Mastery Learning Overview
Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2021). Overview of Mastery Learning. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-learning
Mastery Learning PDF
Teachers must cover a wide range of content during their time with students—so how do they decide when to proceed from one lesson to the next? Mastery learning calls for students to demonstrate competency in or mastery of material before moving on to subsequent content. Multiple established instructional systems, evaluated across decades of research, incorporate mastery learning. This method of instruction involves assessing student learning individually, as not all students will achieve mastery at the same time.
What Is Mastery?
The definition of mastery varies widely across research studies, and ultimately each teacher must decide on a mastery criterion for their students. The most common measure of mastery is percentage of correct answers: how many multiplication facts, spelling words, or questions about the periodic table did the student answer correctly out of the total questions presented? Recent research has demonstrated that a higher percentage mastery criterion (90% or 100%) leads to greater maintenance of skills (Fuller & Fienup, 2017; Richling et al., 2019).
Another type of mastery criterion is fluency, or the number of correct responses within a fixed period of time. This is critical for comparing performance across time and across students. For example, one student reads 20 words correctly in 5 minutes; another student reads 20 words correctly in 15 minutes. The first student, therefore, read 4 words correctly per minute while the second student read 1.33 words correctly per minute. Kubina et al. (2008) compared the effects of two different fluency criteria—200 correct words per minute and 123 correct words per minute—on reading retention and found that the higher performance standard led to greater retention. In their review, Kostewicz et al. (2016) described three ways to identify fluency criteria in reading research:
- Teacher imposed: The teacher simply decided on a criterion.
- Grade-level/norm referenced: Derived from grade level or normal reading rates; curriculum-based measurement (CBM; Deno, 1985; Fuchs, 2017) is a widely studied standard of performance based on age and grade level.
- Behavioral fluency: This method is derived from behavioral fluency literature, which seeks to identify fluency criteria that produce long-term retention (Kubina et al., 2008; Martens et al., 2007).
Instructional Strategies Using Mastery Learning
Personalized System of Instruction
First described by Keller (1968), personalized system of instruction (PSI) has five key features:
- Emphasis is placed on the written word.
- Lectures are used only for motivational purposes.
- Students move through material at their own pace.
- Students must master material before moving on.
- Proctors (teachers or peers) provide opportunities for practice and feedback.
PSI’s effectiveness has been evaluated across a wide variety of students and subject matter (Buskist et al., 1991).
Prewitt et al. (2015) evaluated the effects of PSI on health-related fitness knowledge with high school students. Two physical education classes were randomly assigned to learn about personal fitness using PSI and a traditional instruction approach. For the PSI group, students worked at their own pace and were allowed to choose which skill modules to work on, while the classroom teacher provided individualized instruction and feedback. The classroom teacher determined a mastery criterion for each skill module that students had to meet before moving on. The teacher also adjusted the mastery criterion throughout the course based on student performance to ensure that students were challenged but achieving mastery. For the traditional instruction group, the classroom teacher determined the pace at which the course progressed, the time allocated to each topic, and when evaluations occurred. Demonstrations were given to the whole class. The two classes had comparable scores on a pretest, but the PSI class scored significantly higher (averaging 17.6 points) on the posttest than the traditional instruction class (averaging 14.14 points).
In another application, McLaughlin (1991) examined the effects of PSI with and without retake opportunities with 10 students with behavior disorders. During baseline, the teacher taught spelling as usual, and students took a posttest at the end of the week. During PSI with no retakes, students could work at their own pace and access tutoring from the teacher or from other students who had previously mastered the content. Students could also take practice tests by listening to audiocassette tapes. For any words that were spelled incorrectly, the student had to write the word five times, and could not retake the test until the following day. PSI with retakes was identical to PSI with no retakes, except that after spelling any word incorrectly five times students could immediately retake the test. During baseline, almost no students passed the lessons with 100% accuracy (averaging 0.25 students per day, or a range of 0 to 2 students). During PSI with no retakes, the average number of students passing with 100% accuracy increased slightly to 2.95 per day (a range of 1 to 4 students). When retakes were introduced, the number students passing with 100% accuracy increased to an average of 6.3 students per day (a range of 5 to 7 students).
