be fluent in the course material and have the communications skills to convey the knowledge and skills to students (Okoli, 2017). The results from two meta-analyses confirm that teacher clarity has a moderate effect on student affective and cognitive learning (Titsworth, Mazer, Goodboy, Bolkan, & Myers, 2015). Another meta-analysis examining the impact of teacher clarity on student achievement gains found an effect size of 0.35 (Fendick, 1990). Hattie (2009) reported a 0.75 effect size for teacher clarity on achievement. When teachers are not clear, students can become anxious and frustrated, and their acquisition of material and skills is reduced (Chesebro & McCrosky, 1998). It is not surprising that vaguely communicated lessons produce poorer results and explicit, clear instruction benefits learning. To maximize the impact of clarity of communication, teacher and principal preparation programs need to incorporate these skills into their curricula. It is important to establish clear and objective standards for clear communication. Additionally, effective communication training strategies should be adopted, and reliable and valid tools employed to assess teacher clarity (Bolkan, 2017; Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998; Dörnyei, 1995).

To be a clear and effective communicator, a teacher must converseconcisely, precisely, and accurately; provide ample opportunities for students to acquire the information; and assess student acquisition and understanding of what has been communicated. A clear communicator needs to be:

    • Concise Minimize the number of ideas in each sentence to ideas that are critical to the lesson. Keep the message simple, stick to the point, and keep it brief. Eliminate filler words such as “you know,” “um,” “like," “literally,” "basically," or "I mean” (Mancuso & Miltenberger, 2016).
    • ConcreteResearch suggests that ideas are easier to remember when they are specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. To be concrete in communication is to present information and instructions in an objective manner that makes it possible for two or more people to identify and understand what is being communicated. Concrete communication uses specific facts and figures. When presenting a theory, provide explicit examples to elaborate, give substance, and add depth to the topic (Heath & Heath, 2007). 
    • CoherentDeliver lessons that are consistent, logical, and orderly. Teacher lessons must havecoherence, scope, and sequencing (Wiley & Waters, 2005). Information that is not coherent will confuse students and make them unsure of the message being communicated.
    • Complete Provide sufficient information or instructions so that students have everything they need to be fully informed and to complete assignments. The verbal or non-verbal communication must include presentation of lesson content (or where to find the information), who is responsible for completing an assignment, to what standards the student’s effort is to be held accountable, and when work must be submitted.
    • Responsive to student feedback Teachers need to effectively use questions and active responding as valuable sources of feedback for increasing the clarity of instruction. Questions from students can help teachers better understand how effectively they are communicating. Questions also give students the chance to ask for clarification and let teachers know if they are achieving the goals and objectives of a lesson.Permitting students to ask questions increases student participation. Active responding lets teachers sample student understanding, and increases student engagement and acquisition of material or skills being taught (Barbetta & Heward, 1993; Hattie, 2009; Schroeder, Scott, Tolson, Huang, & Lee, 2007).
    • Reiterative A clear communicator needs to increase the frequency that students are exposed to lessons. Repetition is important to mastery and fluency of material being taught. Learning is increased when mastered material is reintroduced in subsequent lessons to ensure that learning is retained. (Gijselaers & Schmidt, 1995; Wang et al., 1990).

Summary

Research supports the importance of positive teacher-student relationships. Teachers foster positive bonds with students by creating a constructive classroom climate, treating students with respect, having high expectations for all students, and maximizing success for each student. Positive relationships between teachers and students enhance student receptivity to instruction. Negative relationships have the opposite impact, increasing the likelihood that students who feel uncomfortable or threatened by a teacher will attempt to escape or avoid lessons. Teachers who adopt classroom management strategies are more likely to have a classroom climate conducive to instruction and to avoid learning environments where chaos reigns and learning is elusive. Teachers who adopt, master, and maintain the technical and soft skills of clear communication, set high expectations for all students, avoid explicit and implicit biases, motivate students, and show empathy will significantly increase student success and their own job satisfaction (Collie, Shapka, & Perry, 2012; Þorkelsson,2018;Skaalvik, & Skaalvik, 2011). Although much more experimental research on this topic needs to be performed, it is clear that, given the best available evidence, specific strategies and practices currently available to teacher preparations programs, school systems, and teachers will leverage positive teacher-student relationships to maximize student outcomes. 

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Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health74(7), 262–273.

Knight, J. (2009). Instructional coaching. In J. Knight (Ed.), Coaching approaches and perspectives(pp. 29–55). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Krane, V., Karlsson, B., Ness, O., & Kim, H. S. (2016). Teacher-student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review. Scandinavian Psychologist,3, e11.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346-1361.

Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly35(2), 187–200.

Lipka, J., & Mohatt, G. V., & the Ciulistet Group (1998). Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lumsden, L. (1997). Expectations for students.ERIC Digest, Number 116.

Mancuso, C., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis49(1), 188–192.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of Teacher Education53(5), 433–443.

