Education Drivers

Program Models

Publications

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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Sustainability of evidence-based programs in education

This paper discusses common elements of successfully sustaining effective practices across a variety of disciplines.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Duda, M., Naoom, S. F., & Van Dyke, M. (2010). Sustainability of evidence-based programs in education. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 30-46.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth
The goal of this paper is to provide policymakers with recommendations for the design and implementation of strong principal development and evaluation systems. States and local school systems that pursue these ideas can use principal evaluation to drive a powerful vision of principal effectiveness and, by consequence, improve outcomes for all students.
(2010). Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth. New Leaders for New Schools.
Principal Evaluation Handbook
New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Principal Evaluation Handbook. New Leaders
Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
Principal Evaluation Rubric
Overview New Leaders has recently published a new principal evaluation model. It includes seven modules: (1) Overview of the New Leaders Principal Evaluation Model, (2) The Principal Evaluation Rubric, (3) Setting a Principal Practice Goal + Strategic Planning, (4) Identifying Evidence, (5) Direct Observation of Principal Practice, (6) Collecting and Mapping Evidence to the Principal Practice Rubric, and (7) Providing Actionable Feedback.
(2012). Putting Principal Evaluation into Practice. New Leaders
The Teaching-Family Model: A case study in data-based program development and refinement (and dragon wrestling)

A case study in program development and refinement is presented. We describe the
Teaching-Family model and its history, the original research goal of developing a community-
based program that was more humane, more effective in teaching communityliving skills,
and less expensive than the traditional large state institutions prevalent when we began. 

A New Approach to Principal Preparation: Innovative Programs Share Their Practices and Lessons Learned

This paper examines a number of promising principal preparation programs to identify lessons for improving the impact of principals on student perrmance.

A new approach to principal preparation: Innovative programs share their practices and lessons learned. Rainwater Leadership Alliance, 2010.

A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students

This review of the research on secondary reading programs focuses on 69 studies that used random assignment (n=62) or high-quality quasi-experiments (n=7) to evaluate outcomes of 51 programs on widely accepted measures of reading.The study found programs using one-to-one and small-group tutoring (+0.14 to +0.28 effect size), cooperative learning (+0.10 effect size), whole-school approaches including organizational reforms such as teacher teams (+0.06 effect size), and writing-focused approaches (+0.13 effect size) showed positive outcomes. Individual approaches in a few other categories also showed positive impacts. The findings are important suggesting interventions for secondary readers to improve struggling student’s chances of experiencing greater success in high school and better opportunities after graduation.

Citation: Baye, A., Lake, C., Inns, A. & Slavin, R. E. (2018, January). A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research and Reform in Education.

An ecological model for school-based mental health services for urban low-income aggressive children

An ecological model for school-based mental health services that targets urban low-income aggressive children—a highly vulnerable and underserved population—is presented.

Atkins, M. S., McKay, M. M., Arvanitis, P., London, L., Madison, S., Costigan, C., ... & Bennett, D. (1998). An ecological model for school-based mental health services for urban low-income aggressive children. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research25(1), 64-75.

Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers' advanced-stage effectiveness trial

This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers “Skills for Success” conduct problems prevention program.

August, G. J., Bloomquist, M. L., Lee, S. S., Realmuto, G. M., & Hektner, J. M. (2006). Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers’ advanced-stage effectiveness trial. Prevention Science7(2), 151-165.

Obtaining Validation from Graduates on a Restructured Principal Preparation Program

This study used within-program comparison of follow-up survey responses from two sets of program graduates from a university-based leadership preparation program to determine differences in program features and outcome measures.

Ballenger, J., Alford, B., McCune, S. L., & McCune, E. D. (2010). Obtaining validation from graduates on a restructured principal preparation program. Jsl Vol 19-N5, 19 533.

Response to Intervention: Empirically Based Special Service Decisions From Single-Case Designs of Increasing and Decreasing Intensity

The advantages and challenges associated with these designs for use in special education eligibility decisions are discussed as models for child evaluation in schools.

Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz Jr, F. E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education38(2), 66-79.

Progress Over a Decade in Preparing More Effective School Principals

Over the past 10 years, the Southern Regional Education Board has helped states and public universities across the region evaluate their state policies for preparing school principals who are leaders of instruction. This benchmark report reviews the past decade and looks at 10 learning-centered leadership indicators to gauge how far states have come and how far they need to go in selecting, preparing and supporting leaders of change.

