Education Drivers

Effective Instruction Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be executed with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure the intervention is implemented as designed. Treatment integrity research finds that integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is impossible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Treatment integrity is defined as consistently implementing the essential components of an intervention as planned, intended, and originally designed. Studies find degradation of fidelity begins shortly after training. To ensure consistent levels of treatment integrity, teachers require ongoing monitoring and feedback of implementation. To date, research has not identified what threshold of treatment integrity is required to ensure the optimum benefit of an evidence-based practice.

 

Effective Instruction Treatment Integrity

Treatment Integrity PDF

Citation: Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Treatment Integrity.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity.

For the best chance of producing positive educational outcomes for all children, two conditions must be met: (a) adopting effective empirically supported (evidence-based) practices and (b) implementing those practices with sufficient quality that they make a difference (treatment integrity) (Detrich, 2014). Both are necessary as neither on its own is sufficient to result in positive outcomes. Figure 1 describes the relationship between empirically supported practices and treatment integrity.

        

Treatment Int Fig 1 

Figure 1. Relationship between empirically supported practices and treatment integrity

 

            If an intervention has strong empirical support and is implemented with high integrity, then there is a high probability that positive outcomes will be achieved (upper left quadrant). The other quadrants illustrate that the lack of either element reduces the probability of positive outcomes: If a well-supported, research-based intervention is not implemented with high integrity (lower left quadrant); if an intervention is implemented with high integrity but is not empirically supported (upper right quadrant); or if a nonempirically supported intervention is implemented poorly (lower right quadrant).

            It should be noted that some interventions are not empirically supported because sufficient research has demonstrated that they do not produce positive outcomes. Alternatively, some interventions are not empirically supported because they have not been experimentally evaluated. This latter class of interventions is still in the experimental phase of development. Using these interventions is tantamount to conducting research and all of the rules for engaging in research should be followed. Because these interventions are still experimental, their effectiveness is unknown and they should be implemented only with the fully informed consent of both educators and parents.

            The advent of the evidence-based practice movement in education has resulted in considerable effort to identify practices that are empirically supported. Organizations such as the What Works Clearinghouse (https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc) and the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (http://www.bestevidence.org) have reviewed a large number of interventions to discern the research base for each intervention. Until the past 20 years, treatment integrity did not receive significant scholarly attention. Even with the increased attention, treatment integrity measures are reported in about half of the published intervention research reports (Sanetti, Dobey, & Gritter, 2012; Sanetti, Gritter, & Dobey, 2011). When treatment integrity data are not published in research reports, it is difficult to know if the intervention that the researchers reported was actually implemented and was responsible for the outcomes or if there was some undocumented variation of the intervention that actually accounted for the outcomes.

           As important as treatment integrity is in research, it is equally important in practice settings. Measures of treatment integrity are fundamental to data-based decision making. Effective interventions may be prematurely terminated if the level of treatment integrity is not known. Student performance data tell us only how well a student is responding to the intervention as it is implemented. Treatment integrity measures tell us how well the intervention is being implemented. Without knowing about treatment integrity, it is not possible to know if a student’s failure to benefit from an intervention is a function of an ineffective intervention or ineffective implementation (see Treatment Integrity in the Problem-Solving Process for more discussion).

References

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258–271.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the Journal of Positive Behavior interventions from 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29–46.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72–84.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Schools are often expected to implement innovative instructional programs.  Most often these initiatives fail because what we know from implementation science is not considered as part of implementing the initiative.  This chapter reviews the contributions implementation science can make for improving outcomes for students.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31.

Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs.

Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity

Strategies designed to increase treatment integrity fall into two categories: antecedent-based strategies and consequence-based strategies.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute

 

Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview

Historically, treatment integrity has been defined as implementation of an intervention as planned (Gresham, 1989). More recently, treatment integrity has been reimagined as multidimensional (Dane & Schneider, 1998). In this conceptualization of treatment integrity are four dimensions relevant to practice: (a) exposure (dosage), (b) adherence, (c) quality of delivery, and (d) student responsiveness.  It is important to understand that these dimensions do not stand alone but rather interact to impact the ultimate effectiveness of an intervention. It is important for educators to assess all dimensions of treatment integrity to assure that it is being implemented as intended.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute

 

Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, the is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Overview of Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be implemented with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure benefit.  To date, emphasis in education has been on identifying effective interventions and less concern with implementing the interventions. The research on the implementation of interventions is not encouraging. Often, treatment integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is not possible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Historically, treatment integrity has been defined as implementing an intervention as prescribed. More recently, it has been conceptualized as having multiple dimensions, among them dosage and adherence which must be measured to ensure that it is occurring at adequate levels.

Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2107). Overview of Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

Treatment Integrity Strategies Overview

Student achievement scores in the United States remain stagnant despite repeated attempts to reform the education system. New initiatives promising hope arise, only to disappoint after being adopted, implemented, and quickly found wanting. The cycle of reform followed by failure has had a demoralizing effect on schools, making new reform efforts problematic. These efforts frequently fail because implementing new practices is far more challenging than expected and require that greater attention be paid to how initiatives are implemented. Treatment integrity is increasingly recognized as an essential component of effective implementation in an evidence-based education model that produces results, and inattention to treatment integrity is seen as a primary reason new initiatives fail. The question remains, what strategies can educators employ to increase the likelihood that practices are implemented as designed? The Wing Institute overview on the topic of Treatment Integrity Strategies examines the essential practice elements indispensable for maximizing treatment integrity.

 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity-strategies.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are We Making the Differences That Matter in Education? In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 119-138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness

This paper examines intervention and instruction failures and describe concrete steps that implementers can take to improve the results of their instruction and intervention in classrooms.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2011). Using Performance Feedback to Improve Teacher Effectiveness [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-amanda-vanderheyden.

Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs
If programs are to sustain they must be implemented with integrity. If there is drift over time, it raises questions about whether the program is sustaining or has been substantially changed.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Component of PBS
School-wide initatives have to be well implemented if there is to be any benefit. This talk describes methods for assuring high levels of treatment integrity.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Component of PBS [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-apbs-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity
If research supported interventions are to be effective it is necessary that they are implemented with integrity. This paper describes approahes to assuring high levels of treatment integrtiy.
Detrich, R. (2011). Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Preparing teachers to train parents in the use of evidence-based strategies for reading fluency.
This study evaluated the effects of training teachers to train parents to implement a program for increasing reading fluency for struggling readers. While all students improved, the quality of implementation moderated effects.
Kupzyk, S. (2009). Preparing teachers to train parents in the use of evidence-based strategies for reading fluency. Retrieved from student-research-2009-c.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment integrity: A wicked problem and some solutions

Presentation by Wing Institute with goals: Make the case that treatment integrity monitoring is a necessary part of service delivery; describe dimensions of treatment integrity; suggest methods for increasing treatment integrity; place treatment integrity within systems framework . 

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.

This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?

States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide.

This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.

Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education26, 40-54.

Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of enhanced anchor-instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving problem-solving performance. 

Bottge, B. A., Heinrichs, M., Mehta, Z. D., & Hung, Y. H. (2002). Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes. The Journal of Special Education35(4), 186-200.

Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control

Dane and Schneider propose treatment integrity as a multi-dimensional construct and describe five dimensions that constitute the construct.

Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.

Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting

The impact of an intervention is influenced by how well it fis into the context of a classroom.  This paper suggests a number of variables to consider and how they might be measured prior to the development of an intervention.

Detrich, R. (1999). Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 608-620.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs.

Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview

In this conceptualization of treatment integrity, there are four dimensions relevant to practice: (a) exposure (dosage), (b) adherence, (c) quality of delivery, and (d) student responsiveness.  It is important to understand that these dimensions do not stand alone but rather interact to impact the ultimate effectiveness of an intervention. 

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute

 

Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, there is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Overview of Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of producing positive educational outcomes for all children, two conditions must be met: (a) adopting effective empirically supported (evidence-based) practices and (b) implementing those practices with sufficient quality that they make a difference (treatment integrity)

Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2107). Overview of Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation

The first purpose of this review is to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose is to identify factors affecting the implementation process.

Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 327-350.

An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods.

This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.

Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.

The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement

To help states and districts make informed decisions about the PD they implement to improve reading instruction, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned the Early Reading PD Interventions Study to examine the impact of two research-based PD interventions for reading instruction: (1) a content-focused teacher institute series that began in the summer and continued through much of the school year (treatment A) and (2) the same institute series plus in-school coaching (treatment B).