McDonald, L., Flint, A., Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E. R., Watson, P., & Garrett, L. (2016). Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process. Professional Development in Education42(2), 290–307.

McGlone, M. S., & Aronson, J. (2007). Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students. Communication Education56(2), 119-133.

Miller, S. R. (2000). Falling off track: How teacher-student relationships predict early high school failure rates. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263–269. 

Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2001). Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights. Boston, MA: Beacon.

Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating communication competence to teaching effectiveness: Implication for teacher education. Journal of Education and Practice8(3), 150–154.

Orfield, G., Losen, D., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Civil Rights Project.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology105(2), 171–192. 

Parsonson, B. S. (2012). Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies. Kairaranga13(1), 16–23.

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual -Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Þorkelsson, J. (2018).The impact of communication factors on job satisfaction among Icelandic employees in the public sector (Doctoral dissertation, Reykjavik University). Retrieved from https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/30691/1/Lokaverkefni_BS_Skemman.pdf

Quillian, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(41), 10870–10875.

Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1978). Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences1(3), 377–386.

Rubie, C. M. (2003). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, ResearchSpace@ Auckland). 

Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2008). Expecting success: Teacher beliefs and practices that enhance student outcomes. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag.

Rubie‐Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology76(3), 429–444.

Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development(pp. 183-212). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351–380.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and Teacher Education27(6), 1029–1038.

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Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions14(4), 197–208. 

Titsworth, S., Mazer, J. P., Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Communication Education64(4), 385–418.

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Weinstein, R. S., Gregory, A., & Strambler, M. J. (2004). Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist59(6), 511–520.

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Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Teacher-student Relationships.

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance?
The analysis examines direct influences tht have the greatest impact on student performance. 28 categories were distilled by combining the effect size along professional judgment of educational experts.
States, J. (2010). What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance? Retrieved from what-are-critical-influences808.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.
What is a teacher's impact on student achievement?
This review examines multiple meta-analyses on the power teachers play in student achievement.
States, J. (2014). What is a teacher's impact on student achievement? Retrieved from what-is-teacher's-impact.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, MB. (2011). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-mary-beth-celio.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.

Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Risks and rewards of school-based mentoring Relationships: A reanalysis of the student mentoring program evaluation.

This study presents a reanalysis of a large randomized controlled trial of school-based mentoring and examines the estimated effect of mentoring as a function of mentee-reported relationship quality using a novel statistical approach.

Lyons, M. D., & McQuillin, S. D. (2019). Risks and rewards of school-based mentoring relationships: A reanalysis of the student mentoring program evaluation. School Psychology, 34(1), 76-85.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000265

Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement

This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented. 

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health74(7), 262-273.

Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples

This book share issues of equity and school transformation, and shows how one indigenous minority teachers' group engaged in a process of transforming schooling in their community. Documented in one small locale far-removed from mainstream America, the personal narratives by Yupík Eskimo teachers. 

 Lipka, J., & Ilutsik, E. (2014). Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup¡ k Eskimo Examples. Routledge.

The impact of communication factors on job satisfaction among Icelandic employees in the public sector

The main purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of communicative factors on job satisfaction and employee’s desired need for new ways of communicating.

Þorkelsson, J. The Impact of Communication Factors on Job Satisfaction Among Icelandic Employees in the Public Sector (Doctoral dissertation).

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis

This is a meta-analysis that examines teacher-student relations impact on student performance.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/1/113.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=sprer;77/1/113.

Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories

We analyze the relationship between inequality and economic growth from two directions. The first part of the survey examines the effect of inequality on growth. The second part analyzes several mechanisms whereby growth may increase wage inequality, both across and within education cohorts.

Aghion, P., Caroli, E., & Garcia-Penalosa, C. (1999). Inequality and economic growth: The perspective of the new growth theories. Journal of Economic literature37(4), 1615-1660.

Cultural Diversity and School Equity. A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

The main purpose of this research is to explore whether the proper strategies to deal with cultural diversity in school is being implemented, and to assess how cultural diversity is addressed in our school.

Aguado, T., Ballesteros, B., & Malik, B. (2003). Cultural diversity and school equity. A model to evaluate and develop educational practices in multicultural education contexts. Equity &Excellence in Education36(1), 50-63.

Cultural Diversity and School Equity. A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

The main purpose of this research is to explore whether the proper strategies to deal with cultural diversity in school is being implemented, and to assess how cultural diversity is addressed in our school.

Aguado, T., Ballesteros, B., & Malik, B. (2003). Cultural diversity and school equity. A model to evaluate and develop educational practices in multicultural education contexts. Equity &Excellence in Education36(1), 50-63.

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Observations of Effective Teacher–Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement With the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary.

Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher–student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.

Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system–secondary

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary.

Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher–student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.

ACHIEVEMENT AND ENROLLMENT STATUS OF SUSPENDED STUDENTS: Outcomes in a Large, Multicultural School District

This article presents the results of longitudinal retrospective analyses on suspensions, achievement, and long-term enrollment status of students in a large, urban school district. Findings indicated that suspended students had substantially lower presuspension achievement than did students in the comparison group, gained considerably less academically throughout 3 years with suspensions, and had high drop-out rates.

Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education and Urban Society38(3), 359-369.

The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school’s contribution to dropout and completion.

Using a structural perspective from organizational theory, the authors review aspects of schooling associated with dropout. They then briefly review selected reform initiatives that restructure the school environment to improve student achievement and retention.

Baker, J. A., Derrer, R. D., Davis, S. M., Dinklage-Travis, H. E., Linder, D. S., & Nicholson, M. D. (2001). The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school's contribution to dropout and completion. School psychology quarterly16(4), 406.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives

This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence41(3), 256-267.

Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach

This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.

Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.

School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities

Selection practices in education, such as tracking, may represent a structural obstacle that contributes to the social class achievement gap. The authors hypothesized that school’s function of selection leads evaluators to reproduce social inequalities in tracking decisions, even when performance is equal. 

Batruch, A., Autin, F., Bataillard, F., & Butera, F. (2018). School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167218791804.

The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

This paper is a research review which explores factors that can be controlled or influenced by teachers and that are known to affect student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. Pre-instructional factors include decisions about content, time allocation, pacing, grouping, and activity structures. 

Berliner, D. C. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.

Implicit discrimination

What drives people to discriminate? Economists focus on two main reasons: "taste-based" and "statistical" discrimination. Motivated by a growing body of psychological evidence, the authors put forward a third interpretation: implicit discrimination. The authors argue that discrimination may be unintentional and outside of the discriminator's awareness.

Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review95(2), 94-98.

Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork.

This well-written book on assertiveness clearly describes the non assertive, assertive, and aggressive styles of supervision. Each chapter provides numerous examples, practice exercises, and self-tests. The author identifies feelings and beliefs that support aggressiveness, non aggressiveness, or non assertiveness which help the reader "look beyond the words themselves."

Black, M. K. (1991). Assertive Supervision-Building Involved Teamwork. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing22(5), 224-224.

Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale

This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed.

Bolkan, S. (2017). Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education66(1), 19-36.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Achieving Equitable Accessing to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders

The purpose of this guide is to help district leaders take on the challenge of ensuring that students have equitable access to excellent teachers. It shares some early lessons the Education Trust has learned from districts about the levers available to prioritize low-income students and students of color in teacher quality initiatives. The guide outlines a seven-stage process that can help leaders define their own challenges, explore underlying causes, and develop strategies to ensure all schools and students have equitable access to effective teachers.

Bromberg, M. (2016). Achieving Equitable Access to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders. Education Trust.

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Parochial Empathy Predicts Reduced Altruism and the Endorsement of Passive Harm

This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern. 

Bruneau, E. G., Cikara, M., & Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science8(8), 934-942.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers

The study investigated the impact of organizational and personality factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one conceptual framework. 

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Educational Research Journal31(3), 645–673.

Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental stud- ies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. 

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational research, 64(3), 363-423.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.
 

In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.

Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

This paper describes a survey of teachers trained in Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA). The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues. 

Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge

In this article, the author argues convincingly for a view of American's cultural diversity as a self-evident reality - one that must be effectively addressed by inservice and preservice teacher education programmes.

Carrington, V. (1999). Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy43(4), 386.

Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams

A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate-related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. 

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology92(2), 331–346.

 

The Development of The Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) to Measure Clear Teaching in The Classroom

This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity. 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The development of the teacher clarity short inventory (TCSI) to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports15(3), 262-266.

The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension

This study examined the impact of state receiver apprehension in the instructional context. Because of its negative relationship with information processing effectiveness, receiver apprehension is an experience which can act as a barrier to elective learning.

 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension. Communication Quarterly46(4), 446–456.

 

Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students

To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence. 

Choy, S. P. (2002). Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students.Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis.

 

Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a national summit on zero tolerance.

This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. 

Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research. The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress.

Claessens, B. J., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review36(2), 255–276.

Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning

This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual and contextual factors.

Clandinin, D. J., Long, J., Schaefer, L., Downey, C. A., Steeves, P., Pinnegar, E., ... & Wnuk, S. (2015). Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning. Teaching Education26(1), 1-16.

Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams

Solid evidence supports claims that motivational programs can increase the quality and quantity of performance from 20 to 40 percent. Motivation can solve three types of performance problems: 1) people are refusing to change; and/or 2) allowing themselves to be distracted and not persist at a key task; and/or 3) treating a novel task as familiar, making mistakes but not investing mental effort and taking responsibility because of overconfidence. After describing a number of general strategies for fostering individual motivation, the article focuses on the unique motivational issues faced by teams and how to overcome them.

Clark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement42(3), 21–29.

 

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

School climate and social-emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy.

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers’ perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers’ sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology104(4), 1189.

“I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change

This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information. The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC.

Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration39(3), 266–281.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis.

The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research77(1), 113-143.