Bottoms, G., Egelson, P., & Bussey, L. H. (2012). Progress over a decade in preparing more effective school principals. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study.

Students (N = 4,466) attending 56 schools in New York State were involved in a 3-year study testing the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention.

Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: results of a 3-year study. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology58(4), 437.

Dramatic Cures for Juvenile Crime: An Evaluation of a Prisoner-Run Delinquency Prevention Program

This article describes an evaluation of a prisoner-run delinquency prevention program at Hawaii's major prison.

Buckner, J. C., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1983). Dramatic cures for juvenile crime: An evaluation of a prisoner-run delinquency prevention program. Criminal Justice and Behavior10(2), 227-247.

An Analysis of Principal Preparation Programs at Pennsylvania State Schools

This study examined principal preparation programs within the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education to ascertain whether their programs were structured in a way that would equip principal candidates with the leadership roles deemed essential for 21st century school leadership.

Burks, Karlin. (2014). An Analysis of Principal Preparation Programs at Pennsylvania State Schools. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs) Paper 1934.

Historical, current, and future models of schools as health care delivery settings.

Explores existing models of the school as a health care service delivery setting and considers the implications of these models for the practice of psychology in schools. 

Carlson, C. I., Paavola, J., & Talley, R. (1995). Historical, current, and future models of schools as health care delivery settings. School Psychology Quarterly10(3), 184.

Rethinking Leadership: The Changing Role of Principal Supervisors

This report consists of two parts: a survey of 67 public school systems district staff serving as principal supervisors and on-site analysis of six districts pre-service training and support systems for new principals.

Corcoran, A., et al. (2013). Rethinking Leadership: The Changing Role of Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.

Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control?

The authors examined the extent to which program integrity (i.e., the degree to which programs were implemented as planned) was verified and promoted in evaluations of primary and early secondary prevention programs published between 1980 and 1994. 

Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control?. Clinical psychology review18(1), 23-45.

The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?

This study describe the schools, students, and programs in the for-profit higher education sector, it's phenomenal recent growth, and it's relationship to the federal and state governments. The study find that for-profit institutions educate a larger fraction of minority, disadvantaged, and older students, and they have greater success at reatining students in their first year and fetting them to complete short programs at the certificate and AA levels. But they also find that the for-profit students end-up with higher unemployment and "idleness" rates and lower earning six years after entering programs than do comparable students from other schools. and they have far greater student debt burdens and default rates on their student loans.

Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2012. "The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?" Journal of Economic Perspectives26 (1): 139-64.

The Effectiveness of Principal Training and Formal Principal Mentoring Programs

The purpose of this study was to determine principals' perceptions of how effective mentoring programs and university-based principal preparation programs are in developing the skills necessary to carry out the 13 critical success factors identified by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). A review of the literature addressed what it means to be an effective principal and what an effective mentoring program should look like.

Dodson, R. B. (2006). The Effectiveness of Principal Training and Formal Principal Mentoring Programs.

The study of implementation: Current findings from effective programs that prevent mental disorders in school-aged children

This article reviews implementation issues in prevention trials and specifically highlights the study of implementation in the 34 programs determined to be effective in a recent review conducted by the Prevention Research Center for the Center for Mental Health Services.

Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2000). The study of implementation: Current findings from effective programs that prevent mental disorders in school-aged children. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation11(2), 193-221.

Issues in Disseminating and Replicating Effective Prevention Programs

a brief overview of findings from the Blueprints for Violence Prevention-Replication Initiative is presented, identifying factors that enhance or impede a successful implementation of these programs.

Elliott, D. S., & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science5(1), 47-53.

Sustainability of evidence-based programs in education

This paper discusses common elements of successfully sustaining effective practices across a variety of disciplines.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Duda, M., Naoom, S. F., & Van Dyke, M. (2010). Sustainability of evidence-based programs in education. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 30-46.

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.

Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials (and Other Phases of Research) in the Development of Health Promotion Programs

The concepts of efficacy and effectiveness are examined from the viewpoints of the traditions and philosophies of health-care research and social program evaluation. 

Flay, B. R. (1986). Efficacy and effectiveness trials (and other phases of research) in the development of health promotion programs. Preventive medicine15(5), 451-474.

The Principal Internship: How Can We Get It Right?

