Education Drivers

Assessment

Research recognizes the power of assessment to amplify learning and skill acquisition. Assessment accomplishes this in the following ways; (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) providing feedback on progress against benchmarks, (3) as a motivating factor, and (4) as an accountability tool for improving systems. Educators rely on two types of assessment. Formative assessment is a range of formal and informal procedures used during a lesson. This assessment practice has the greatest effect on an individual student’s performance, functioning as a problem-solving tool helping teacher to pinpoint impediments to learning and offering clues for adapting teaching to reduce student failure. Summative assessment is used to evaluate learning at the conclusion of an instructional period and employed to evaluate learning against standards. Summative assessments include high stakes tests, unit tests, midterm exam, or papers. Because they occur at the end of a period they are of little value as a diagnostic tool.

Assessment Overview PDF

Assessment

Overview

Research recognizes the power of assessment to amplify learning and skill acquisition. Assessing students is a fundamental ingredient of effective teaching. It is the tool that enables teachers to measure the extent to which a student or group of students have mastered the material taught in a lesson or a class or during the school year, and it gives instructors the necessary information to modify instruction when progress falters. Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional strategies, curriculum, special education placement, and funding. It works to improve instruction in the following ways: (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) by providing feedback on progress measured against benchmarks, (3) as a motivating factor, and (4) as an accountability instrument for improving systems.

Teachers routinely make significant critical decisions to tailor instruction to the needs of students. Research suggests that, on a daily basis, teachers make between 1,000 and 1,500 student-related instructional decisions that impact learning (Jackson, 1990). Assessment provides educators with the knowledge to make these informed decisions, some seemingly small at the time and others high stakes, which may have a major influence on a child’s success in life.

 Educators generally rely on two types of assessment: informal and systematic. Informal assessment, the most common and frequently applied form, is derived from teachers’ daily interactions and observations of how students behave and perform in school. This type of assessment includes incidental observations, teacher-constructed tests and quizzes, grades, and portfolios, and relies heavily on a teacher’s professional judgment. The primary weaknesses of informal assessment are issues of validity and reliability (AERA, 1999). Since schools began, teachers have depended predominantly on informal assessment. Teachers easily form judgments about students and their performance. Although many of these judgments help teachers understand where students stand in regard to lessons, a meaningful percentage result in false understandings and conclusions. That is why it is so important for teachers to adopt assessment procedures that are valid indicators of a student’s performance (appraise what the assessment claims to), and for the assessment to be reliable (provide information that can be replicated).

Systematic assessment is specifically designed to minimize bias and to increase validity and reliability, thus providing teachers and educators with the most accurate information to maximize student achievement. This type of assessment uses preplanned tools designed to identify objectively how well a student has progressed and to reveal what students have learned in relation to other students and against predetermined standards. Educators depend on two forms of systematic assessment: formative and summative. Formative assessment is used as students are learning, and summative assessment happens at the end of instruction.

Formative assessment has the greatest effect on an individual student’s performance, functioning as a problem-solving mechanism that helps teachers pinpoint impediments to learning and offers clues for adapting teaching to reduce student failure. In contrast, summative assessment is best used to evaluate learning at the conclusion of an instructional period and is employed to evaluate learning against standards.

Figure 1 examines the relative impact of formative and high-stakes summative assessment on student achievement. Research shows a clear advantage for the use of formative assessment for improving student performance.

 High Stakes Formative Assessment

Figure 1. Comparison of formative and summative assessment impact on student achievement

 

Formative Assessment

For teachers, few skills are as important or powerful as formative assessment. Also known as progress monitoring and rapid assessment, formative assessment allows teachers to quickly determine if individual students are progressing at acceptable rates and provides insight into where and how to modify and adapt lessons, with the goal of making sure that all students are progressing satisfactorily. It is the process of using frequent and ongoing feedback on student performance to gain insight on how to adjust instruction to maximize learning. The assessment data are used to verify student progress and as an indicator to adjust interventions when insufficient progress has been made (VanDerHeyden, 2013). For the past 30 years, formative assessment has been found to be effective in typical classroom settings. The practice has shown power across student ages, treatment durations, and frequencies of measurement, and with students with special needs (Hattie, 2009).