Another instructional strategy incorporating mastery learning is precision teaching (PT), which involves students monitoring and charting their own progress daily on standard celeration charts (method of charting and analyzing changes over time). It also adopts the perspective that the student is always right; lack of progress is a signal to modify the instructional program (Lindsley, 1995). PT inherently involves mastery learning as students move at their own pace through material and proceed only when they have mastered a lesson. A systematic review found strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of PT in increasing academic skills in school-aged children (Gist & Bulla, 2020).
Stromgren et al. (2014) evaluated the effects of PT on middle school students’ understanding of basic math facts. Forty-eight students were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) only or PT plus TAU. In the PT plus TAU group, students only advanced to the next lesson after reaching either their personal best frequency aim or a preset overall frequency aim of 70 correct answers per minute. If a student was not progressing, modifications were made such as shortening the timing interval or simplifying the task. In the PT plus TAU group, 18 out of 19 students (95%) improved their performance from pretest to posttest, compared with 17 out of 23 (74%) in the TAU only group.
Brosnan et al. (2018) evaluated the effects of PT within Tier 2 of a multitiered system of support (MTSS) on the foundational reading skills (e.g., identifying letter sounds) of kindergarteners. The intervention involved goal setting, daily practice, immediate feedback, differential reinforcement (i.e., providing reinforcement for correct responding and withholding reinforcement for incorrect responding), and charting of performance. Charts were used to monitor individual student progress and to make decisions, so that every student would achieve a performance standard or mastery criterion. The intervention increased the foundational reading skills of the 35 participants by an average of 1.36 responses per minute per day (during baseline, the participants averaged 0.87 correct responses per minute; after the intervention was implemented, they averaged 2.23 correct responses per minute).
Direct instruction (DI) is another program that includes mastery learning. It places a strong emphasis on teacher wording and presentation of examples. Its key features (Kinder & Carnine, 1991) include:
- Explicit teaching of rules and strategies
- Careful selection of examples of what the concept is and is not
- Presenting examples of what the concept is and is not closely together
- Systematically fading overt instruction
- Brisk pacing
- Immediate feedback
A meta-analysis of 328 studies found medium to large effect sizes supporting DI’s effectiveness across a variety of academic domains including reading, math, and spelling (Stockard et al., 2018).
Skarr et al. (2014) evaluated the effects of a combined DI flashcard and math racetrack procedure on three elementary school students’ comprehension of multiplication facts. The intervention involved presenting multiplication facts on flashcards. If the participant stated the correct answer to the multiplication fact within 2 seconds of the card being shown, the researcher provided praise. If the time limit passed, the researcher modeled the correct answer and asked the participant to repeat it. That flashcard was then placed two or three cards back in the stack so the same card would come up again quickly. This process was repeated until the card was placed at the back of the pile to promote retention. The math racetrack was a board game with spaces arranged in a loop. The researcher wrote the math facts from the flashcards on each space, then asked the participants to say the answer to each fact quickly, progressing around the track. The researcher timed how long it took to complete the entire track, then challenged the participant to beat their previous time. A set of multiplication facts was considered mastered if the researcher observed high levels of accuracy for 3 days. Only after one set was mastered did a participant move on to the next set. Previously mastered facts were incorporated into the flashcards and racetrack for subsequent sets. The three participants averaged 21% accuracy during baseline; their accuracy increased to an average of 91% accuracy when the DI and racetrack intervention was implemented.
A widely studied reading intervention with roots in DI is Headsprout (see Rigney et al., 2020 for review). To young children, this computer-based intervention seems like a game in which they interact with engaging cartoon characters. It provides carefully sequenced lessons by starting with easy tasks so the student is unlikely to make errors, and incorporates mastery learning by proceeding to the next lesson only after the student masters the preceding lesson. Once mastery is achieved, Headsprout helps students achieve fluency—that is, can the student identify letter sounds not only correctly but also quickly and consistently? Last, Headsprout promotes long-term retention by incorporating cumulative review. Previously mastered skills are revisited and extended upon so that students learn the mechanisms of reading rather than just memorize information (Layng et al., 2004).