In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board evaluates some 60 internship programs within its states and finds them lacking in a number of ways, including failing to provide real experiences in leadership. It urges policymakers, universities and school districts to create apprenticeships that better prepare aspiring principals for the demands they will face.

Fry, B., Bottoms, G., & O’neill, K. (2005). The principal internship: How can we get it right. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention

To implement RTI for prevention and identification, schools must make decisions about six components that constitute the process. The authors recommendation is that schools employ three tiers, with only one tier separating general and special education.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. Teaching exceptional children39(5), 14-20.

How Principals Learn to Lead: The Comparative Influence of On-the-Job Experiences, Administrator Credential Programs, and the ISLLC Standards in the Development of Leadership Expertise among Urban Public School Principals

This study examines the influence of administrator credential programs, on-the-job experiences, and the standards in the development of urban public school principals.

Fultz, M. Assessing the Relationship Between Administrator Preparation Programs and Job Performance.

Implementation: Measuring and Explaining the Fidelity of CSR Implementation

By using data collected for the National Longitudinal Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform (NLECSR), this article explores the factors that predict CSR model implementation and the ways that CSR model implementation varies.

Kurki, A., Boyle, A., & Aladjem, D. K. (2006). Implementation: Measuring and explaining the fidelity of CSR implementation. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk11(3-4), 255-277.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization

No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)

Taking Charge of Principal Preparation-A Guide to NYC Leadership Academy's Aspiring Principals Program

This report provides an overview of NYCLA’s flagship principal preparation program. Intended to help others involved in principal preparation think through important elements of principal preparation, including candidate selection, developing experiential learning opportunities, and funding, staffing and sustaining the program, the guide shares NYCLA’s successes and lessons learned during the 11 years we have delivered the Aspiring Principals Program in New York City, as well as through our work with various state and district partners nationally to adapt the program.

NYC Leadership Academy (2014). Taking Charge of Principal Preparation-A Guide to NYC Leadership Academy's Aspiring Principals Program.  Retrieved from http://www.nycleadershipacademy.org/news-and-resources/tools-and-publications/pdfs/app-guide-full-guide.

A Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program Grades K-3: A Critical Elements Analysis

A critical review of reading programs requires objective and in-depth analysis. For these reasons, the authors offer the following recommendations and procedures for analyzing critical elements of programs.

Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Retrieved December19, 2006.

The Impacts of Reading Recovery at Scale: Results From the 4-Year i3 External Evaluation

A recent large-scale evaluation of Reading Recovery, a supplemental reading program for young struggling readers, supports previous research that found it to be effective.  In a 4 year, federally funded project, almost 3,500 students in 685 schools found that generally students benefitted from the intervention. Students receiving Reading Recovery receive supplemental services in a 1:1 instructional setting for 30 minutes 5 days a week from an instructor trained in Reading Recovery.  In the study reported here, students who received Reading Recovery had effect sizes of .35-.37 relative to a control group across a number of measures of reading.  These represent moderate effect sizes and account for about a 1.5 month increase in skill relative to the control group.  Even though the research supports the efficacy of the intervention, it also raises questions about its efficiency.  The schools that participated in the study served about 5 students and the estimated cost per student has ranged from $2,000-$5,000.  These data raise questions about the wisdom of spending this much money per student for growth of about a month and a half.

Sirinides, P., Gray, A., & May, H. (2018). The Impacts of Reading Recovery at Scale: Results From the 4-Year i3 External Evaluation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 0162373718764828.

What One Hundred Years of Research Says About the Effects of Ability Grouping and Acceleration on K–12 Students’ Academic Achievement: Findings of Two Second-Order Meta-Analyses

This paper analyzed the results of research on the effects of ability grouping and acceleration on students' academic achievement. Nineteen meta-analyses were met criteria for inclusion for the review. Results were found for improved academic achievement within-class grouping, cross-grade grouping by subject, and grouping for the gifted. No positive effects were identified for between-class grouping. The results were consistent regardless of whether students were high, medium, or low achievers. The study found acceleration appeared to have a positive, moderate, and statistically significant impact on students’ academic achievement.

Steenbergen-Hu, S., Makel, M. C., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2016). What One Hundred Years of Research Says About the Effects of Ability Grouping and Acceleration on K–12 Students’ Academic Achievement: Findings of Two Second-Order Meta-Analyses. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 849-899.

Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity.

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training procedures and treatment integrity. 

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., Wildmon, M., Watkins, C., & Little, E. (2001). Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity. School Psychology Quarterly16(1), 56.