On the teachability of communication strategies.

This article describes what communication strategies are and provides an overview of the teachability issue, discussing the arguments for and against strategy instruction, and suggests three possible reasons for the existing controversy. 

Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL quarterly29(1), 55-85.

Motivational Strategies in the language classroom
This book is the first of its kind in the second/foreign language (L2) ®eldthat is entirely devoted to discussing
motivational strategies, that is, methods and techniques to generate and maintain the learners' motivation.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs

Few studies have examined factors relating to ineffective school leadership. Such knowledge can help principals refine leadership behaviors and enhance job security. This study used experiences and perceptions from 99 California public school superintendents to examine the reasons why some principals lose their jobs. 

Davis, S. H. (1998). Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs. Educational Administration Quarterly34(1), 58–90.

Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation

Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. 

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18,105–115.

The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis

A meta‐analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task‐based skill, objective task‐based skill, and teamwork skill.

Delise, L. A., Allen Gorman, C., Brooks, A. M., Rentsch, J. R., & Steele‐Johnson, D. (2010). The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis. Performance Improvement Quarterly22(4), 53–80.

School psychologist as problem solver

Deno, S. L. (1995). School psychologist as problem solver. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III(pp. 471–484). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance

This study reports the results of several meta-analyses examining the relationship between four operational definitions of cognitive ability within teams (highest member score, lowest member score, mean score, standard deviation of scores) and team performance. 

Devine, D. J., & Phillips, J. L. (2000). Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

 

Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention

The authors developed a multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention to produce long-term reductions in implicit race bias. The intervention is based on the premise that implicit bias is like a habit that can be broken through a combination of awareness of implicit bias, concern about the effects of that bias, and the application of strategies to reduce bias.

Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(6), 1267–1278.

It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students

Studying teacher workload issues has become somewhat of a trend in recent years with studies having already been completed in most other Canadian provinces. The consistency in teacher workload across the country is remarkable (see Appendix 2), and many of the findings in this study are supported by research in other jurisdictions. However, this discussion of the findings will deal primarily with the issues in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Dibbon, D. C. (2004). It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students. St. John’s, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

The bases of teacher experiences: A meta-analysis

Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. 

Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology75(3), 327.

The bases of teacher experiences: A meta-analysis

Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. 

Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology75(3), 327.

Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement

This meta-analysis systematically synthesized results from 26 component studies, including dissertations and published articles, which reported at least one correlation between collective teacher efficacy and school achievement.

Eells, R. J. (2011). Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement.

Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?

An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that (a) detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; (b) mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and (c) positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory. 

Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist51(11), 1153.

Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?

Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction. 

Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education28(4), 291-329.

The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis

This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.

Fendick, F. (1992). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis.

The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.

Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.

Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences between Low Achievers with and without the Label.

This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.

Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct.

The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then  review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 157-171.

Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies

The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (L. S. Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology95(2), 306–315.

Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited

Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations.  The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic44(4), 195-205.

Preparing for culturally responsive teaching.

In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.

Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education53(2), 106-116.

Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.

Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.

A practical application of time management

This chapter progresses four specific components of “a practical application of time management”.

George, D. (2012). A practical application of time management.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221928054_A_Practical_Application_of_Time_Management

Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content to Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities

This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954–1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Peterson, A., & Dimino, J. (2006). Eyes on the prize: Teaching history to students with learning disabilities in inclusive settings. Exceptional Children72, 264-280.

Incentives in organizations

The author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. The author concludes by suggesting two avenues for further progress in agency theory: better integration with organizational economics, and cross-pollination with other fields that study organizations. 

Gibbons, R. (1998). Incentives in organizations. Journal of economic perspectives12(4), 115-132.

Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.

This paper provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on the authors own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. This paper also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.

Gibert, A., Tozer, W. C., & Westoby, M. (2017). Teamwork, soft skills, and research training. Trends in ecology & evolution32(2), 81-84.

Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement.

This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction. 

Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation1(2), 183-201.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers.

The article presents an overview of these tenets drawn from opinion positions, practical experiences, and empirical research studies. There is clear evidence that additional empirical research would be beneficial.

Gillard, S. (2009). Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers. Issues in informing science & information technology6.

When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.

This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.

Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives25(4), 191-210.

The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life.

Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”

Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.

Why marriages succeed or fail.

This breakthrough book guides you through a series of self-tests designed to help you determine what kind of marriage you have, where your strengths and weaknesses are, and what specific actions you can take to help your marriage.

Gottman, J., Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (1995). Why marriages succeed or fail: And how you can make yours last. Simon and Schuster.

Implicit bias: Scientific foundations.

This Article introduces implicit bias-an aspect of the new science of unconscious mental processes that has substantial bearing on discrimination law.

Greenwald, A. G., & Krieger, L. H. (2006). Implicit bias: Scientific foundations. California Law Review94(4), 945-967.

Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom

This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority. 

Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review37(3), 337.