The relative power of formative assessment can be seen in Figure 2, which compares the practice with seven common education interventions (Glazerman et al., 2010; Hattie, 2009; Yeh, 2007). This comparison reveals that none of the seven interventions rise much above a small effect size, whereas formative assessment’s large effect size of 0.90 shows its sizable impact on achievement.

  Intervention comparison

Figure 2: Comparing formative assessment with commonly adopted education interventions

 

Summative Assessment

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills with standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment evaluates the mastery of learning. Generally, it gauges how a particular population rather than an individual responds to an intervention. It often aggregates data across students to act as an independent yardstick that allows teachers, administrators, and parents to judge the effectiveness of the materials, curriculum, and instruction used to meet national, state, or local standards.

This type of assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. Summative assessment is used to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Because it occurs at the end of a period, it is of little value as a diagnostic tool for enhancing an individual student’s performance during the school year, but it does play a pivotal role in troubleshooting weaknesses in an education system.

Summative assessment is most often associated with standardized tests such as state achievement assessments, but is also commonly used by teachers to assess the overall progress of students when determining grades. As a subset of summative assessment, standardized tests play a critical role in ensuring that schools are held to the same standards and that all students regardless of race or socioeconomic background perform to expectations. Summative assessment provides educators with metrics to know what is working and what is not.

Since the advent of No Child Left Behind, summative assessment has increasingly been used to hold schools and teachers accountable for student progress. This has led to concerns among many educators that schools place too great an emphasis on instruction that will result in higher achievement scores. In many districts, standardized tests have become the single most important indicator of teacher and school performance. A consequence of this overemphasis is the phenomenon known as “teaching to the test.” The concern is that an exclusive focus on material that will be tested in a standardized test will be accompanied by a corresponding neglect of the broader curriculum. Accentuating standardized tests has also led to a notable increase in the number of standardized tests given each year (Hart et al., 2015). Teachers and administrators feel enormous pressure to ensure that test scores rise consistently. Educators have also expressed concern that excess standardized testing limits the available time for instruction.

Parents, teachers, school administrators, and legislators have begun to voice frustration with the weight assigned to and the growth in the number of standardized tests administered each year in public schools. In 2015, resistance in Boulder, Colorado, schools resulted in zero students participating in testing in some schools. Similar protests against standardized testing have popped up across the nation over the past 5 years, leading for demands to bring balance back to the system.

Summary

Formative assessment and summative assessment play important but very different roles in an effective model of education. Both are integral in gathering information necessary for maximizing student success. In a balanced system, both types of assessment are essential components of information gathering, but they need to be used for the purposes for which they were designed. 

Citations

Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199–208.

Glazerman, S., Isenberg, E., Dolfin, S., Bleeker, M., Johnson, A., Grider, M., & Jacobus, M. (2010). Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Final results from a randomized controlled study. (NCEE 2010-4027.) Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Hart, R., Casserly, M., Uzzell, R., Palacios, M., Corcoran, A., & Spurgeon, L. (2015). Student testing in America's great city schools: An inventory and preliminary analysis. Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Joint Committee on Standards for the Educational and Psychological Testing of the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington DC: American Educational Research Association (AERA).

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education? In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.), Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3. Performance feedback: Using data to improve educator performance (pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416–436.

 

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overview of Education Assessment

Research recognizes the power of assessment to amplify learning and skill acquisition. Assessing students is a fundamental ingredient of effective teaching. It is the tool that enables teachers to measure the extent to which a student or group of students have mastered the material taught in a lesson or a class or during the school year, and it gives instructors the necessary information to modify instruction when progress falters. Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional strategies, curriculum, special education placement, and funding. It works to improve instruction in the following ways: (1) as a diagnostic tool, (2) by providing feedback on progress measured against benchmarks, (3) as a motivating factor, and (4) as an accountability instrument for improving systems.

 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Education Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/student-formative-assessment.