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Suppor

This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review35(2), 245.

The impact of tier 1 reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in Grades 4–12: A meta-analysis

This meta-analysis examines the impact of 1st tier reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in grades 4-12 in an Multi-tiered System of Support (MTSS) service delivery model. 37 studies met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The study finds small, but positive effects for 1st tier reading instruction on comprehension, vocabulary, and indicates minimum evidence for struggling readers maintaining or improving reading comprehension over struggling students receiving typical instruction. Hedges’s g was used calculating effect sizes. Because of the limited number of studies examining phonics/word recognition and fluency instruction, it was not possible these critical instruction areas in this meta-analysis.

 

Swanson, E., Stevens, E. A., Scammacca, N. K., Capin, P., Stewart, A. A., & Austin, C. R. (2017). The impact of tier 1 reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in Grades 4–12: A meta-analysis. Reading and Writing30(8), 1639-1665.

 

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA Regulations of 2006: Implications for Educators, Administrators, and Teacher Trainers

This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).

Living an idea: Empowerment and the evolution of an alternative high school.

This book is about the creation and 14 year evolution of a public alternative inner-city high school—New Haven, CT's High School in the Community (HSC). This school lived an idea—empowerment. Students were encouraged to participate in shaping many aspects of their education, teachers were responsible for running the school, and parents invited to help govern.

Trickett, E. J. (1991). Living an idea: Empowerment and the evolution of an alternative high school. Brookline Books.

Improving State Evaluation of Principal Preparation Programs

Intended for state officials involved in the assessment and approval of university and other programs to train future school principals, this report describes five design principles for effective program evaluation.

UCEA and New Leaders (2016). Improving state evaluation of principal preparation programs. Retrieved from: www.sepkit.org

The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement

This study compares the effect size and return on investment for rapid assessment, between, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and increased accountability.

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.

Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland
This report presents our examination of impacts of principals trained by New Leaders on student achievement in Oakland Unified School District (OUSD). For the last 10 years, New Leaders has partnered with OUSD in efforts to improve the recruitment and training of effective principals and school leaders. This report fills an important gap in the literature, as little research has been done looking at the impacts of principal training programs on student achievement.
Booker, K., Thomas, J. (2014). Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland. Mathematica Policty Research
Gateways to the Principalship State Power to Improve the Quality of School Leaders
This paper analyzes state policies for principal preparation approval and certification in 16 states, eight of which are "lagging," and eight "leading" in efforts to ensure effective leaders.
Cheney, G. R., & Davis, J. (2011). Gateways to the Principalship: State Power to Improve the Quality of School Leaders. Center for American Progress.
School Principals and School Performance
This paper uses data from New York City to estimate how the characteristics of school principals relate to school performance, as measured by students' standardized exam scores and other outcomes. There is little evidence of any relationship between school performance and principal education and pre-principal work experience, but some evidence that experience as an assistant principal at the principal's current school is associated with higher performance among inexperienced principals.
Clark, D., Martorell, P., & Rockoff, J. (2009). School Principals and School Performance. Working Paper 38. National Center for Analysis of longitudinal data in Education research.
Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments?
This study reviewed eight publicly available formative assessments of principal performance, focusing on the tool’s approach, time requirement, content and construct validity, and reliability.
Condon, C., & Clifford, M. (2010). Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief. Learning Point Associates.
Developing District-wide Expertise in Leaders’ Ability to Analyze and Improve Instructional Practice
This manuscript reports on two district’s efforts to improve the instructional leadership of principals, and lead teacher coaches in collaboration with an external support provider.
Copland, M. A., & Blum, D. (2007). Developing District-wide Expertise in Leaders’ Ability to Analyze and Improve Instructional Practice.
The Nature of Leadership Development
This book provides insight into the streams that are driving leadership theory and practice today. The Nature of Leadership, Second Edition provides students with an updated and complete yet concise handbook that solidifies and integrates the vast and disparate leadership literature.
Day, D., Antonakis, J. (2012). The Nature of Leadership. SAGE.
Schools Can’t Wait: Accelerating The Redesign of University Principal Preparation Programs
This report of 22 universities principal preparation programs identifies weaknesses in the training and offers recommendations for states to address the problems.
Fry, B., et al. (2006). Schools Can’t Wait: Accelerating The Redesign of University Principal Preparation Programs. Southern Regional Education Board.

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