A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

The purpose of the current study was to test theoretically derived hypotheses regarding the relationships between team efficacy, potency, and performance and to examine the moderating effects of level of analysis and interdependence on observed relationships.

Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of applied psychology87(5), 819.

Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses.

Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. 

Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin97(3), 363.

Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses.

Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. 

Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin97(3), 363.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die

This book reveal the anatomy of ideas that stick and explain ways to make ideas stickier, such as applying the human scale principle, using the Velcro Theory of Memory, and creating curiosity gaps. Along the way, we discover that sticky messages of all kinds draw their power from the same six traits.

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

Hard evidence on soft skills.

This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life.

Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour economics19(4), 451-464.

Evaluating the relationships between poverty and school.

This study examined the relationships between poverty and a school's academic performance (both student achievement and growth).

Hegedus, A. (2018). Evaluating the Relationships between Poverty and School Performance. NWEA Research. NWEA.

What do we know about time management? A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the existing time management literature.

Hellsten, L. M. (2012). What do we know about time management. A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech, 21-22.

A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures.

A meta-analysis on the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and corresponding explicit self-report measures was conducted.

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(10), 1369-1385.

Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention

The purpose of this study was to examine the workplace factors that positively and negatively impact Black K12 teacher retention. This study utilized a mixed-method approach to examine the qualitative and quantitative data.

Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

Principal’s time use and school effectiveness.

This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.

Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American journal of education116(4), 491-523.

Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong.

This study have sought to investigate teacher success in Hong Kong. The study aims to achieve the following objectives: to acquire an initial understanding of how Hong Kong teachers conceptualize teacher success, to identify the factors hindering teacher success; to study the relationship between professional development and teacher success.

Hung, C. M., Oi, A. K., Chee, P. K., & Man, C. L. (2007). Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong. In Handbook of teacher education (pp. 415-432). Springer, Dordrecht.

Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teachers? Evidence from 26 Districts (Final Report)
This report examines whether low-income students are taught by less effective teachers than high-income students, and if so, whether reducing this inequity would close the student achievement gap. It also describes how the hiring of teachers and their subsequent movement into and out of schools could affect low-income students access to effective teachers.

 

Isenberg, E., Max, J., Gleason, P., Johnson, M., Deutsch, J., & Hansen, M. (2016). Do low-income students have equal access to effective teachers? Evidence from 26 districts (No. ce9ae6b49ff34e388113f31ca621bfa8). Mathematica Policy Research.

Life in Classrooms.

Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore

In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police officers, employment recruiters, and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in organizational behavior29, 39-69.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Implicit bias in the courtroom.

What, if anything, should we do about implicit bias in the courtroom? The authors comprises legal academics, scientists, researchers, and even a sitting federal judge who seek to answer this question in accordance with behavioral realism.

Kang, J., Bennett, M., Carbado, D., & Casey, P. (2011). Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLa L. rev.59, 1124.

Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 teacher follow-up survey

The objective of TFS is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K–12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Keigher, A. (2010). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-353. National Center for Education Statistics.

How Does Reading Proficiency Correlate With a Student's Socio-Economic Status?

This analysis examines the influence of poverty on student reading performance across grade levels.

Keyworth, R. (2015). How does reading proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status? Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/how-does-reading-proficiency

Instructional coaching

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. 

Knight, J. (2006). Instructional Coaching. School Administrator63(4), 36.

Why incentive plans cannot work

This paper discusses about reasons for the failure of incentive programs. Studies show the ineffectivity of incentive plans to boost productivity. 

 

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Work groups and teams in organizations.

This review chapter examines the literature on work team effectiveness. This paper consider their nature, define them, and identify four critical conceptual issues—context, workflow, levels, and time—that serve as review themes and discuss the multitude of forms that teams may assume.

Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. Handbook of psychology, 333-375.

Teacher-student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school

The purpose of this literature search study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health.

Krane, V., Karlsson, B., Ness, O., & Kim, H. S. (2016). Teacher–student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review. Lærer-elev-relasjoner, elevers psykiske helse og frafall i videregående skole. En eksplorerende studie om samarbeid og den store betydningen av de små ting.

Teacher-student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school

The purpose of this literature search study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health.

Krane, V., Karlsson, B., Ness, O., & Kim, H. S. (2016). Teacher–student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review. Lærer-elev-relasjoner, elevers psykiske helse og frafall i videregående skole. En eksplorerende studie om samarbeid og den store betydningen av de små ting.

Teacher stress and burnout: An international review

This paper reviews studies on teacher stress and burnout conducted over the past decade. The range of studies considered indicates that this topic is now of major international concern.

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational research29(2), 146-152.

Teacher stress and burnout: An international review

This paper reviews studies on teacher stress and burnout conducted over the past decade. The range of studies considered indicates that this topic is now of major international concern.

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational research29(2), 146-152.

Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy.

This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macro analytic perspective

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American educational research journal32(3), 465-491.

The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer

This article discusses differences that are hypothesized to exist between hard‐ (technical) and soft‐ (intrapersonal and interpersonal) skills training that we believe impact the degree of training transfer achieved. 

