Education Drivers

Classroom Management

Classroom management plays a critical role in creating an environment conducive to learning. It consists of practices and procedures that teachers apply to establish an environment conducive to instruction and learning. Research ranks classroom management near the top of issues that impact effective instruction and student achievement. Administrator and teacher surveys consistently list disruptive student behavior as the primary reason for teacher turnover. Ultimately, success in the classroom depends on a classroom climate that encourages and supports learning. However, a well-managed classroom doesn’t just happen on its own; it results when a teacher is trained in key competencies and becomes fluent in them. The four categories of competencies that rigorous research has identified as critical are: (1) rules and procedures, (2) proactive management, (3) effective and stimulating instruction, and (4) reduction of disruptive and inappropriate student conduct.

Classroom Management PDF

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Competent command of student conduct is essential to a teacher’s success. Classroom management is how teachers influence student behavior to create an environment conducive to learning. The primary goal is to maximize appropriate conduct and minimize student misbehavior. Effective teachers accomplish this by managing contingencies, the events that occur immediately before and after a behavior. In this way, they remove impediments to teaching students the skills for effective communication, interpersonal interactions, and academic achievement needed for success in life. Ineffective classroom management results in chaos; student learning is disrupted and teacher morale is often damaged beyond repair (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003). Where instructional control is poor, neither teacher nor students win.

 

Behavior Management Effect 

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Not surprisingly, research reveals that principals and teachers list classroom management among the top five indispensable teaching skills. Disruptive student behavior has ranked among teachers’ top concerns for more than 15 years and is one of the prime reasons teachers leave teaching (Smart & Igo, 2010). Ingersoll (2001) found that over 30% of teachers indicated classroom management issues as their primary reason for leaving the profession.

 

What is classroom management? The goal of effective classroom management is to (1) teach pro-social behaviors, (2) effectively address issues as they happen, and (3) prevent disruptive behavior. Classroom management consists of practices and procedures that teachers apply to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on-task, and academically productive (Oliver, Wehby, & Reschly, 2011). Success in the classroom depends on the teacher’s ability to maintain an environment that encourages and supports learning. However, a well-managed classroom doesn’t just happen on its own; it develops from well-designed training and experience in working with students. The four classroom management categories that rigorous research identifies as critical are (1) rules and procedures, (2) proactive management, (3) well-designed and -delivered instruction, and (4) disruptive behavior management.

 

Rules and procedures: An indispensable tool for preventing disruptive conduct is the systematic use of rules. Rules describe generally acceptable routines, standards, and procedures that inform students how to behave. Rules and procedures at both school and classroom levels are important in communicating to students and teachers the conduct expected. They prevent disruptive behavior by objectively defining how to behave, how to solve and avoid problems, and consequences of rule violation (Colvin, Kame’enui, & Sugai, 1993).

 

Posting the rules publicly, teaching appropriate behavior, and frequently reviewing expected conduct, when paired with constructive feedback, are found to significantly decrease common disruptive behavior such as veering off-task and talking in class. The various rules and procedures increase opportunities for teachers to reinforce appropriate behavior. These classroom management strategies are also associated with increased engagement, reduced frequency of student conflicts, and greater academic achievement (Johnson, Stoner, & Green, 1996; Lane, Wehby, & Menzies, 2003; Lo, Loe, & Cartledge, 2002; McNamara, Evans, & Hill, 1986; Sharpe, Brown, & Crider, 1995; Rosenberg, 1986).

 

Rules and Procedures

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Proactive management: Another set of preventive strategies focuses on recognizing and acknowledging desirable conduct. These strategies range from the simple “catching them being good,” which emphasizes contingent praise, to more complex sets of classwide group contingencies such as token economies and behavioral contracts.

 

At the core of a proactive approach is the use of active supervision, which consists of teachers frequently moving around the classroom, remaining alert, engaging with students, and providing feedback including reinforcement for desirable conduct. Active supervision also has been proved effective outside the classroom, for example, in the hallway, on the playground, and on field trips, locations that are often trouble spots for disruptive behavior (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997).

 

Teachers can avoid disruptive behavior by organizing the physical layout of the classroom. The dividers, desks, seating patterns, traffic flow, and classroom decorations can be designed either to maximize or minimize the probability of misbehavior. Effective organization of the physical environment can reduce visual and auditory distractions as well as eliminate locations that are known sources of misconduct (Maxwell, 1996; Ahrentzen & Evans, 1984).

 

Proactive Behavior Management

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Well-designed and -delivered instruction: Good classroom management and effective instruction are interdependent; you can’t have one without the other. To minimize misbehavior, teachers must employ the most effective instructional practices. To maximize learning, teachers must be proficient in evidence-based behavior management strategies.

 

Research finds that students who persistently perform poorly on academic assignments have a negative attitude toward school and are more likely than academically successful students to act out and be labeled as problem students (Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002). Sometimes, students may act out to escape instruction that is at their failure level. Similarly, gifted students who are not challenged or given quality instruction also display disruptive behavior. In either case, poor instruction only exacerbates poor conduct. Teachers must assign work that is neither too easy nor too hard. Students need lessons that are well matched to their abilities and the difficulty of the assignment. When mismatches occur, students become frustrated, bored, distracted, and eventually disruptive.

 

Effective instruction practices: A consistent and predictable schedule is important when creating an affirming learning environment. Teachers must pay special attention to transition periods in the daily schedule. The time between lessons, during moves between classrooms, before and after recess, and before and after lunch provide opportunities for students to act out because of the low structure in these situations. Planning ahead, establishing routines for transitions, and avoiding long periods of inactivity are important strategies for avoiding pandemonium and the loss of valuable instructional time.