Overview of Formative Assessment

Effective ongoing assessment, referred to in the education literature as formative assessment or progress monitoring, is indispensable in promoting teacher and student success. Feedback through formative assessment is ranked at or near the top of practices known to significantly raise student achievement. For decades, formative assessment has been found to be effective in clinical settings and, more important, in typical classroom settings. Formative assessment produces substantial results at a cost significantly below that of other popular school reform initiatives such as smaller class size, charter schools, accountability, and school vouchers. It also serves as a practical diagnostic tool available to all teachers. A core component of formal and informal assessment procedures, formative assessment allows teachers to quickly determine if individual students are progressing at acceptable rates and provides insight into where and how to modify and adapt lessons, with the goal of making sure that students do not fall behind.

 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Formative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/student-formative-assessment.

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are We Making the Differences That Matter in Education? In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 119-138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?
This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.
States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.
What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance?
The analysis examines direct influences tht have the greatest impact on student performance. 28 categories were distilled by combining the effect size along professional judgment of educational experts.
States, J. (2010). What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance? Retrieved from what-are-critical-influences808.
What Is the Effect of Formative Evaluation on Student Achievement?
This review examines the effect size of the practice elements that comprise formative assessment.
States, J. (2011). What Is the Effect of Formative Evaluation on Student Achievement? Retrieved from what-is-effect-of869.
What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom?
This analysis examines meta-analyses to identify teaching practices that have the greatest impact on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What Practices Make a Difference in the Classroom? Retrieved from what-practices-make-difference.
What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance?
This analysis looks at meta-analyses on teaching strategies that have the largest effect on student achievement.
States, J. (2011). What teaching strategies make a difference in improving student performance? Retrieved from what-teaching-strategies-make.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2011). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-amanda-vanderheyden.

Teaching Skills That Make a Difference
This paper provides checklist of evidence-based skills that should be the foundation of every teacher's preparation.
States, J. (2013). Teaching Skills That Make a Difference [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students

This review of the research on secondary reading programs focuses on 69 studies that used random assignment (n=62) or high-quality quasi-experiments (n=7) to evaluate outcomes of 51 programs on widely accepted measures of reading.The study found programs using one-to-one and small-group tutoring (+0.14 to +0.28 effect size), cooperative learning (+0.10 effect size), whole-school approaches including organizational reforms such as teacher teams (+0.06 effect size), and writing-focused approaches (+0.13 effect size) showed positive outcomes. Individual approaches in a few other categories also showed positive impacts. The findings are important suggesting interventions for secondary readers to improve struggling student’s chances of experiencing greater success in high school and better opportunities after graduation.

Citation: Baye, A., Lake, C., Inns, A. & Slavin, R. E. (2018, January). A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research and Reform in Education.

The Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance

The purpose of this study is to assess whether academic achievement in fact increases after the introduction of high-stakes tests. The first objective of this study is to assess whether academic achievement has improved since the introduction of high-stakes testing policies in the 27 states with the highest stakes written into their grade 1-8 testing policies.

Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). The Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance.

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom (2017)

Seeing Students Learn Science is a guidebook meant to help educators improve the way in which students learn science. The introduction of new science standards across the nation has led to the adoption of new curricula, instruction, and professional development to align with the new standards. This publication is designed as a resource for educators to adapt assessment to these changes. It includes examples of innovative assessment formats, ways to embed assessments in engaging classroom activities, and ideas for interpreting and using novel kinds of assessment information.

Beatty, A., Schweingruber, H., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.

This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.

Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal111(1), 7-34.

Assessment and classroom learning

This paper is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education, 5(1), 7-74.

Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice

This is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 5(1), 7-74.

School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap.

This NCES study explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This study, the first of it's kind, used the 2011 NAEP grade 8 mathematics assessment data. Among the results highlighted in the report, the study indicates that the achievement gap between Black and White students remains whether schools fall in the highest density category or the lowest density category.

Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap (NCES 2015-018). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

STATE END-OF-COURSE TESTING PROGRAMS: A Policy Brief

In recent years the number of states that have adopted or plan to implement end of course (EOC) tests as part of their high school assessment program has grown rapidly. While EOC tests certainly offer great promise, they are not without challenges. Many of the proposed uses of EOC tests open new and often complex issues related to design and implementation. The purpose of this brief is to support education leaders and policy makers in making appropriate technical and operational decisions to maximize the benefit of EOC tests and address the challenges.

Brief, A. P. (2011). State End-of-Course Testing Programs.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.

A prevailing view in education and social psychology is that rewards decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation. However, our meta-analysis (Cameron & Pierce, 1994) of approximately 100 studies does not support this position. The only negative effect of reward occurs under a highly restricted set of conditions, circumstances that are easily avoided. These results have not been well received by those who argue that rewards produce negative effects under a wide range of conditions. Lepper, Keavney, and Drake (1996)Ryan and Deci (1996), and Kohn (1996) have suggested that the questions asked in our meta-analysis were inappropriate, that critical studies were excluded, that important negative effects were not detected, and that the techniques used in our meta-analysis were unsuitable. In this response, we show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.

Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.

A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect was performed to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles.

Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological bulletin132(3), 354.

The 2018 EdNext poll on school reform

Few issues engender stronger opinions in the American population than education, and the number and complexity of issues continue to grow.  The annual Education Next Survey of Public Opinion examines the opinions of parents and teachers across a wide range of topic areas such as: student performance, common core curriculum, charter schools, school choice, teacher salaries, school spending, school reform, etc.  The 12thAnnual Survey was completed in May, 2018.

Cheng, A., Henderson, M. B., Peterson, P.E. & West, M. R. (2019). The 2018 EdNext poll on school reform. Education Next19(1).

Do Published Studies Yield larger Effect Sizes than Unpublished Studies in Education and Special Education? A Meta-Review

The purpose of this study is to estimate the extent to which publication bias is present in education and special education journals. This paper shows that published studies were associated with significantly larger effect sizes than unpublished studies (d=0.64). The authors suggest that meta-analyses report effect sizes of published and unpublished separately in order to address issues of publication bias.

Chow, J. C., & Ekholm, E. (2018). Do Published Studies Yield Larger Effect Sizes than Unpublished Studies in Education and Special Education? A Meta-review.

Discussion Sections in Reports of Controlled Trials Published in General Medical Journals: Islands in Search of Continents?

This Section of reports aim to assess the extent to which reports of RTCs published in 5 general medical journal have discussed new results in light of all of available evidence.

Clarke, M., & Chalmers, I. (1998). Discussion sections in reports of controlled trials published in general medical journals: islands in search of continents?. Jama280(3), 280-282.

Big Data and data science: A critical review of issues for educational research.

This paper examines critical issues that must be considered to maximize the positive impact of big data and minimize negative effects that are currently encountered in other domains. This review is designed to raise awareness of these issues with particular attention paid to implications for educational research design in order that educators can develop the necessary policies and practices to address this complex phenomenon and its possible implications in the field of education. 

 

Daniel, B. K. (2017). Big Data and data science: A critical review of issues for educational research. British Journal of Educational Technology.

 

Sharing successes and hiding failures: ‘reporting bias’ in learning and teaching research

This paper examines factors that lead to bias as well offers specific recommendations to journals, funders, ethics committees, and universities designed to reduce reporting bias.

Dawson, P., & Dawson, S. L. (2018). Sharing successes and hiding failures:‘reporting bias’ in learning and teaching research. Studies in Higher Education43(8), 1405-1416.

Education Equality in America Comparing the Achievement Gap Across School and Cities

Education Cities and GreatSchools have together launched the Education Equality Index in an attempt to answer "how does the U.S. fare in our effort to provide equal opportunity to all children?" question. The Education Equality Index is the first national comparative measure of the achievement gap between children growing up in low-income communities and their more advantaged peers.

Education Equality in America Comparing the Achievement Gap Across School and Cities. (2016, March). Education Equality Index. Retrieved from http://www.educationequalityindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Education-Equality-in-America-v1-4.pdf

Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?

