Education Drivers

Teacher Curriculum Content

A substantial body of evidence is available to guide teacher preparation programs in developing a pre-service curriculum based on universal skills needed for success across settings, age ranges, and subjects being taught. These skills include instructional delivery, classroom management, formative assessment, and personal competencies (soft skills). Research tells us that better learning happens when teachers offer explicit instruction in which they select the learning area to be taught, set criteria for success, inform students of criteria, demonstrate the lesson through modeling, evaluate student learning, provide remedial opportunities, and offer closure after each lesson. Subject matter expertise is frequently identified as essential training for teachers, with substantial resources being allocated for such training. However, there is little research in support of emphasizing subject matter training, except for specialized training in reading, science, and mathematics. Time is better spent training new teachers to be fluent in universal skills. In its research and rating of teacher preparation programs, National Council of Teacher Quality (NCTQ) has found that many programs do not organize their curriculum around universal skills that evidence finds are essential to effective teacher preparation.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/Accountability%20and%20Autonomy.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get?
The analysis reviews school teacher earned degree data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Digest of Education Statistics (2008).
Keyworth, R. (2010). How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get? Retrieved from how-much-formal-training.
Are teacher preparation programs teaching formative assessment?
This probe lookes at research on teacher preparation program's efforts to provide teachers with instruction in formative assessment.
States, J. (2010). Are teacher preparation programs teaching formative assessment? Retrieved from are-teacher-preparation-programs.
How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential?
This inquiry lookes at two meta-analyses on the importance of subject matter training in teacher pre-service instruction.
States, J. (2010). How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential? Retrieved from how-important-is-it.
How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading?
This review lookes at teacher pre-service efforts to provide comprehensive instruction in the 5 critical practice elements identified for effective reading instruction.
States, J. (2011). How effective are teacher-training programs at teaching the skills of reading? Retrieved from how-effective-are-teacher.
How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students?
This literature review tries to answer the question; does the quality and amount of subject matter pre-service training translate into better qualified teachers?
States, J. (2011). How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students? Retrieved from how-important-in-increasing.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Teacher Preparation and Evidence-based Education
Teachers are primarily responsible for instruction in the classroom. Often their training does not prepare them to implement effective instructional practices and thus contributes to the research to practice gap.
Detrich, R. (2011). Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Teacher Preparation and Evidence-based Education [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-unt-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Teacher Preparation and Education Reform: A Behavioral Systems Perspective
The is abundant knowledge about what constitutes effective teaching. This talk review how well universities are including that knowledge in their teacher preparation programs.
Detrich, R. (2010). Teacher Preparation and Education Reform: A Behavioral Systems Perspective [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs
This paper examines effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers into the classroom. Preparation practices are analyzed to determine how well we are succeeding in preparing teachers.
States, J. (2010). What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know

This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.

Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The
Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/
pubs2011/2011033.pdf
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Class Size Reduction Amendment. Retrieved from
http://www.fdoe.org/classsize/
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W. O., Campbell, A., Crosby, E. A., Foster, C. A., Jr.,
...Wallace, R. (1983). A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter
to the American people. A report to the nation and the secretary of education. Retrieved
from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED226006
Gorman, S. (2010). An Introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from http://nces.
ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/parents/2010468.pdf
Grady, S., & Bielick, S. (2010). Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007 (NCES 2010-
004). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010004.pdf
Hall, D., & Gutierrez, A. S. (1998). Getting Honest about High School Graduation. [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/fles/publications/fles/
Session14GettingHonestAboutHSGraduation.ppt
Howell, W., Peterson, P. E., & West, M. (2007).What Americans think about their schools: The
2007 Education Next—PEPG Survey. Education Next, 7(4), 12-26. Retrieved from http://
educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
Luckie, M. S. (2009). California’s class-size-reduction program: Total spending since 1996.
[Interactive Graph]. Retrieved from http://californiawatch.org/k-12/californias-class-sizereduction-program-total-spending-1996
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Grade
12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. (NCES 2011–455).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2009/2011455.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011a). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://
nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=30
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011b). The Nation’s Report Card:
Mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department
of Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011c). The Nation’s Report Card:
Reading 2011. (NCES 2012–457). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). Data Explorer for Long-Term Trend.
[Data fle]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/lttdata/
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012a). Mathematics: Grade 12 National
Results. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer%20information
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012b). Reading: Grade 12 National Results.
Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer information
Nichols, A., & Özek, U. (2010). Public School Choice and Student Achievement in the
District of Columbia. (Working Paper 53). Retrieved from National Center for Analysis of
Longitudinl Data in Education Research - Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/
url.cfm?ID=1001499
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2006). PISA 2006
Technical Report. Paris: Author.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010a). PISA 2009
Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264083943-en
xxx |
Proceedings of the 5th Annual Summit Introduction
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010b). PISA 2009
Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume
IV). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010c). PISA 2009
Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics
and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics, 2009. (NCES 2010-013).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010013.pdf
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S.A. (2011). Digest of Education Statistics 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Stillwell, R. (2010). Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data:
School Year 2007–08. (NCES 2010-341). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute
of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010341
Zinth, K. (2010). Class-Size Policies. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States
website: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/85/21/8521.pdf

Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text

Noting that elementary-school students often fail to understand many of the ideas presented in school textbooks, this book presents the Questioning the Author (QtA) strategy, which is designed to establish student interactions with text and build greater understanding by teaching students to question the ideas presented in the text while they are reading. The book presents many examples of QtA in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning. After a foreword and an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "What Is Questioning the Author and How Was It Developed?"; (2) "Queries"; (3) "Planning"; (4) "Discussion"; (5) "Implementation"; and (6) "Where Has Questioning the Author Been and Where Is It Going?" Contains 66 references. (RS)

Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 

This study is a meta-analysis to identify the subject matter practice elements required to effectively teach reading to children

This study is a meta-analysis to identify the subject matter practice elements required to effectively teach reading to children

National Reading Panel (US), National Institute of Child Health, & Human Development (US). (2000). Report of the national reading panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.

Reading Comprehension Tests Don’t Test Reading

In this video from Cool Reading Facts, Daniel Willingham, professor of psychology at the University of Virginia, discusses significant factors key to success in reading comprehension. His analysis suggests that educators frequently miss the critical role that basic knowledge plays in successfully interpreting and understanding passages in reading texts and that reading comprehension tests are actually knowledge tests in disguise. He makes three important points: (1) Students must have the basic decoding skills to translate print into meaningful information, (2) having a basic familiarity with the subject matter is of prime importance in comprehending what the writer is trying to communicate, and (3) providing students with an enriched knowledge base through the school’s curriculum is especially important for students from disadvantaged circumstances, whose only source of essential background information often is school. In contrast, children from privileged circumstances may be introduced to essential background information away from school.

Willingham, D. (2017). Cool Reading Facts 5: Reading comprehension tests don’t test reading [Video file]. National Public Radio, Science Friday Educator Collaborative.

CLEAR TEACHING: With Direct Instruction, Siegfried Engelmann Discovered a Better Way of Teaching
This is a well-researched, highly readable introduction to Direct Instruction (DI)
Barbash, S. (2012). Clear teaching: With direct instruction, Siegfried Engelmann discovered a better way of teaching. Education Consumers Foundation.
Measurably superior instruction means close, continual contact with the relevant outcome data: Revolutionary!
The chapter looks at the critical importance of how to effectively measure performance to achieve the greatest impact.
Bushell, D., & Baer, D. M. (1994). Measurably superior instruction means close, continual contact with the relevant outcome data: Revolutionary. Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction, 3-10.
No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America’s Education Schools
This study examines selected education schools teacher preparation-mathematics courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of mathematics.
Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2008). No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools. National Council on Teacher Quality.
What Education Schools Aren’t Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren’t Learning
This study examines 72 randomly selected education schools teacher preparation-reading courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of reading.
Walsh, K., Glaser, D., & Wilcox, D. D. (2006). What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what Elementary teachers aren't learning. National Council on Teacher Quality.

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