 Teach #2

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Teaching Practice Citations

  1. Clear Instructional Objective – Hattie (2009), Hattie, Bigs, and Purdie (1996)
  2. High Rates of Responding – Hattie (2009)
  3. Quantity of Instruction – Hattie (2009)
  4. Teacher Demonstration – Wilson and Sindelar (1991)
  5. Spaced vs. Massed – Hattie (2009)
  6. Student Verbalization – Hattie (2009)
  7. Guided Practice – Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001)
  8. Peer Coaching – Hattie (2009)
  9. Meta-cognitive Strategies – Hattie (2009), Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001)
  10. Cumulative Review – Hattie, Bigs, and Purdie (1996), Rosenshine and Meister (1994)
  11. Mastery Learning – Hattie (2009)

Research reveals that lesson planning is the indispensable foundation on which to build effective instruction. Explicit instruction or as it is sometimes referred to, direct instruction, is a systematic instructional approach based on design and delivery of practices derived from rigorous research. It provides supports or scaffolds that guide students through lessons and encourage mastery of each lesson; clear statements about the purpose and rationale for a new skill, clear explanations and demonstrations of the material to be learned, and focus on supported practice with feedback are fundamental to explicit instruction. It is an approach to classroom instruction that combines individual instructional practices characterized by clear presentation of content; carefully sequenced (components and subcomponents of skills are seamlessly and progressively presented) and supported instruction; high rates of responding; judicious review of content; systematic feedback; initial and ongoing assessment of student progress and placement; and student mastery of concepts and skills (Becker & Gersten, 1982; Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, & Tarver, 2004).

 

Teachers who develop instructional objectives, link lessons through the use of scope and sequencing, tie instruction to “big ideas” (concepts or skills central to the lesson that connect these to the “bigger ideas” or ways these concepts and skills will be used in later lessons and in “real world” settings), and to standards are the most successful. Teachers who provide each student with a sufficient quantity of instruction and require high rates of responding for each student to demonstrate acquisition of the lesson are better instructors.

 

To build long-term success, the most effective teachers require students to demonstrate mastery of the material before moving on the next assignment. In this way, students gain the foundational skills to be successful in future assignments. For learning to be sustained beyond the moment, teachers must return to previously taught material in future lessons. They must also find opportunities for students to use the skills or knowledge in real-life settings to increase student motivation and establish greater relevancy.

 

Another hallmark of effective teaching is the proficient use of feedback. Teachers who provide acknowledgment and corrective feedback in a non-judgmental way to guide students toward improving performance achieve better results. The ratio of positive to corrective feedback should be 4:1. Specific, clearly defined feedback is more effective than general statements, and immediate feedback is more powerful than delayed feedback.

 

Few instructional practices have as much impact on student performance as formative assessment. Teachers who regularly collect performance data and then chart and analyze the data see student learning notably enhanced. Even greater results can be achieved when teachers provide the outcome of their analysis to their students (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986).

  Formative Assessment

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Other effective instructional practices include guided notes (handouts that guide a student through a lecture with cues and prepared space in which to write the key facts and concepts), and peer tutoring.

 

Disruptive behavior management: Disorderly behavior will occur despite teachers’ best efforts to prevent it. Setting rules, using proactive management, and implementing well-designed instruction work most of the time, but inevitably situations arise in which a teacher needs to effectively respond to unacceptable student conduct. The key to weathering these events successfully is to have a plan, remain calm, react in an unemotional manner that minimizes any payoff to the students, and impose any punishment in a measured way that is commensurate with the infraction.

 

Students misbehave for a reason. Generally, they act out to avoid something they perceive to be aversive, such as an activity or lesson in which they are doing poorly or failing, or to gain something they perceive to be reinforcing, such as peer or teacher attention. The important point to remember is each student misbehaves for his or her own reasons. To reduce the frequency, intensity, and impact of misbehavior, the teacher must assess each situation to determine what is motivating the student to act out and then develop an intervention best designed to meet the student’s needs. It is important not to skip this step when designing a behavior intervention. If a teacher intervenes without assessing the motivation, he or she might inadvertently reinforce the student and make the problem worse. For example, being sent to the office is a reward in the mind of a student whose motivation for misbehavior is to avoid class.

 

Teachers must adopt a continuum of strategies to respond to disruptive or inappropriate behavior. They must use the tool that best suits the situation. As a rule, they should begin with the least intrusive and uncomplicated intervention to remedy a problem, such as correcting the inappropriate behavior, and move on to more complex behavior interventions when required.

 

One of the most important strategies available to teachers is differential reinforcement, which essentially ignores the inappropriate behavior and instead reinforces the appropriate behavior to replace the inappropriate conduct. It is designed to reduce misconduct in a positive manner and is a powerful alternative to the use of negative consequences. Other important strategies for behavior reduction include ignoring misbehavior (withdrawal or discontinuance of reinforcement in order to eliminate inappropriate conduct); corrective feedback (a verbal statement for the student to stop engaging in a behavior or an instruction to engage in an alternative behavior); an explicit reprimand (a verbal statement that describes the behavior and tells the student exactly how to behave in the future); and response cost (the withdrawal of access to a reinforcer immediately after the disruptive behavior) (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008).