In this paper we take up the question of model choice and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, (SGPs) framework, eschews all controls for student covariates and schooling environments. The second approach, value-added models (VAMs), controls for student background characteristics and under some conditions can be used to identify the causal effects of schools and teachers. The third approach, also VAM-based, fully levels the playing field so that the correlation between school- and teacher-level growth measures and student demographics is essentially zero. We argue that the third approach is the most desirable for use in educational evaluation systems.

Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 21.

Assessing Intervention Responsiveness: Conceptual and Technical Issues

 In this article, the author uses examples in the literature to explore conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components. 

Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 172-186.

A Comparison Study of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Mathematics Assessments

In the United States, nationally representative data on student achievement come primarily from two sources: the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)—also known as “The Nation’s Report Card”—and U.S. participation in international assessments, including the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In Summary, this study  this study found many similarities between the two assessments. However, it also found important differences in the relative emphasis across content areas or categories, in the
role of context, in the level of complexity, in the degree of mathematizing, in the overall amount
of text, and in the use of representations in assessments

Gattis, K., Kim, Y. Y., Stephens, M., Hall, L.D., Liu, F., Holmes, J. A Comparison Study of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Mathematics Assessments. (2016). American Institute for Research. Retrieved from https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Comparison-NAEP-PISA-Mathematics-May-2016.pdf

Quality Indicators for Group Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research in Special Education

This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education.

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional children71(2), 149-164.

Are Students with Disabilities Accessing the Curriculum? A Meta-analysis of the Reading Achievement Gap between Students with and without Disabilities.

This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.

Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830

Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?

This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning. 

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education20(3), 265-275.

The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance

This new research addresses a number of critical questions:  Are a teacher’s cognitive skills a good predictor of teacher quality? This study examines the student achievement of 36 developed countries in the context of teacher cognitive skills. This study finds substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance.

Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (No. w20727). National Bureau of Economic Research.

 

Student testing in America's great city schools: An inventory and preliminary analysis.

This study exams the extent to which standardized testing is impacting schools. The researchers conducted a survey of member districts,  analyzed district testing calendars, conducted interviews, and reviewed and analyzed federal, state, and locally mandated assessments to determine what tests and how frequently tests are being mandated in schools. 

Hart, R., Casserly, M., Uzzell, R., Palacios, M., Corcoran, A., & Spurgeon, L. (2015). Student testing in America's great city schools: An inventory and preliminary analysis. Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.

Prformance of U.S 15-Year-Old Students in Science, Reading, and Mathematics Litracy in an International Context

PISA measures the performance of 15-year-old students in science, reading, and mathematics literacy every 3 years. PISA uses the term "literacy" in each subject area to indicate how well students are able to apply their knowledge and skills to problems in a real-life context.

Kastberg, D., Chan, J. Y., & Murray, G. (2016). Performance of US 15-Year-Old Students in Science, Reading, and Mathematics Literacy in an International Context: First Look at PISA 2015. NCES 2017-048. National Center for Education Statistics.

An Investigation of Concurrent Validity of Fidelity of Implementation Measures at Initial Years of Implementation.

The present study used cross-sectional data from 1,438 schools to examine relations between fidelity self-assessment and team-based fidelity measures in the first 4 years of implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Results showed strong positive correlations between fidelity self-assessments and a team-based measure of fidelity at each year of implementation.

Khoury, C. R., McIntosh, K., & Hoselton, R. (2019). An Investigation of Concurrent Validity of Fidelity of Implementation Measures at Initial Years of Implementation. Remedial and Special Education40(1), 25-31.

 

Formative Assessment: A Meta?Analysis And A Call For Research

This meta-analysis examines the impact of formative assessment.

Kingston, N., & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: A meta?analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(4), 28-37.

Formative assessment and elementary school student academic achievement: A review of the evidence.