Garet, M. S., Cronen, S., Eaton, M., Kurki, A., Ludwig, M., Jones, W., ... Zhu, P. (2008). The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement. NCEE 2008-4030. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Assessment of Treatment Integrity in School Consultation and Prereferral Intervention.

Technical issues (specification of treatment components, deviations from treatment protocols and amount of behavior change, and psychometric issues in assessing Treatment Integrity) involved in the measurement of Treatment Integrity are discussed.

Gresham, F. M. (1989). Assessment of treatment integrity in school consultation and prereferral intervention. School Psychology Review, 18(1), 37-50.

Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation.

This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.

Observational Assessment for Planning and Evaluating Educational Transitions: An Initial Analysis of Template Matching

Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.

Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.

Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support.

The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). 

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.

 

The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions.

“Contextual fit” is based on the premise that the match between an intervention and local context affects both the quality of intervention implementation and whether the intervention actually produces the desired outcomes for children and families.

Horner, R., Blitz, C., & Ross, S. (2014). The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/77066/ib_Contextual.pdf

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction

This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.  

Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Treatment integrity of school‐based interventions with children

This paper examines school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years between 1991 and 2005.  Only 30% of the studies provided treatment integrity data. Nearly half of studies (45%) were judged to be at high risk for treatment inaccuracies.

McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school‐based interventions with children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991–2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659–672.

Monitoring Response to General Education Instruction

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a critical component of the response-to-
intervention (RTI) process: monitoring student response to general education instruction.

McMaster, K. L., & Wagner, D. (2007). Monitoring response to general education instruction. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 223-233). Springer, Boston, MA.

A systematic review of single-case research on video analysis as professional development for special educators.

This meta-analysis reports on the overall effectiveness of video analysis when used with special educators, as well as on moderator analyses related to participant and instructional characteristics.

Morin, K. L., Ganz, J. B., Vannest, K. J., Haas, A. N., Nagro, S. A., Peltier, C. J., … & Ura, S. K. (2019). A systematic review of single-case research on video analysis as professional development for special educators. The Journal of Special Education53(1), 3-14.

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Diffusion of innovations

This book looks at how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind. 

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment.

This paper reviews options for treatment integrity measurement emphasizing how direct behavior rating technology might be incorporated within a multi-tiered model of intervention delivery.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., Christ, T. J., & Gritter, K. L. (2009). Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34(4), 251-258. 

Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009

The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.

Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008

The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.

Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches

This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. 

Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Treatment Integrity Strategies Overview

Inattention to treatment integrity is a primary factor of failure during implementation. Treatment integrity is defined as the extent to which an intervention is executed as designed, and the accuracy and consistency with which the intervention is implemented 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity-strategies.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity.

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training procedures and treatment integrity. 

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., Wildmon, M., Watkins, C., & Little, E. (2001). Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity. School Psychology Quarterly16(1), 56.

A Meta-Analysis of Direct Instruction

A soon to be published meta-analysis of Direct Instruction (DI) curricula that reviews research on DI curricula between 1966-2016 reports that DI curricula produced moderate to large effect sizes across the curriculum areas reading, math, language, and spelling.  The review is notable because it reviews a much larger body of DI research than has occurred in the past and covers a wide range of experimental designs (from single subject to randomized trials).  328 studies were reviewed and almost 4,000 effects were considered.  Given the variability in research designs and the breadth of the effects considered, it suggests that DI curricula produce robust results.  There was very little decline during maintenance phases of the study and greater exposure to the curricula resulted in greater effects.

Stockard, J., Wood, T. W., Coughlin, C. & Khoury, C. R. (in press), Review of Educational Research.  DOI: 10.3102/0034654317751919

 

Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development

In a randomized control study, Head Start teachers were assigned to either an intervention group that received intensive, ongoing professional development (PD) or to a comparison group that received the “business as usual” PD provided by Head Start. The PD intervention provided teachers with conceptual knowledge and instructional strategies that support young children’s development of vocabulary, alpha- bet knowledge, and phonological sensitivity.

Wasik, B. A., & Hindman, A. H. (2011). Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 455.

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of? the independent variable

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)
ABAI organization promotes the development, and support of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.
Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL)
CTL is research center that conducts and disseminates research that focuses on practical solutions to serious problems in school systems.
National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
The Center's mission is to provide technical assistance to states and districts and disseminate information about progress monitoring practices proven to work in different academic content areas (Gr. K-5).
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