 

Behavior Reduction

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Conclusion

Educators currently have access to a solid knowledge base that outlines effective practices for building classroom management systems. In this overview, strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and -delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels. A teacher can adapt and implement each practice to meet his or her requirements and each student’s needs. The strategies are intended to be compatible for use within each teacher’s classroom structure and with the current curriculum. They are designed as a continuum of strategies beginning with the least intrusive practices and building to more complex interventions required to address serious misbehavior. Good classroom management starts with a universal system to support all students in the classroom and moves to more intensive interventions for students not benefiting from the universal level of intervention.

These strategies produce the best results when teacher training uses a professional development model that includes ongoing coaching and active support by the school administration. One-time in-service workshops have been proved to be ineffective in sustainable implementation of practices. When implemented with integrity, classroom management is an essential driver in establishing a classroom environment that produces the best results for students and teachers.

 

References

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior, 16(4), 437–454.

Becker, W. C., & Gersten, R. (1982). A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 75–92.

Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (2004). Direct Instruction reading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Colvin, G., Kame’enui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16(4), 361–381.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., III, & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly

Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199–208.

Hattie, J., (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534.

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 199-214.

Lane, K. L., Wehby, J., Menzies, H. M., Doukas, G. L., Munton, S. M., & Gregg, R. M. (2003). Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 229-248.

Lo, Y. Y., Loe, S. A., & Cartledge, G. (2002). The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 371-385.

Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(2), 209-215.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Evanston, IL: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavior Disorders, 11(4), 239-248.

Sharpe, T., Crider, K., Vyhlidal, T., & Brown, M. (1996). Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 435-457.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351–380.

Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 567–584.

Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 373–401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

White, W. A. T., (1998). A meta-analysis of the effects of Direct Instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.

 

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategy designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance?
The analysis examines direct influences tht have the greatest impact on student performance. 28 categories were distilled by combining the effect size along professional judgment of educational experts.
States, J. (2010). What are the critical influences in a classroom that result in improved student performance? Retrieved from what-are-critical-influences808.
Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance?
This review looks at the impact that caffeine has on student behavior and academic performance.
States, J. (2011). Does Caffeine Affect Classroom Behavior and Student Performance? Retrieved from does-caffeine-affect-classroom.
Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement?
This analysis examines the impact that sugar has on student behavior and academic achievement.
States, J. (2011). Does Sugar Affect Student Behavior or Achievement? Retrieved from does-sugar-affect-student.
How Important is Classroom Management?
This review looks at meta-analyses on the impact of classroom management and it's role in student achievement.
States, J. (2011). How Important is Classroom Management? Retrieved from how-important-is-classroom.
What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior?
This review looks behavior management practice elements that have the greatest impact on reducing disruptive student conduct.
States, J. (2011). What behavior management factors reduce disruptive behavior? Retrieved from what-behavior-management-factors.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
TEST TEST TEST

TEST TEST

TEST TEST

Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties
This paper discusses methods for making valid data-based decisions for student social behavior.
Gresham, F. (2009). Data-Based Decision Making for Students Social Behavioral Difficulties [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2009-wing-presentation-frank-gresham.
Teaching Skills That Make a Difference
This paper provides checklist of evidence-based skills that should be the foundation of every teacher's preparation.
States, J. (2013). Teaching Skills That Make a Difference [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-aba-presentation-jack-states.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum.
The Responsive Classroom is a specific curriculum designed to improve social skills of students and reduce problem behavior. This study evaluated the impact across several schools and classrooms.
Solomon, B. Klein, S., Marcotte, & Hintze, J. (2009). A multilevel investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of the responsive classroom curriculum. Retrieved from student-research-2009-b.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement

This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented. 

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health74(7), 262-273.

The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom.

This study compared the impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in a classroom.

Abramowitz, A. J., O'Leary, S. G., & Futtersak, M. W. (1988). The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom. Behavior Therapy, 19(2), 243-247.

Distraction, privacy, and classroom design

Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored. 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior16(4), 437-454.

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

This book provides a basic understanding of the principles and practices of applied behavior analysis for use by teachers in the classroom.

Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers.

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Observations of Effective Teacher–Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement With the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary.

Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher–student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.

Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching

This book gives special and general education teachers the tools to implement explicit instruction in any grade level or content area. The authors provide clear guidelines for identifying key concepts, skills, and routines to teach; designing and delivering effective lessons; and giving students opportunities to practice and master new material.

Archer, A., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Efficient and effective teaching. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom

Active responding (in the form of response cards) was employed during a math lecture in a third-grade classroom to evaluate its effect on disruptive behavior.

 

Armendariz, F., & Umbreit, J. (1999). Using active responding to reduce disruptive behavior in a general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(3), 152–158.

Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior

Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.

Proceed With Caution: Using Web-Based Resources for Instructing Students With and at Risk for EBD.

This article examines issues relating to the use of websites popular with educators. This article offers guidelines for maximizing the usefulness of such sites and for avoiding many of the pitfall educators may face.

Beahm, L. A., Cook, B. G., & Cook, L. (2019). Proceed With Caution: Using Web-Based Resources for Instructing Students With and at Risk for EBD. Beyond Behavior28(1), 13-20.

A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades.

The later effects of the Direct Instruction Follow Through program were assessed at five diverse sites. Low-income fifth and sixth graders who had completed the full 3 years of this first- through third-grade program were tested on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (Intermediate level) and the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT).

Becker, W. C., & Gersten, R. (1982). A follow-up of Follow Through: The later effects of the Direct Instruction Model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal19(1), 75-92.

Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Training in Empirically-Validated Behavioral Instruction Practices

This study surveys master's-level elementary, secondary, and special education students about their coursework and applied training in 25 behavioral instruction practices and principles.

Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers' training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 262.

Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice

This is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Human characteristics and school learning

This paper theorizes that variations in learning and the level of learning of students are determined by the students' learning histories and the quality of instruction they receive.

Bloom, B. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of enhanced anchor-instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving problem-solving performance. 

Bottge, B. A., Heinrichs, M., Mehta, Z. D., & Hung, Y. H. (2002). Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes. The Journal of Special Education35(4), 186-200.

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Response to Intervention: Principles and Strategies

This book provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools. 

Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2011). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Guilford Press.

Meta-Analysis Of Applied Single Subject Research Utilizing Differential Reinforcement Of Behavior Omission

This meta-analysis looks at the efficacy of behavioral interventions for problem behavior in persons with autism.

Campbell, J. M. (2003). Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: a quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 120-138.

Direct Instruction Reading

This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English. 

Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities.

This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda

Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children74(3), 351-371.

The Development of The Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) to Measure Clear Teaching in The Classroom

This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity. 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The development of the teacher clarity short inventory (TCSI) to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports15(3), 262-266.

Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review

The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies using a differential reinforcement to reduce problem behaviors.

Chowdhury, M., & Benson, B. A. (2011). Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 383-394.

The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction.

This study evaluated the effects of using response cards during whole-group math instruction in a fourth-grade classroom, using an ABA research design. 

Christle, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education12(3), 147-165.

Barriers to Implementing Classroom Management and Behavior Support Plans: An Exploratory Investigation.

This study examines obstacles encountered by 33 educators along with suggested interventions to overcome impediments to effective delivery of classroom management interventions or behavior support plans. Having the right classroom management plan isn’t enough if you can’t deliver the strategies to the students in the classroom.

Collier‐Meek, M. A., Sanetti, L. M., & Boyle, A. M. (2019). Barriers to implementing classroom management and behavior support plans: An exploratory investigation. Psychology in the Schools56(1), 5-17.

Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.

The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures. 

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.

Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school

This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.

A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

This study investigates the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom.

Conyers, C., Miltenberger, R., Maki, A., Barenz, R., Jurgens, M., Sailer, A., ... & Kopp, B. (2004). A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(3), 411-415.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis.

The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research77(1), 113-143.

Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management

This volume describes basic concepts and strategies for thinking about instructional classroom management and reviews general strategies for rethinking and reorganizing a classroom to reflect an instructional classroom management approach. Instructional classroom management approaches student behavior based on the premise that strategies for teaching and managing social behavior are not different from strategies for teaching subject matter.

Darch, C.B., & Kame’enui, E.J. (1995). Instructional Classroom Mangement: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving

This paper provides procedures for developing curriculum-based measurement systems in special education problem solving.

Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time

The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through offers a practical, time-saving alternative that impacts student achievement by cultivating self-reliant teachers who are continuously improving their practice.

Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K. (2004). The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues

Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. Management problems continue to be a major cause of teacher burnout and job dissatisfaction. Strangely, despite this enduring concern on the part of educators and the public, few researchers have chosen to focus on classroom management or to identify themselves with this critical field. 

Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

This study is a meta-analysis of behavioral treatment studies and behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham Jr, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 129-140

Promoting teachers' implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class-wide behavior plans

Research suggests student of differing racial groups are unequally impacted by school disciplinary interventions. This study examines whether teachers who self-assessed their own use of culturally and contextually relevant practices would implement a class-wide behavior plan with high levels of implementation fidelity. Results indicated that teachers who engaged in self-assessment and training did implement the plan with high levels of implementation fidelity, particularly when given performance feedback. 

Fallon, L. M., Cathcart, S. C., DeFouw, E. R., O'Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. Promoting teachers’ implementation of culturally and contextually relevant class‐wide behavior plans. Psychology in the Schools.

Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature

This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.

Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.

Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms

Fifth-grade students with and without mild disabilities participated in an eight-week project-based, technology-supported investigation about the 19th century westward expansion in the United States. A narrative framework was used to organize and support students' understanding of the experiences of three emigrant groups.

Ferretti, R. P., MacArthur, C. D., & Okolo, C. M. (2001). Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly24(1), 59-71.

Using a whole-class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior.

This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Level System (token economy, response cost, stimulating rewards, and strategic attention) in a preschool classroom compared to (a) strategies already employed by the teacher, and (b) coaching the teacher in the Child-Directed Interaction and Parent-Directed Interaction phases of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004). Using a whole?class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 351-361.

Shared Book Reading Interventions With English Learners: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines how shared book reading impacts the English language and literacy skills of young children. The study finds a significant positive effect of using shared reading on English learner academic outcomes.

Fitton, L., McIlraith, A. L., & Wood, C. L. (2018). Shared Book Reading Interventions With English Learners: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 0034654318790909.

Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature

This is a comprehensive literature review of the topic of Implementation examining all stages beginning with adoption and ending with sustainability.

Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., & Friedman, R. M. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature.

A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children

This study compares cognitive restructuring, response cost, or placebo control conditions to examine the impact on aggressive elementary school students.

Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 594-600.

Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis

In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.

Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited

Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations.  The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic44(4), 195-205.

Strategies for Effective Classroom Coaching

This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.

Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(4), 263-273.

Formative and summative assessments in the classroom

As a classroom teacher or administrator, how do you ensure that the information shared in a student-led conference provides a balanced picture of the student's strengths and weaknesses? The answer to this is to balance both summative and formative classroom assessment practices and information gathering about student learning.

Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and summative assessments in the classroom.