A comprehensive search of the research on formative assess­ment interventions was recently released. This study identified 23 studies that it determined were rigorous­ enough for inclusion to build a picture of the impact of formative assessment interventions on student outcomes. The study concluded that formative assessment had a positive effect on student academic achieve­ment. On average across all the studies, students who participated in formative assessment performed better on measures of academic achievement than those who did not. Across all subject areas (math, reading, and writing), formative assessment had larger effects on student academic achievement when other agents, such as a teacher or a computer program, directed the formative assessment.

Klute, M., Apthorp, H., Harlacher, J., & Reale, M. (2017). Formative assessment and elementary school student academic achievement: A review of the evidence.

Assessing the cost of instructional coaching.

this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching. Finally, it estimates the costs of traditional approaches to professional development for comparison with instructional coaching.

Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.

Putting it All Together: Including Students with Disabilities in Assessment and Accountability Systems

The report is an overview of the key components of inclusive assessment and accountability and highlights how they fit together to form a cohesive whole.

Lehr, C., & Thurlow, M. (2003). Putting it all together: Including students with disabilities in assessment and accountability systems. Policy Directions No, 16.

Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2018

This report provides a detailed analysis of long-term dropout and completion trends and student characteristics of high school dropouts and completers. The first measure examined was the “event dropout rate” which is the percent of students who drop out in grades 10-12 without a high school diploma or alternative credential. The event dropout rate for SY 2015-16 was 4.8%, which translated into 532,000 students.

McFarland, J., Cui, J., Rathbun, A., and Holmes, J. (2018). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2018 (NCES 2019-117). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved December 14, 2018 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Predict Performance on State Assessments in Reading

The study investigates the correlation and predictive value of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) against the Michigan Educational Assessment Program's (MEAP) fourth grade reading assessment.

McGlinchey, M. T., & Hixson, M. D. (2004). Using curriculum-based measurement to predict performance on state assessments in reading. School Psychology Review, 33, 193-203.

Teacher Preparation Programs: Research and Promising Practices

This paper reports evidence-based research and offers suggestions based on studies that include theoretical work, qualitative analysis, statistical analysis, and randomized experience that could provide strong causal evidence of the effects of teacher preparation on student learning.

Meadows, L., Theodore, K. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs: Research and Promising Practices. Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/txcc/resources/briefs/number_11/

A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment

The goal of this guide is to provide useful information about standardized testing, or assessment, for practitioners and non-practitioners who care about public schools. It includes the nature of assessment, types of assessments and tests, and definitions.

Mitchell, R. (2006). A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment. Center for Public Education. 

The Nation’s Report Card

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a national assessment of what America's students know in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history.

National Center for Education Statistics

The Information Book Flood: Is Additional Exposure Enough to Support Early Literacy Development?

Over the past twenty years many reading interventions have been proposed. One of these, “Book Flooding”, proposes that providing an enriched environment in which books are present and readily available can improve reading. Much of the research on this topic has focused on exposing children in the early grades to storybooks. Given the greater importance on reading complex text in meeting new reading standards, this study examines the impact of book flooding of books that stress academic words and technical terms. This quasi-experimental study examines the influence of a book distribution program targeted at enhancing children’s exposure to information books. The research examined whether a flood of information books in early childhood settings could affect growth in language, content-related vocabulary, and concepts of comprehending information text. The study concludes there were no significant effects on student outcomes and that book distribution programs on their own need to be reevaluated if they are to improved student reading performance.

Neuman, S. B. (2017). The Information Book Flood: Is Additional Exposure Enough to Support Early Literacy Development?. The Elementary School Journal118(1), 1-27.

The Learning Styles Educational Neuromyth: Lack of Agreement Between Teachers’ Judgments, Self-Assessment, and Students’ Intelligence.

This study examined the hypothesis that teachers’ and students’ assessment of preferred LS correspond. The study found no relationship between pupils’ self-assessment and teachers’ assessment. Teachers’ and students’ answers didn’t match up. The study suggests that teachers cannot assess the LS of their students accurately.