Considerations for Implementing Mastery Learning
Although considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions using mastery learning, teachers may still be hesitant to adopt this strategy. Mastery learning inherently involves students moving at their own pace, which may be challenging for teachers to manage in large classes. It also requires frequent assessment of student progress and individualized decision making, which also may be challenging. Nonetheless, the following recommendations can facilitate introducing mastery learning into an instructional program.
Consider Multitiered System of Support
A multitiered system of support (MTSS) provides different levels of intervention depending on student need. Tier 1 interventions are applied to all students, Tier 2 interventions to small groups of students, and Tier 3 to individual students. Mastery learning can be incorporated into MTSS. For example, the Brosnan et al. (2018) study examined the effects of precision teaching within Tier 2 of a multitiered system. That is, mastery learning was presented as a form of additional support to students who were not successful with traditional instruction.
At first, convert just one skill or lesson to a mastery learning format. For example, Skarr et al. (2014) implemented their direct instruction and math racetrack procedure for about 30 minutes on 4 days of the week. Because students move at their own pace, mastery learning time might best take place during small group or independent work time.
Personalized system of instruction emphasizes the use of proctors who could be teachers or peers (students who previously mastered the material). Peers can be involved in answering questions or facilitating problem solving. Encouraging students who master material more quickly to assist students who are still working may even provide additional learning opportunities; research has shown that peer tutoring can benefit both the tutor and the tutee (Rhymer et al., 2000).
McLaughlin (1991) provided students with tape recorders so they could individually take practice spelling test, and more modern technology can make mastery learning even easier. Corrective feedback often uses computers to give immediate feedback (Cullen et al., 2014; Guinness et al., 2020; Mayfield et al., 2008). Internet-based Headsprout regularly assesses student performance and provides feedback in a gamified manner (Layng et al., 2004). In a classroom setting, computerized feedback allows students to access feedback quickly as they work at their own pace, while a teacher can circulate around the room and provide more detailed coaching if needed.
Conclusions and Implications
Mastery learning ensures that students achieve mastery of one set of material before moving on to additional content. Criteria for mastery can be based on percentage accuracy, or number of correct responses per minute. Generally, higher mastery criteria produce greater long-term retention. Mastery criteria can also be adjusted during teaching to ensure students are challenged but successfully achieving mastery. Several established instructional strategies (personalized system of instruction, precision teaching, direct instruction) include mastery learning along with frequent response opportunities, self-pacing, and immediate feedback. Multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses have supported the efficacy of these strategies.
Nonetheless, implementing a mastery learning strategy can be challenging for teachers. If incorporating mastery learning within Tier 1 of a multitiered system of support (MTSS), consider starting small with just one topic or lesson. Using peers or technology can facilitate providing frequent feedback as students master content at different paces. Also, mastery learning could be considered as a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention within MTSS for students who are not successful with traditional instructional approaches.
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Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of corrective feedback. The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-feedback
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Fluency in Education
Being fluent in something taught is essential if learning is available to the learner at a later date. The distinguishing characteristic of mastery learning lies in both quick and accurate performance of a skill. The fluid combination of accuracy plus speed characterizes competent performance. To provide all students with retention, endurance, and application of instructional content, teachers must monitor performance with clear and universal measures and make decisions using standard data displays. How teachers measure student progress and define mastery rarely receives attention. The use of standard units of measurement and a standard graphical display are essential features of effective instruction. One such discovery, performance standards, has demonstrated that students can retain skills over significant amounts of time, perform at high rates with little performance decrement, and apply “element” skills to more sophisticated “compound” skills. It is essential teachers build fluency through providing students with adequate opportunities to practice lessons before moving on to the next topic. To sustain learning over time, instructors must monitor performance days, weeks, and even months after completion of a lesson. Unless continuous monitoring of past experiences occurs, prerequisite skills will be lost and unavailable to the student when needed in future lessons.