Preparing for culturally responsive teaching.

In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.

Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education53(2), 106-116.

Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes

High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.

Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.

Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).

 

Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education

Using the teacher‐centered systemic reform model as a framework, the authors explore the connection between chemistry instructors’ beliefs about teaching and learning and self‐efficacy beliefs, and their enacted classroom practices. 

Gibbons, R. E., Villafañe, S. M., Stains, M., Murphy, K. L., & Raker, J. R. (2018). Beliefs about learning and enacted instructional practices: An investigation in postsecondary chemistry education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching55(8), 1111-1133.

Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement.

This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction. 

Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation1(2), 183-201.

Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management

This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.

Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14

Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom

This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority. 

Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review37(3), 337.

Supporting Appropriate Student Behavior Overview.

This overview focuses on proactive strategies to support appropriate behavior in school settings.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-appropriate-behaviors.

Effects of teacher attention on study behavior.

This study examines the effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior.

Hall, R. V., Lund, D., & Jackson, D. (1968). EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 1-12.

Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies

This quantitative review examines 20 studies to establish an effect size of .71 for the impact of “metacognitive” instruction on reading comprehension.

Haller, E. P., Child, D. A., & Walberg, H. J. (1988). Can comprehension be taught? A quantitative synthesis of “metacognitive” studies. Educational researcher, 17(9), 5-8.

Empowering students through speaking round tables

This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.

Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia4(1), 39-59.

Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses.

Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. 

Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin97(3), 363.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors.

This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.

Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.

Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die

This book reveal the anatomy of ideas that stick and explain ways to make ideas stickier, such as applying the human scale principle, using the Velcro Theory of Memory, and creating curiosity gaps. Along the way, we discover that sticky messages of all kinds draw their power from the same six traits.

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

Three "low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

ASR [active student response] can be defined as an observable response made to an instructional antecedent / [compare ASR] to other measures of instructional time and student engagement / 3 benefits of increasing the frequency of ASR during instruction are discussed.

Heward, W. L. (1994). Three" low-tech" strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction.

Observational Assessment for Planning and Evaluating Educational Transitions: An Initial Analysis of Template Matching

Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.

Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.

Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping

This study aimed to examine active instruction and engagement across elementary, middle, and high schools using a large database of direct classroom observations. 

Hollo, A., & Hirn, R. G. (2015). Teacher and student behaviors in the contexts of grade-level and instructional grouping. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth59(1), 30-39.

Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure

Ethical and legal concerns which have been raised regarding many types of response elimination techniques. The differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedule is compared with other response elimination techniques. It is concluded that DRO schedules compare favorably with other techniques in speed and completeness of response elimination. In addition, DRO schedules may be superior to other techniques in durability and generalization of response reduction and in the type of side effects produced.

Homer, A. L., & Peterson, L. (1980). Differential reinforcement of other behavior: A preferred response elimination procedure. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 449-471.

Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support.

The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). 

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.

 

Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis

This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.

Life in Classrooms.

Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions

Demonstrates the experimenting society model using data-based decision making and collaborative consultation to evaluate behavior-management intervention strategies in 25 seventh graders. Each intervention results in improved behavior, but active teaching of classroom rules was determined to be most effective. 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review25(2), 199-214.

Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions

Demonstrates the experimenting society model using data-based decision making and collaborative consultation to evaluate behavior-management intervention strategies in 25 seventh graders. Each intervention results in improved behavior, but active teaching of classroom rules was determined to be most effective. 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review25(2), 199-214.

Training Teachers to Use Environmental Arrangement and Milieu Teaching with Nonvocal Preschool Children

This study investigated the effects of training preschool teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching in interactions with children using augmented communication systems. Three teachers were taught seven environmental strategies and four milieu teaching procedures through written materials, lecture, modeling, role-playing, and feedback.

Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps18(3), 188-199.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism

The purpose of this study is to compare high-quality reinforcers following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (non-differential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism.

Karsten, A. M., & Carr, J. E. (2009). The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 327-334.

Identifying Specific Learning Disability: Is Responsiveness to Intervention the Answer?

Responsiveness to intervention (RTI) is being proposed as an alternative model for making decisions about the presence or absence of specific learning disability. The author argue that there are many questions about RTI that remain unanswered, and radical changes in proposed regulations are not warranted at this time.

Kavale, K. A. (2005). Identifying specific learning disability: Is responsiveness to intervention the answer?. Journal of Learning Disabilities38(6), 553-562.

History of Behavior Modification

This chapter traces the history of behavior modification as a general movement. Individual conceptual approaches and techniques that comprise behavior modification are obviously important in tracing the history, but they are examined as part of the larger development rather than as ends in their own right. 

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). History of behavior modification. In International handbook of behavior modification and therapy (pp. 3-32). Springer, Boston, MA.

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

High-Impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching.

This book offers strategies that make a difference in student learning including: content planning, instructional practices, and community building.

Knight, J. (2013). High-impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching. Corwin Press.

Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.

Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.

Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.

Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.

The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.

Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions8(2), 88-99.

Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction.

This study examined the effectiveness of social skills instruction for seven elementary-age students at risk for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to a school wide primary intervention program

Lane, K. L., Wehby, J., Menzies, H. M., Doukas, G. L., Munton, S. M., & Gregg, R. M. (2003). Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial behavior: The effects of small-group instruction. Behavioral Disorders28(3), 229-248.

Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game.

This study examines the impact of a Teacher Versus Student Game, a program that is based upon The Good Behavior Game (GBG). This paper found that the game increased teachers rates of praise; however, the teachers gradually decreased their use of BSP over time.