Papadatou-Pastou, M., Gritzal, M., & Barrable, A. (2018). The Learning Styles educational neuromyth: Lack of agreement between teachers’ judgments, self-assessment, and students’ intelligence. Frontiers in Education, 3, 1-5. [105]. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00105

Friends don’t let friends misuse NAEP data

This article shows some common type of misused or unhelpful NAEP analyses to look out for and avoid. This article also give some warning to avoid misuse of the NAEP data.

Polikoff, M.S. (2015). Friends don’t let friends misuse NAEP data. Retrieved from https://morganpolikoff.com/2015/10/6/friends-dont-let-friends-misuse-naep-data/

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015

This report presents data on income and poverty in the United States based on information collected in the 2016 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. This report contains two main sections, one focuses on income and the other on poverty. 

Proctor, B. D., Semega, J. L., & Kollar, M. A. (2016). Income and poverty in the United States: 2015. US Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-256.

Meta-Analysis of Criterion Validity for Curriculum-Based Measurement in Written Language.

This study examines the technical adequacy of curriculum-based measures for written language, one of the critical skills required for student success in school. The study concludes two scoring procedures, correct word sequences and correct minus incorrect sequences met criterion validity with commercially developed and state or locally developed criterion assessments.

Romig, J. E., Therrien, W. J., & Lloyd, J. W. (2017). Meta-analysis of criterion validity for curriculum-based measurement in written language. The Journal of Special Education, 51(2), 72-82.

When Bad Things Happen to Good NAEP Data

The National Assessment of Educational Progress is widely viewed as the most accurate and reliable yardstick of U.S. students’ academic knowledge. But when it comes to many of the ways the exam’s data are used, researchers have gotten used to gritting their teeth.

Sawchuk, S. (2013). When bad things happen to good NAEP data. Education Week32(37), 1-22.

The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective

In this paper, student-level indicators of opportunity to learn (OTL) included in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment are used to explore the joint relationship of OTL and socioeconomic status (SES) to student mathematics literacy. This paper suggest that in most countries, the organization and policies defining content exposure may exacerbate educational inequalities.

Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher44(7), 371-386.

The Impacts of Reading Recovery at Scale: Results From the 4-Year i3 External Evaluation

A recent large-scale evaluation of Reading Recovery, a supplemental reading program for young struggling readers, supports previous research that found it to be effective.  In a 4 year, federally funded project, almost 3,500 students in 685 schools found that generally students benefitted from the intervention. Students receiving Reading Recovery receive supplemental services in a 1:1 instructional setting for 30 minutes 5 days a week from an instructor trained in Reading Recovery.  In the study reported here, students who received Reading Recovery had effect sizes of .35-.37 relative to a control group across a number of measures of reading.  These represent moderate effect sizes and account for about a 1.5 month increase in skill relative to the control group.  Even though the research supports the efficacy of the intervention, it also raises questions about its efficiency.  The schools that participated in the study served about 5 students and the estimated cost per student has ranged from $2,000-$5,000.  These data raise questions about the wisdom of spending this much money per student for growth of about a month and a half.

Sirinides, P., Gray, A., & May, H. (2018). The Impacts of Reading Recovery at Scale: Results From the 4-Year i3 External Evaluation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 0162373718764828.

Stanfrod Education Data Archive

The Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA) is an initiative aimed at harnessing data to help scholars, policymakers, educators, and parents learn how to improve educational opportunity for all children. The data are publicly available here, so that anyone can obtain detailed information about American schools, communities, and student success.

Stanfrod Education Data Archive. Standford Center for Education Policy Analysis. Retrieved from https://cepa.stanford.edu/seda/overview

The Number of Low-Performing Schools by State in Three Categories (CSI, TSI, and ATSI), School Year 2018-19.

This report, completed by the Center on Education Policy, attempts to provide an initial snapshot of the number and percentages of schools each states has identified low performing. It provides an early look at a very diverse set of guidelines.  The data show a wide range of results in terms of the percentage of schools identified as low performing. The overall range is 3% to 99%, with individual states spread out fairly evenly in between. Eight states identified over 40% of their public schools as low performing, eleven states 20%–40%, fifteen states 11%–19%, and thirteen states 3%–10%. Even with the limitations of the data listed above, this data suggests inconsistent standards across states.