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Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom
Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.
Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.
Increasing Active Student Responding and Improving Academic Performance Through Classwide Peer Tutoring
Classwide Peer Tutoring is a powerful instructional procedure that actively engages all students in a classroom and that promotes mastery, accuracy, and fluency in content learning for students with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss Classwide Peer Tutoring as an effective instructional procedure.
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Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.
This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.
Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.
Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration.
This book delivers teaching practice highlights and some strategies introduced in schools to give educators, evaluators, and researchers comprehensive evidence found on the best instructional strategies schools could use to improve student outcomes significantly.
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The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.
This paper is a research review which explores factors that can be controlled or influenced by teachers and that are known to affect student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. Pre-instructional factors include decisions about content, time allocation, pacing, grouping, and activity structures.
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Assessing the value-added effects of literary collaborative professional development on student learning.
This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.
Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal, 111(1), 7-34.
Human characteristics and school learning
This paper theorizes that variations in learning and the level of learning of students are determined by the students' learning histories and the quality of instruction they receive.
Bloom, B. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 259-267.
Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities
In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.
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Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.
This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.
Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(1), 73-85.
Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.
This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda
Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children, 74(3), 351-371.
Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect was performed to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles.
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The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching
The author argues that there is a body of evidence that shows quite clearly how to teach so that students will learn far more than they are learning today. This reader-friendly volume provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching.
Chance, P. (2008). The teacher’s craft: The ten essential skills of effective teaching.Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading.
The oral reading of 65 first-graders experiencing difficulties in beginning reading was observed during primary reading instructional time. Findings indicate most instruction for struggling readers was not aligned with recent research on preventing reading difficulties, and even struggling readers receiving reading instruction aligned with best practices are making minimal progress.
Chard, D. J., & Kameenui, E. J. (2000). Struggling first-grade readers: The frequency and progress of their reading. The Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 28-38.
The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction.
This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design.
Christle, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12(3), 147-165.
Performance Feedback Overview
This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.
Meta-Analysis of Mathematic Basic-Fact Fluency Interventions: A Component Analysis
Mathematics fluency is a critical component of mathematics learning yet few attempts have been made to synthesize this research base. Seventeen single-case design studies with 55 participants were reviewed using meta-analytic procedures.
Codding, R. S., Burns, M. K., & Lukito, G. (2011). Meta‐analysis of mathematic basic‐fact fluency interventions: A component analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(1), 36-47.
Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills
This study sought to investigate the impact of a supplemental program’s script on the rate of on-task and off-task instructional opportunities offered by the instructor for students to practice the specific skills targeted in lesson exercises.
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Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary
Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.
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Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education.
The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.
Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 356-367.
A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Distribution Of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don't
This meta-analysis reviews 63 studies on the relationship between conditions of massed practice and spaced practice with respect to task performance, which yields an overall mean weighted effect size of 0.46.
Donovan, J. J., & Radosevich, D. J. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the distribution of practice effect: Now you see it, now you don't. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 795.
Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology
The language of life as well as of science in attributing a memory to the mind attempts to point out the facts and their interpretation
Ebbinghaus, H. (2013). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. Annals of Neurosciences, 20(4), 155–156.
Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators
This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.
Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.
Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model
This evidence on effective literacy teaching, which includes small group instruction, differentiation, and a response to intervention, presents a challenge for many teachers and schools.
Fisher, D. (2008). Effective use of the gradual release of responsibility model. Author Monographs, 1–4.
Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature
This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
This meta-analysis examined the impact of lecturing as compared to active methods of instruction on learning and course performance. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies).
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415.
Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
A preliminary analysis of mastery criterion level: Effects on response maintenance
Educators use a mastery criterion to evaluate skill acquisition programming for children with autism and other developmental disabilities; however, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no research evaluating how the mastery criterion level of accuracy affects the maintenance of those responses.