 

Lastrapes, R. E., Fritz, J. N., and Hasson, R. C., (2019). Increasing Teachers’ Use of Behavior-Specific Praise with the Teacher vs. Student Game. Retrieved from Researchgate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331178227_Increasing_Teachers%27_Use_of_Behavior-Specific_Praise_with_the_Teacher_vs_Student_Game

 

Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment.

This study uses longitudinal administrative data to examine the relationship between third- grade reading level and four educational outcomes: eighth-grade reading performance, ninth-grade course performance, high school graduation, and college attendance.

Lesnick, J., Goerge, R., Smithgall, C., & Gwynne, J. (2010). Reading on grade level in third grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment. Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 1, 12.

Cost-effectiveness and educational policy.

This article provides a summary of measuring the fiscal impact of practices in education
educational policy.

Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2002). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders

The authors examined the effects of pullout small-group and teacher-directed classroom-based social skills instruction on the social behaviors of five third- and fourth-grade students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders.

Lo, Y. Y., Loe, S. A., & Cartledge, G. (2002). The effects of social skills instruction on the social behaviors of students at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders27(4), 371-385.

Classroom management for ethnic–racial minority students: A meta-analysis of single-case design studies.

This meta-analysis of behavior management strategies includes single-subject designed studies of 838 students from 22 studies for K-12 classrooms. The study finds the behavior management strategies are highly effective for improving student conduct. Interventions that used an individual or group contingency demonstrated large effects and were the most common behavior management strategies used. The study finds few studies included diverse populations other than African-American students.They also find a need to improve upon the quality of available studies on the classroom management strategies.

Long, A. C. J., Miller, F. G., & Upright, J. J. (2019). Classroom management for ethnic–racial minority students: A meta-analysis of single-case design studies. School Psychology, 34(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000305

Tootling with a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Class-wide Behavior.

This paper examines the practice of “tootling.” Tootling is a peer-mediated classroom management practice designed to have students identify and then report on peer prosocial behavior. Students are taught to be on the look-out for peer behavior that met the criterion for being reinforced. When they witness prosocial behavior, they write it down on a piece of paper and turn it into the teacher. At the end of the class, three “tootles” are drawn from the lot and read out to the classroom. The results suggest that peer reinforcement had a positive impact on increasing appropriate student behavior, reducing disruptive conduct, and student engagement

Lum, J. D., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., Olmi, D. J., & Wright, S. J. (2019). Tootling With a Randomized Independent Group Contingency to Improve High School Classwide Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions21(2), 93-105.

Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control.

This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.

Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.

A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior

This is a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties.

Maggin, D. M., Chafouleas, S. M., Goddard, K. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2011). A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 49(5), 529-554.

Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice

In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.

Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly22(1), 65-89.

A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class

Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class. 

Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education25(1), 55-70.

A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

This research synthesis examines instructional research in a functional manner to provide guidance for classroom practitioners.

Marzano, R. J. (1998). A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction.

 

Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher

How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do 
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting 
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools, 
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom 
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these 
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd

Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding.

This research examines the relationship between noise and preschool children's acquisition of prereading skills, environmental factors in preschool inclusive classrooms, and children's use of outdoorplay equipment.

Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.

Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process.

This study describes the outcomes of an intervention focused on the strategies and practices of high expectation teachers. Findings revealed that teachers involved in the intervention refined and changed their practices by creating flexible grouping, enhancing the class climate, and supporting students’ goal setting. 

McDonald, L., Flint, A., Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E. R., Watson, P., & Garrett, L. (2016). Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process. Professional Development in education42(2), 290-307.

Improving education through standards-based reform.

This report offers recommendations for the implementation of standards-based reform and outlines possible consequences for policy changes. It summarizes both the vision and intentions of standards-based reform and the arguments of its critics.

McLaughlin, M. W., & Shepard, L. A. (1995). Improving Education through Standards-Based Reform. A Report by the National Academy of Education Panel on Standards-Based Education Reform. National Academy of Education, Stanford University, CERAS Building, Room 108, Stanford, CA 94305-3084..

The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes.

The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on‐task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported. 

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology56(2), 209-215.

The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes.

The constituent parts of a five component behavioural intervention package are described and the effect of the intervention on the on‐task behaviour of two “disruptive” secondary school classes reported. 

McNamara, E., Evans, M., & Hill, W. (1986). The reduction of disruptive behaviour in two secondary school classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology56(2), 209-215.

Classroom social climate and student absences and grades

this paper investigated the relationship between student and teacher perceptions of the social environments of 19 high school classes and student absenteeism rates and the average final grades given by the teacher. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263.

Research on Classroom Summative Assessment

The primary purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on teachers’ summative assessment practices to note their influence on teachers and teaching and on students and learning.

Moss, C. M. (2013). Research on classroom summative assessment. SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment, 235-255.

Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.

The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design. 

Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(4), 483-490.

Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis.

The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavior disorders.

Nelson, J.R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, M. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.

The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.

In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.

Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record107(5), 895-934.

Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1-55.

Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1-55.

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms.

Parsonson, B. S. (2012). Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies. Kairaranga13(1), 16-23.

A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior

Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is one of the most common behavior analytic interventions used to decrease unwanted behavior. This literature review examined the DRA literature from the past 30 years to identify the aspects that are thoroughly researched and those that would benefit from further emphasis.

Petscher, E. S., Rey, C., & Bailey, J. S. (2009). A review of empirical support for differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(3), 409-425.

Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual

Positive teacher-student interactions are a primary ingredient of quality early educational experiences that launch future school success. With CLASS, educators finally have an observational tool to assess classroom quality in pre-kindergarten through grade 3 based on teacher-student interactions rather than the physical environment or a specific curriculum

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Assessment Scoring System™: Manual K-3. Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing.

The effects of active participation on student learning.

The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. t was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.

Pratton, J., & Hales, L. W. (1986). The effects of active participation on student learning. The Journal of Educational Research79(4), 210-215.

Motivational interviewing for effective management: The classroom check-up.

This book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work.  The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional, and behavior management practices; helping them develop a menu of intervention options; and overcoming obstacles to change.

Reinke, W. M., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Martin, E. (2007). The effect of visual performance feedback on teacher behavior-specific praise. Behavior Modifications, 31(3), 247–263.

Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions.

This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention.  Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.

Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.

Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.

The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders11(4), 239-248.

Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students.

The present study assessed the relative strength of daily rule review and rehearsal on student behavior when such procedures were added to a token economy. The token program was designed to increase appropriate classroom behaviors of disruptive boys attending a multi categorical resource room.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1986). Maximizing the effectiveness of structured classroom management programs: Implementing rule-review procedures with disruptive and distractible students. Behavioral Disorders11(4), 239-248.

The Effectiveness of School-Based Mental Health Services for Elementary-Aged Children: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines the effects of school-based mental health services for elementary school-age children delivered by school personnel. Forty-three controlled trials evaluating 49,941 elementary school-age children met criteria for inclusion in this study. The study used a randomized, between-subjects, controlled comparison or quasi-experimental design using matched samples to minimize selection bias. The study finds school-based mental health services had a small to medium effect size (Hedges g = 0.39) in decreasing mental health problems. The largest effect size was for targeted intervention, (Hedges g = 0.76), followed by selective prevention (Hedges g = 0.67) compared with universal prevention (Hedges g = 0.29[RD1] ). Interventions integrated into student’s academic instruction using contingency management were found to have positive impacts (Hedges g = 0.57), and interventions implemented multiple times per week (Hedges g = 0.50) were also shown to have a notable impact for improving student’s lives. These results are promising considering the normal barriers that impede students from receiving mental health care outside of school and the fact that school personnel are readily available and are shown to be effective in addressing student’s mental health needs.

Sanchez, A. L., Cornacchio, D., Poznanski, B., Golik, A. M., Chou, T., & Comer, J. S. (2018). The effectiveness of school-based mental health services for elementary-aged children: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry57(3), 153-165.

Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness

This book looks at research and theoretical models used to define educational effectiveness with the intent on providing educators with evidence-based options for implementing school improvement initiatives that make a difference in student performance.

Scheerens, J. and Bosker, R. (1997). The Foundations of Educational Effectiveness. Oxford:Pergmon

Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting.

The purpose of this article was to describe the developmental effects of one elementary physical education teacher's proactive teaching of prosocial behavior. An ABA (B) design coupled with a control group comparison across six matched urban physical education classes was used to assess the teaching strategy.

Sharpe, T., Crider, K., Vyhlidal, T., & Brown, M. (1996). Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting. Education & Treatment of Children19(4), 435.

Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches

As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.

Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.

The Effects of Targeted Professional Development on Teachers’ Use of Empirically Supported Classroom Management Practices.

This study examines brief, targeted professional development (brief training, email prompting, and self-management) to improve teacher classroom management skills. The training focused on increasing the effective use of prompting, increased active student responding, and delivery of praise. 

Simonsen, B., Freeman, J., Myers, D., Dooley, K., Maddock, E., Kern, L., & Byun, S. (2019). The Effects of Targeted Professional Development on Teachers’ Use of Empirically Supported Classroom Management Practices. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300719859615.

A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers.

In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. 

Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The Elementary School Journal110(4), 567-584.

The effect of performance feedback on teachers’ treatment integrity: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature.

The current study extracted and aggregated data from single-case studies that used Performance feedback (PF) in school settings to increase teachers' use of classroom-based interventions.

Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The effect of performance feedback on teachers' treatment integrity: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature. School Psychology Review41(2).

Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches

This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. 

Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Active Student Responding (ASR)

Active Student Responding (ASR) is a strategies that designed to engage all students regardless of class size. ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2019). Active Student Responding (ASR) Overview.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/instructional-delivery-student-respond

Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools.

This article presents an analysis of data collected across 35 general education classrooms in four elementary schools, assessing instructional variables associated with OTR. The relationship among opportunities to respond (OTR), measures of classroom management, and student work products was analyzed across Title and non-Title schools. 

Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high-and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions11(2), 68-81.

Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers

In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.

The Effect of Team-Based Learning on Content Knowledge: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines the impact of team-based learning strategies on achievement and student engagement. The study finds that team-based strategies were found to have a positive impact on grades, test performance, and engagement.

 

Swanson, E., McCulley, L. V., Osman, D. J., Scammacca Lewis, N., & Solis, M. (2017). The effect of team-based learning on content knowledge: A meta-analysis. Active Learning in Higher Education, 1469787417731201.

Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.

This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning. 

Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..

Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities

The US Government Accountability Office has recently released a new report evaluating the disproportionality in discipline in K-12 grades.  The racial and gender gap persists in spite of efforts to remediate.  African-American youth, boys, and individuals with disabilities are more likely to receive any type of discipline than are individuals in our sub-groups than would be predicted on the basis of their percentage of the population. In this evaluation, the disproportionality existed even though economic level of the student was controlled for.  Previously, it had been argued that the disproportionality was a function of poverty rather than race and gender.  This study challenges that argument.  These data highlight that as a society we still have a great deal of work to do to overcome racial and gender biases in this country.