Laker, D. R., & Powell, J. L. (2011). The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(1), 111-122.

Academic and social integration variables and secondary student persistence in distance education.

A survey of 351 secondary distance education students (181 responses) found significant relationships between 2 academic variables (educational goals and study time) and academic persistence;

Laube, M. R. (1992). Academic and Social Integration Variables and Secondary Student Persistence in Distance Education. Research in Distance Education4(1), 2-9.

Performance pay and productivity

Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346-1361.

Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decision-making, and misremembering

In this article, the author claim that judges and jurors unknowingly misremember case facts in racially biased ways.  Drawing upon studies from implicit social cognition, human memory research, and legal decisionmaking, I argue that implicit racial biases affect the way judges and jurors encode, store, and recall relevant case facts. 

Levinson, J. D. (2007). Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decisionmaking, and misremembering. Duke LJ57, 345.

Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how.
In this article, the authors discuss what an anti-bias curriculum is, provide the theoretical framework and rationale for involving teacher candidates in certain activities that promote the anti-bias curriculum, and offer additional anti-bias strategies for teacher candidates and teacher educators to implement in their classrooms.

 

Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly35(2), 187-200.

Expectations for students.

The evidence in this paper suggest that schools can improve student learning by encouraging teachers and students to set their sights high.

Lumsden, L. S. (1997). Expectations for students.

Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process

Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of “uh,” “um,” or “er”; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word “like.” During post-intervention assessments, all 6 participants exhibited an immediate decrease in filled pauses.

Mancuso, C., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking. Journal of applied behavior analysis49(1), 188-192.

Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher

How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do 
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting 
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools, 
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom 
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these 
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

Team effectiveness 1997–2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future

The authors review team research that has been conducted over the past 10 years. They discuss the nature of work teams in context and note the substantive differences underlying different types of teams.

Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of management34(3), 410-476.

“Soft Skills”: A phrase in search of meaning

This literature review explores the definition of soft skills; contrasts skills with related concepts, such as personality traits, attitudes, beliefs, and values; and compares a set of soft skill typologies

Matteson, M. L., Anderson, L., & Boyden, C. (2016). " Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning. portal: Libraries and the Academy16(1), 71-88.

The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs.

This study provides a description of 34 practicing teachers' beliefs regarding the role of empathy as an attribute in their effectiveness with culturally diverse students. Empathy involves cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that teachers believed were manifested in their practice.

McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of teacher education53(5), 433-443.

Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process.

This study describes the outcomes of an intervention focused on the strategies and practices of high expectation teachers. Findings revealed that teachers involved in the intervention refined and changed their practices by creating flexible grouping, enhancing the class climate, and supporting students’ goal setting. 

McDonald, L., Flint, A., Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E. R., Watson, P., & Garrett, L. (2016). Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process. Professional Development in education42(2), 290-307.

Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students.

This study investigated communicative strategies for helping female students cope with ‘‘stereotype threat’’. The results demonstrate that priming a positive achieved identity (e.g., private college student) can subdue stereotype threat associated with an ascribed identity (e.g., female).

McGlone, M. S., & Aronson, J. (2007). Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students. Communication Education56(2), 119-133.

Exploring the Use of Social Media Network Methods in Designing Healthcare Quality Improvement Teams.

In this paper, the authors use tools from social network analysis (SNA) to derive principles for the design of effective clinical quality improvement teams and explore the implementation of these principles using social network data collected from the inpatient general medicine services at a large academic medical center in Chicago, USA

Meltzer, D., Chung, J., Khalili, P., Marlow, E., Arora, V., Schumock, G., & Burt, R. (2010). Exploring the use of social network methods in designing healthcare quality improvement teams. Social science & medicine71(6), 1119-1130.

Falling off track: How teacher-student relationships predict early high school failure rates

This paper examines the relationship between the climate of teacher-student relations within a school and individual student's likelihood of freshman year success.  Results find that teacher-student climate does have a significant effect.

Miller, S. R. (2000). Falling Off Track: How Teacher-Student Relationships Predict Early High School Failure Rates.

Classroom social climate and student absences and grades

this paper investigated the relationship between student and teacher perceptions of the social environments of 19 high school classes and student absenteeism rates and the average final grades given by the teacher. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263.

Updating the Project Management Bodies of Knowledge

This paper reviews the status of BOKs and reports research on what topics should be included in the BOK (1) conducted at the Center of Research in the Management of Projects (CRMP) using data from 117 companies and (2) through ongoing work on a Global framework sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and others.

Morris, P. W. (2001). Updating the project management bodies of knowledge. Project Management Journal32(3), 21-30.

Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights

Begun in 1982, the Algebra Project is transforming math education in twenty-five cities. The Project works with entire communities-parents, teachers, and especially students-to create a culture of literacy around algebra, a crucial stepping-stone to college math and opportunity.

Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables

Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research.

Ocak, G., & Boyraz, S. (2016). Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies4(5), 76-84.