Fuller, J. L., & Fienup, D. M. (2018). A preliminary analysis of mastery criterion level: Effects on response maintenance. Behavior analysis in practice, 11(1), 1-8.
Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform: A report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education
A report entitled A Nation at Risk was published based on information distilled from commissioned research papers and public hearings. The report contains summaries of the papers and hearings; a list of findings in content, expectations, time, and teaching; a set of recommendations; and aspects of implementation related to con
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W., Campbell, A., & Crosby, E. A. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform (p. 65). Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.
Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education
Using the teacher‐centered systemic reform model as a framework, the authors explore the connection between chemistry instructors’ beliefs about teaching and learning and self‐efficacy beliefs, and their enacted classroom practices.
Gibbons, R. E., Villafañe, S. M., Stains, M., Murphy, K. L., & Raker, J. R. (2018). Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(8), 1111-1133.
Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion
This paper provides students with an opportunity to improve their reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The activity, which can be used with intermediate and advanced learners, is ideal for English language learners in content classes and is particularly useful for building foundational knowledge of a new topic.
Giovacchini, M. (2017). Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion. In English Teaching Forum (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 36-39). US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037.
The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children with attending problems.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, choral responding, the response card) on student participation and ontask behavior in preschool children with attending problems.
Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The Effects of Three Techniques on Student Participation with Preschool Children with Attending Problems. Education & Treatment of Children, 26(3).
A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails.
This paper confirms the predominance of lecture and adds to the existing literature by asking why principles instructors have selected their particular teaching methods.
Goffe, W. L., & Kauper, D. (2014). A survey of principles instructors: Why lecture prevails. The Journal of Economic Education, 45(4), 360-375.
Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice.
A brief perspective is offered on the development and validation of one enabler—engagement in academic responding—and recent findings are provided of an effort to bridge the gap between research and practice by employing this knowledge in Title 1 elementary schools to improve instruction.
Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives in research and practice. School Psychology Review, 31(3).
The Development of Mastery Learning
This paper examines the theory and development of Master Learning over the past forty years.
Guskey, T. (2009). The Development of Mastery Learning.Education.com.
Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies
This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.
Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.
Empowering students through speaking round tables
This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.
Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia, 4(1), 39-59.
The Rise of Universities
The Rise of Universities goes far beyond its central subject to offer a broad description of the social conditions in which universities took root and flourished.
Haskins, C. H. (2017). The rise of universities. Routledge.
This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.
Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning
This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.
A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.
This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.
Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.
A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content.
The purpose of this article is to examine research on the effectiveness of guided notes. Results indicate that using guided notes has a positive effective on student outcomes, as this practice has been shown to improve accuracy of note taking and student test scores.
Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(4), 226-231.
A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature
This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.
Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(4), 181-188.
Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.
ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.
Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.
Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education.
This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.
Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education, 36(4), 186-205.
Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes
This paper briefly discuss some pros and con of lecturing as a teaching method, describe how a strategy called "guided notes" can make lecturing more effective, and offer some specific suggestions for developing and using guided notes.
Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes. Talking About Teaching.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction To Special Education.
This book for teachers in the area of Special Education looks at highly effective, research-based practices described in a very step-by-step, applied manner.
Heward, W. L. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Pearson.
Using choral responding to increase active student response.
There are numerous practical strategies for increasing active student response during group instruction. One of these strategies, Choral Responding, is the subject of this article.
Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(3), 72-75.
Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping
This study aimed to examine active instruction and engagement across elementary, middle, and high schools using a large database of direct classroom observations.
Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(1), 30-39.
The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities.
An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.
Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 13-23.
This essay examines teaching methods to motivate teachers to adopt evidence-based methods of instruction.
Keller, F. (1968). "Goodbye teacher..." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 79-89.
Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students
The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with several suggestions for creating and using guided notes to enhance other effective teaching methods, support students’ studying, and promote higher order thinking.
Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in school and clinic, 46(3), 131-140.
Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.
Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.
Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units.
This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234-246.
Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices.
This paper provides a review of the theoretical discussions and practical studies relating to fluency instruction and reading development.