United States Governmental Accountability Office (2018).  K-12 education: A guide for schools (GAO publication-18-258).  Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-18-258

Are we making the differences that matter in education.

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation

Keeping RTI on Track is a resource to assist educators overcome the biggest problems associated with false starts or implementation failure. Each chapter in this book calls attention to a common error, describing how to avoid the pitfalls that lead to false starts, how to determine when you're in one, and how to get back on the right track.

Vanderheyden, A. M., & Tilly, W. D. (2010). Keeping RTI on track: How to identify, repair and prevent mistakes that derail implementation. LRP Publications.

Toward a Conceptual Integration of Cultural Responsiveness and Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

Within the context of widely documented racially disproportionate discipline outcomes, we describe schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as one approach that might provide a useful framework for culturally responsive behavior support delivery.

Vincent, C. G., Randall, C., Cartledge, G., Tobin, T. J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2011). Toward a conceptual integration of cultural responsiveness and schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(4), 219-229.

Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations

For many years, differential reinforcement has been a prevalent and preferred treatment procedure for the reduction of behavior disorders. This paper reviews the procedural variations of differential reinforcement and discusses their functional properties.

Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 393-417.

Productive teaching

This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods

Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.

Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes

This meta-analysis of single case designed studies examines the effect of academic interventions on student behavior. The academic interventions examined included modifying task difficulty, instruction in reading, mathematics, or writing and contingent reinforcement for academic performance. The study concluded that these interventions produced positive effects on student behavior issues observed in the classroom. The effects were observed to have a moderate effect size ranging from 0.42 to 0.64. The effects were stronger for increasing student time on task than for reducing disruptive behavior, but both showed positive impacts. This research strengthens the available evidence that well-designed instruction is effective component in creating an effective classroom climate.

Warmbold-Brann, K., Burns, M. K., Preast, J. L., Taylor, C. N., & Aguilar, L. N. (2017). Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly. DOI: 10.1037/spq0000207

How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance
Quantitative studies of school effects have generally supported the notion that the problems of U.S. education lie outside of the school. Yet such studies neglect the primary venue through which students learn, the classroom. The current study explores the link between classroom practices and student academic performance by applying multilevel modeling to the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress in mathematics. The study finds that the effects of classroom practices, when added to those of other teacher characteristics, are comparable in size to those of student background, suggesting that teachers can contribute as much to student learning as the students themselves.

 

Wenglinsky, H. (2002). How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(12).

A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education

Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students 
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be 
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to 
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups. 
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of 
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area. 

White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.

 

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of? the independent variable

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.

Troubleshooting Behavioral Interventions: A Systematic Process for Finding and Eliminating Problems

This article describes a systematic process for finding and resolving problems with classroom-based behavioral interventions in schools. 

Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions: A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review33, 363-383.

Effects of preprinted response cards on students’ participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom.

This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.

Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly28(2), 39-47.

Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction.

This study shows that gaps between opportunities to learn and students' appropriation of those opportunities are instructionally produced and socially distributed via mechanism that affect engagement and lead to alienation from instruction - the dissociation between students' physical presence in academic classes and their thoughts while in class. 

Yair, G. (2000). Educational battlefields in America: The tug-of-war over students' engagement with instruction. Sociology of Education, 247-269.

The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement

This study compares the effect size and return on investment for rapid assessment, between, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and increased accountability.

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.

The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations

This second edition includes an expanded set of classroom observation tools, moving from 23 to 40 and more linkages to the job-embedded nature of the informal classroom observations.

Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations.New York, NY: Routledge.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Annenberg Institute for School Reform
The Annenberg Institute for School Reform is a national policy-research and reform support organization that promotes quality education for all children, especially in urban communities.
Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)
ABAI organization promotes the development, and support of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.
Balefire Labs

Balefire Labs provides an online educational app review service for mobile apps. It helps teachers and parents to find the highest quality educational apps for kids, ages 0-19 years. It uses rigorous, science-based, review criteria and publishes a detailed rubric on its site.

Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies
The mission of the organization is to advance the scientific study of behavior and its humane application to the solution of practical problems in the home, school, community, and the workplace
Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL)
CTL is research center that conducts and disseminates research that focuses on practical solutions to serious problems in school systems.
Differential Reinforcement: Theory & Definition

This video training describes differential reinforcement for teachers and parents.

K-12 Education: Gates Foundation
K-12 Education works to make sure tools, curriculum, and supports are designed using teacher insights.
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
MDRC is best known for mounting large-scale evaluations of real-world policies and programs targeted to low-income people.
National School Climate Center
NSCC works to translate research into practice by establishing meaningful and relevant guidelines, programs and services that support a model for whole school improvement with a focus on school climate.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

The Technical Assistance Center on PBIS provides support states, districts and schools to establish, scale-up and sustain the PBIS framework.

Practicewise

PracticeWise works primarily in mental health to support individuals working with children and families to be more informed and more prepared, through established knowledge management strategies and resources. The services include professional training, online information resources, books and guides, organizational consultation, and service system design and management.

School Wide Information System
School Wide Information System is a web-based information system to collect, summarize, and use student behavior data for decision making
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)

The goal of the WWC is a resource for informed education decision-making. The WWC identifies evidence-based practice, program, or policy, and disseminates summary information on the WWC website.

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