Relating communication competence to teaching effectiveness: Implication for teacher education

This paper posits that teacher education should emphasize both content knowledge and communication skills. It follows up the contention by conceptualizing communication, exploring teacher communication competence, and finally suggesting the introduction of Teacher Communication Skills (TCS) course in the curricula of teacher education across levels.

Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating Communication Competence to Teaching Effectiveness: Implication for Teacher Education. Journal of Education and Practice8(3), 150-154.

Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis

This report seeks to highlight some disparities to draw the public’s and policymakers’ attention to the urgent need to address this educational and civil rights crisis. Using a more accurate method for calculating graduation rates, they provide estimates of high school graduation rates, distinguished at the state and district level, and disaggregated by race.

Orfield, G., Losen, D., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Civil Rights Project at Harvard University (The).

Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies

This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of personality and social psychology105(2), 171.

Work Teams in Schools

"More is better"--this precept lies behind the burgeoning use of work teams to handle problem-solving and decision-making in schools and school districts. Teams are said to build stronger relationships among those involved in education and, ultimately, to benefit students because more people with broader perspectives help to shape a stronger educational program.

Oswald, L. J. (1996). Work teams in schools.

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms.

Parsonson, B. S. (2012). Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies. Kairaranga13(1), 16-23.

Time Management Behavior as a Moderator for the Job Demand-Control Interaction.

The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers.

Peeters, M. A., & Rutte, C. G. (2005). Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction. Journal of occupational health psychology10(1), 64.

Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual

Positive teacher-student interactions are a primary ingredient of quality early educational experiences that launch future school success. With CLASS, educators finally have an observational tool to assess classroom quality in pre-kindergarten through grade 3 based on teacher-student interactions rather than the physical environment or a specific curriculum

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Assessment Scoring System™: Manual K-3. Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing.

Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets.

Quillian, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(41), 10870–10875.

A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes

Underlying this research is the belief that the cultural fit between students and teachers has the potential to improve a child’s academic and nonacademic performance in school. 

Redding, C. (2019). A Teacher Like Me: A Review of the Effect of Student–Teacher Racial/Ethnic Matching on Teacher Perceptions of Students and Student Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 0034654319853545.

The effectiveness of teams in organizations: a meta-analysis

The proposed meta-analysis of 61 independent samples aims to identify whether, and if so under what conditions, team working in organizations is related to organizational effectiveness.

Richter, A. W., Dawson, J. F., & West, M. A. (2011). The effectiveness of teams in organizations: A meta-analysis.International Journal of Human Resource Management22(13), 2749–2769.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies

This paper general purpose is to summarize the results of 345 experiments investigating interpersonal expectancy effects. These studies fall into eight broad categories of research: reaction time, inkblot tests, animal learning, laboratory interviews, psychophysical judgments, learning and ability, person perception, and everyday life situations. 

Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. (1978). Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 377–415.

Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes

The current study aimed to track the self‐perception outcomes of students (N = 256) whose teachers had high or low class‐level expectations. Students completed the Reading, Mathematics, Physical Abilities, and Peer Relations subscales of the Self Description Questionnaire‐1 (SDQ‐1; Marsh, 1990) at the beginning and end of 1 year.

Rubie, C. M. (2004). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland, New Zealand,database (UoA1207968).

Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes

This study aimed to explore differences in teachers’ expectations and judgments of student reading performance for Maori, Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students. A further objective was to compare teacher expectations and judgments with actual student achievement.

Rubie‐Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology76(3), 429-444.

Improving Performance: How To Manage The White Space On The Chart

Improving Performance has been a pivotal book in the creation of the performance management movement by showing how to bridge the gap between organization strategy and the individual. It can be used as guide for principals to link planning to action, implementation of organization change, and offering ways to redesign processes to overcome obstacles that impede implementation.

Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.

Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines

This latest volume in the SIOP Professional Practice Series was inspired by a Leading Edge Conference sponsored by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology to bring together leading-edge practitioners and academics to exchange views and knowledge about effective teams and help lead to better practice in that area.

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S., Cohen, D., & Latham, G. (Eds.). (2013). Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.

Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009

The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.

Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

This paper provides an overview of previous research results pertaining to the relation between interest and academic achievement. focus on the conceptualization and operationalization of interest.

Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States

This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. T

Schroeder, C. M., Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Lee, Y. H. (2007). A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching44(10), 1436-1460.

The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

This paper makes a survey of the importance of soft skills in students’ lives both at college and after college. It discusses how soft skills complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements of a job the student is trained to do.

Schulz, B. (2008). The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

Teams in the Military: A Review and Emerging Challenges

the purpose of this chapter is to review the science of teams and their effectiveness, extrapolate critical lessons learned, and highlight several future challenges critical for military psychology to address in order to prepare future military teams for success.

Shuffler, M. L., Pavlas, D., & Salas, E. (2012). Teams in the military: A review and emerging challenges. In J. H. Laurence & M. D. Matthews (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of military psychology(pp. 282–310). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion.