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of educational psychology, 95(1), 3.
Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis
A meta-analysis of findings from 108 controlled evaluations showed that mastery learning programs have positive effects on the examination performance of students in colleges, high schools, and the upper grades in elementary schools.
Kulik, C., Kulik, J., & Bangert-Drowns, R. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 60, 265-299.
Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.
The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.
Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88-99.
The Birth and Death Cycles of Educational innovations
A study of 27 promising programs reveals 8 common reasons that educational innovations fail, including disenchanted practitioners; departure of innovation supporters; lack of personnel training; disappearing funding; inadequate supervision; and lack of accountability, administrative support, and termination consequences. Innovations succeed by avoiding overload, complementing school mission, and securing board approval
Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal, 68(1), 41-43.
Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read.
Headsprout Early Reading™ is a new engaging, Internet-based reading program that effectively teaches the essential skills and strategies required for rapid reading success.
Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral technology today, 3(7), 20.
Instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback: A quantitative synthesis.
The overall effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on classroom learning are estimated. The constancy of effects of these instructional qualities were explored across characteristics of students, and educational and contextual conditions. The results confirm the Dollard-Miller-Carroll-Bloom theory that has evolved during the past four decades.
Lysakowski, R. S., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis. American Educational Research Journal, 19(4), 559-78.
Corrigendum: Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis
This meta-analysis research cover all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated in search of empirical evidence. The authors conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.
Macnamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological science, 25(8), 1608-1618.
Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice
In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.
Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 65-89.
A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class
Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class.
Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1), 55-70.
Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement
This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd
Effects of The Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension.
The effects of a cloze procedure developed from transfer feature theory of processing in reading on immediate and delayed recall of good and poor readers were studied
Mcgee, L. M. (1981). Effects of the Cloze Procedure on Good and Poor Readers' Comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 13(2), 145-156.
Should U.S. Students Do More Math Practice and Drilling?
Should U.S. students be doing more math practice and drilling in their classrooms? That’s the suggestion from last week’s most emailed New York Times op-ed. The op-ed’s author argued that more practice and drilling could help narrow math achievement gaps. These gaps occur in the U.S. by the primary grades.
Morgan, P. L. (2018). Should U.S. students do more math practice and drilling? Psychology Today.Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/children-who-struggle/201808/should-us-students-do-more-math-practice-and-drilling
Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.
The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design.
Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(4), 483-490.
The Nation’s Report Card, 2017
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a national assessment of what America's students know in mathematics, reading, science, writing, the arts, civics, economics, geography, and U.S. history.
Nation’s Report Card. (2017). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from the NAEP Data Explorerhttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/
The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.
In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.
Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 895-934.
Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research
The school year and day length have varied over time and across localities depending on the particular needs of the community. Proponents argue that extending time will have learning and nonacademic benefits. Opponents suggest increased time is not guaranteed to lead to more effective instruction and suggest other costs.
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Allen, A. B. (2010). Extending the school day or school year: A systematic review of research (1985–2009). Review of educational research, 80(3), 401-436.
Active Student Response Strategies
a written guide for Active Student Response Strategies.
Pearce, A. R. (2011). Active student response strategies. CDE Facilities Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/facilityschools/download/pdf/edmeetings_04apr2011_asrstrategies.pdf
The effects of active participation on student learning.
The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. t was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.
Pratton, J., & Hales, L. W. (1986). The effects of active participation on student learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 79(4), 210-215.
Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading
The terms cloze procedure and cohesion are associated with reading development. Specifically, doze applies to the testing and teaching of reading while cohesion applies to a description of how the way in which reading material is written can affect reading development.
Raymond, P. (1988). Cloze procedure in the teaching of reading. TESL Canada Journal, 6(1), 91–97.
Processing Fluency as the Source of Experiences at the Fringe of Consciousness
The authors extend Mangan's account of fringe consciousness by discussing their work on processing experiences. This research shows that variations in speed at different stages of perceptual processing can jointly contribute to subjective processing ease, supporting Mangan's notion that different mental processes condense into one subjective experience.