Stark Renter, D., Tanner, K., Braun, M. (2019). The Number of Low-Performing Schools by State in Three Categories (CSI, TSI, and ATSI), School Year 2018-19. A Report of the Center on Education Policy

Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works.

This article examines the impact of poor decision making in school psychology, with a focus on determining eligibility for special education. Effective decision making depends upon the selection and correct use of measures that yield reliable scores and valid conclusions, but traditional psychometric adequacy often comes up short. The author suggests specific ways in which school psychologists might overcome barriers to using effective assessment and intervention practices in schools in order to produce better results.

 

VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2018, March). Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works. In School Psychology Forum, Research in Practice(Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 44-52). National Association of School Psychologists.

Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation

Keeping RTI on Track is a resource to assist educators overcome the biggest problems associated with false starts or implementation failure. Each chapter in this book calls attention to a common error, describing how to avoid the pitfalls that lead to false starts, how to determine when you're in one, and how to get back on the right track.

Vanderheyden, A. M., & Tilly, W. D. (2010). Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation. LRP Publications.

Reading Achievement of U.S.Fourth Grade Students in an International Context.

This report summarizes performance on PIRLS and ePIRLS 2016 from a U.S. perspective. PIRLS results are based on nationally representative samples of fourth-graders. The international data reported for PIRLS 2016 in this report cover 58 countries or other education systems, including the United States.

Warner-Griffin, C., Liu, H., Tadler, C., Herget, D., & Dalton, B. (2017). Reading Achievement of US Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context: First Look at the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016 and ePIRLS 2016. NCES 2018-017. National Center for Education Statistics.

Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change

This study examined the social attitudes related to race, gender, age, and ability among senior level health education students at a mid-sized university in the southeast by means of a personally experienced critical incident involving a cross-cultural incident. 

Wasson, D. H., & Jackson, M. H. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 265-277.

Guidelines for schizophrenia: consensus or confusion?

The authors describe and compare the three major guidelines on schizophrenia that have been published in the United States: The American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia, the Expert Consensus Guidelines Series: Treatment of Schizophrenia, and the SchizophreniaPatient Outcome Research Team (PORT) Treatment Recommendations. 

Weiden, P. J., & Dixon, L. (1999). Guidelines for schizophrenia: consensus or confusion?. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®5(1), 26-31.

Reading Comprehension Tests Don’t Test Reading

In this video from Cool Reading Facts, Daniel Willingham, professor of psychology at the University of Virginia, discusses significant factors key to success in reading comprehension. His analysis suggests that educators frequently miss the critical role that basic knowledge plays in successfully interpreting and understanding passages in reading texts and that reading comprehension tests are actually knowledge tests in disguise. He makes three important points: (1) Students must have the basic decoding skills to translate print into meaningful information, (2) having a basic familiarity with the subject matter is of prime importance in comprehending what the writer is trying to communicate, and (3) providing students with an enriched knowledge base through the school’s curriculum is especially important for students from disadvantaged circumstances, whose only source of essential background information often is school. In contrast, children from privileged circumstances may be introduced to essential background information away from school.

Willingham, D. (2017). Cool Reading Facts 5: Reading comprehension tests don’t test reading [Video file]. National Public Radio, Science Friday Educator Collaborative.

End-of-Course Exams

This report provides information on states that require students enrolled in courses that have an end-of-course (EOC) exam to take the EOC

Zinth, J. D. (2012). End-of-Course Exams. Education Commission of the States (NJ3).

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Balefire Labs

Balefire Labs provides an online educational app review service for mobile apps. It helps teachers and parents to find the highest quality educational apps for kids, ages 0-19 years. It uses rigorous, science-based, review criteria and publishes a detailed rubric on its site.

Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
MDRC is best known for mounting large-scale evaluations of real-world policies and programs targeted to low-income people.
National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
The Center's mission is to provide technical assistance to states and districts and disseminate information about progress monitoring practices proven to work in different academic content areas (Gr. K-5).
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