This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers’ feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and discipline problems.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and teacher education27(6), 1029-1038.

Science and human behavior

The psychology classic—a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled. 

Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and human behavior (No. 92904). Simon and Schuster.

Teacher expectations.

The purpose of this paper is to integrate statistically the results of the literature on teacher expectations. 

Smith, M. L. (1980). Teacher expectations. Evaluation in Education4, 53-55.

Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Several barriers can impede critical thinking instruction. However, actively engaging students in project-based or collaborative activities can encourage students’ critical thinking development if instructors model the thinking process, use effective questioning techniques, and guide students’ critical thinking processes.

Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. The Journal of Research in Business Education50(2), 90.

Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness

The present study explores conflict management as a team phenomenon in schools. The author examined how the contextual variables (task interdependence, goal interdependence) are related to team conflict management style (integrating vs. dominating) and school team effectiveness (team performance).

Somech, A. (2008). Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness. Educational administration quarterly44(3), 359-390.

Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions.

Evidence-based practice is a decision-making framework.  This paper describes the relationships among the three cornerstones of this framework.

Spencer, T. D., Detrich, R., & Slocum, T. A. (2012). Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions. Education & Treatment of Children (West Virginia University Press), 35(2), 127-151.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Teacher-student Relationships.

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships

A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support

This article considers culture within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The paper provides an overview of culture and working definitions to assist educators to more effectively implement evidence-based practices.

Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208. Can pd

Best practices in school psychology III.

Increasingly, school services are being guided by a problem solving approach and are evaluated by the achievement of positive outcomes. This shift is explored here in 96 chapters and 11 appendices. The volume provides a comprehensive reference relating contemporary research and thought to quality professional services

Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology III.Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model.

This chapter chronicles some of the major steps school psychology has taken toward adopting science as the basis of practice. Each step has yielded benefits for students as well as practice challenges to be overcome.

Tilly, W. D. (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology–5(pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning.

This article reports the findings of two meta-analyses that explored the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Combined, the results suggest that teacher clarity has a larger effect for student affective learning than for cognitive learning. However, neither the effects for cognitive learning nor affective learning were homogeneous. 

Titsworth, S., Mazer, J. P., Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Communication Education64(4), 385-418.

Preservice teachers’ perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum.

This study investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program.

Van Hook, C. W. (2002). Preservice teachers' perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 254-265.

Are we making the differences that matter in education.

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools

This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. This article describes the ways in which evidence-based practice (EBP) and  response to intervention (RtI) can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. 

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205-213.

What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.

This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.

Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change

This study examined the social attitudes related to race, gender, age, and ability among senior level health education students at a mid-sized university in the southeast by means of a personally experienced critical incident involving a cross-cultural incident. 

Wasson, D. H., & Jackson, M. H. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 265-277.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis.

A meta-analysis of the data from empirical investigations of diversity in work groups was used to examine the impact of two types of diversity attributes, highly job-related and less-related, on work group cohesion and performance. 

Webber, S. S., & Donahue, L. M. (2001). Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of management27(2), 141-162.

Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education.

This journal discuss about inequality as a persistent problem in school. An educational system that sorts for differentiated pathways must be replaced with one that develops the talents of all. Psychology has a critical role to play in promoting a new understanding of malleable human capabilities and optimal conditions for their nurturance in schooling. 

Weinstein, R. S., Gregory, A., & Strambler, M. J. (2004). Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist59(6), 511.

Hard Thinking on Soft Skill

A prudent way forward for educators given the many acknowledged unknowns in soft skills reform is to substantially enhance efforts that fall within traditional school practices and responsibilities rather than to boldly make risky bets on unproven programs and measures. This paper breakdown the steps for school and district administrators.

Whitehurst, G. J. (2016). Hard thinking on soft skills. Evidence Speaks Reports1(14), 1-10.

The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta‐analysis.

Results of this meta‐analysis research, testing for a moderator effect, show that support for the overjustification effect occurs only when intrinsic motivation is operationalized as task behaviour during a free‐time measure.

Wiersma, U. (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse.

This paper looks at scope and sequence as essential to effective instruction Instructional.

Wiley, D., & Waters, S. (2005). Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 1(1), 143-150.

4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.

Help your students understand the perspectives of other people with these tried-and-tested methods.

Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2017). 4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-proven-strategies-teaching-empathy-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers

Time management: An experimental investigation.

Four groups of preservice teachers participating in student teaching seminars were randomly assigned to one of three conditions to test the effectiveness of brief training in time-management techniques. 

Woolfolk, A. E., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1986). Time management: An experimental investigation. Journal of school Psychology24(3), 267-275.

Failing Teachers?

This book describes the research undertaken during the Teaching Competence Project, a two-year research project funded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. There were five interlinked studies in the research.

Wragg, E. C., Chamberlin, R. P., & Haynes, G. S. (2005). Failing teachers?. Routledge.

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Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

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