Reber, R., Fazendeiro, T. A., & Winkielman, P. (2002). Processing fluency as the source of experiences at the fringe of consciousness. Psyche, 8(10), 1-21.
The effects of different mastery criteria on the skill maintenance of children with developmental disabilities
The acquisition of skills by individuals with developmental disabilities typically includes the attainment of a certain mastery criterion. Based on these results, we conducted a series of three experiments to evaluate the relation between mastery criterion and subsequent skill maintenance with 4 individuals with various developmental disabilities.
Richling, S. M., Williams, W. L., & Carr, J. E. (2019). The effects of different mastery criteria on the skill maintenance of children with developmental disabilities. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 52(3), 701-717.
Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.
This article discuss about automaticity theory and attempt to do 2 things: 1. describe automaticity theory and its practical applications; and 2. explain some of the new ideas about automaticity.
Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited.
Teacher-centered instruction: The Rodney Dangerfield of social studies.
Teacher-centered instruction implies a high degree of teacher direction and a focus of students on academic tasks. And it vividly contrasts with student-centered or constructivist approaches in establishing a leadership role for the teacher
Schug, M. C. (2003). Teacher-centereed instruction. Where did social studies go wrong, 94-110.
Replication has taken on more importance recently because the ESSA evidence standards only require a single positive study. To meet the strong, moderate, or promising standards, programs must have at least one “well-designed and well-implemented” study using randomized (strong), matched (moderate), or correlational (promising) designs and finding significantly positive outcomes.
Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/
Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress.
A commentary on: Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress
Smith, A. M., Floerke, V. A., & Thomas, A. K. (2016). Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science, 354(6315), 1046-1048.
How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?
The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program
Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?
This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.
States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.
Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?
This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?
States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.
This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships
Active Student Responding (ASR)
Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategies that designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond
Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools.
This article presents an analysis of data collected across 35 general education classrooms in four elementary schools, assessing instructional variables associated with OTR. The relationship among opportunities to respond (OTR), measures of classroom management, and student work products was analyzed across Title and non-Title schools.
Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high-and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68-81.
A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities.
A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.
Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 178-195.
Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis.
The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), 109-119.
A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning.
The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.
Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.
Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.
This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning.
Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..
Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior.
This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction
Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 355-367.
Enhancing engagement through active student response.
Student engagement is critical to academic success. High-Active Student Response (ASR) teaching techniques are an effective way to improve student engagement and are an important component of evidence-based practice. . This report provides techniques and strategies to enhance engagement through ASR. Key terms are appended.
Tincani, M., & Twyman, J. S. (2016). Enhancing Engagement through Active Student Response. Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University.
Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction
This experiment evaluated the effects of requiring overt answer construction in computer-based programmed instruction using an alternating treatments design.
Tudor, R. M. (1995). Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 343-344.
Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application.
A group experimental design compared passive reading, covert responding to frame blanks, and actively typing answers to blanks with and without immediate confirmation of correctness. Results strongly supported the effectiveness of requiring the student to supply fragments of a terminal repertoire while working through a program.
Tudor, R. M., & Bostow, D. E. (1991). Computer‐programmed instruction: The relation of required interaction to practical application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 361-368.
This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods
Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.
What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.
This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.
Practice makes perfect—but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection.
On the one hand, it seems obvious that practice is important. After all, "practice makes perfect." On the other hand, it seems just as obvious that practicing the same material again and again would be boring for students. How much practice is the right amount?
Willingham, D. T. (2004). Ask the Cognitive Scientist Practice Makes Perfect, But Only If You Practice Beyond the Point of Perfection. American Educator, 28(1), 31-33.
Why don't students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom
The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.
This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.
Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(2), 39-47.
Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction.
This study shows that gaps between opportunities to learn and students' appropriation of those opportunities are instructionally produced and socially distributed via mechanism that affect engagement and lead to alienation from instruction - the dissociation between students' physical presence in academic classes and their thoughts while in class.
Yair, G. (2000). Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction. Sociology of Education, 247-269.