Education Drivers

Treatment Integrity Problem Solving

Treatment Integrity in the Problem-Solving Process Overview

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Treatment integrity is a core component of data-based decision making (Detrich, 2013). The usual approach is to consider student data when making decisions about an intervention; however, if there are no data about how well the intervention was implemented, then meaningful judgments cannot be made about effectiveness. Figure 1 contains hypothetical data to illustrate the necessity of treatment integrity data when making decisions about interventions. In this example, a student was identified as

ProblemSolvingFig1 

Figure 1 The analytical challenge of understanding the gap between expectations and actual performance

 

struggling with reading. Before the intervention, the student was reading grade-level materials at about 40 words correct per minute. The grade-level norm is about 120 words correct per minute. To close the achievement gap, an increase of two words correct per minute per week was established as a goal. After several weeks of intervention, the student’s actual improvement was only one word correct per minute per week. Although that slight increase constitutes progress, it will leave the student far behind his or her peers at the end of the year.

            The analytical task for the educator is to determine whether the intervention is sufficiently effective to achieve adequate growth. This cannot be determined unless there are data about how well the intervention was implemented. If treatment integrity data indicate that the intervention was implemented with high quality, then an alternative intervention should be considered. On the other hand, if the data indicate that the intervention was poorly implemented, then efforts should be taken to improve the quality of implementation before making any decisions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

            To make decisions about an intervention without treatment integrity data increases the risk that effective interventions will be discontinued because of apparent lack of progress. Although significant resources are required to assess treatment integrity, they are also required to implement an intervention poorly and then terminate it because of the incorrect assumption of failure.

A Pragmatic Problem-Solving Approach to Assessing Treatment Integrity

Measuring treatment integrity requires time and resources, both of which are in short supply in most schools. If assessing treatment integrity is an integral part of data-based decision making, then effective and efficient methods for doing so must be developed. One approach to increasing efficiency is illustrated in Figure 2.

 ProblemSolvingFig2

Figure 2. A pragmatic approach to assessing and intervening to improve treatment integrity

            Used with permission. Originally published in Detrich, R. (2013). Innovation, implementation   science, and data-based decision making: Components of successful reform. In M. Murphy, S.   Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on Innovations in Learning (pp. 33–49). Charlotte, NC:          Information Age Publishing.

 

            This approach is based on the notion that because it is difficult to measure all of the dimensions of treatment integrity at the same time, a better alternative is to measure them sequentially. A pragmatic choice is made to assess treatment integrity when a student is not benefitting from instruction. Perhaps the easiest dimension of treatment integrity to assess is exposure (dosage). If exposure is not occurring as prescribed, then efforts should be made to improve exposure before assessing any other dimensions. To do this, it is necessary to determine if there are organizational variables or other factors that make it difficult to deliver instruction at the frequency and duration defined in the intervention protocol. The problem may be insufficient time in the school schedule for the intervention to occur as planned. Lack of time can impact both frequency and duration of exposure. Once exposure has been improved and the student is receiving instruction as prescribed, student data can be monitored to determine if performance has improved. If it has improved to adequate levels, then no further assessment is required.

            On the other hand, if student performance remains below expectations even though exposure is occurring as specified, it will be necessary to assess the next aspect of treatment integrity. Adherence should be assessed next. Research suggests that high adherence has a greater impact on student outcomes than any other dimension of integrity (Sanetti & Fallon, 2011); however, the different dimensions interact with each other and the combined effects can strengthen or weaken student outcomes.

            If adherence is adequate, then assess quality of delivery. However, if assessed adherence is less than optimal, then the next step is to improve adherence. Poor adherence may result when those responsible for implementation do not have the skills to carry out the intervention (can’t do) or are not motivated to implement it because they do not perceive the intervention to be a solution to the identified problem (won’t do). A third possibility is that the intervention is not a good contextual fit with the classroom culture and routines. Once the problem has been identified and action taken to improve adherence, student data should again be reviewed to determine if performance has improved to acceptable levels. If it has improved sufficiently, there is no need to assess other dimensions of treatment integrity.

            If student performance is still not at acceptable levels, then the next step is to assess quality of delivery. Both exposure and adherence can be objectively measured by direct observation. Assessing quality of delivery is more difficult because it is a more subjective measure. Consider the challenge of measuring praise. Certain aspects can be objectively measured; for example, specific praise can be discriminated from general praise. The qualitative features of praise are much more difficult to measure objectively. Measuring enthusiasm and sincerity is challenging but it requires assessment as it can impact student performance. Delivering praise in a monotone or robotically may result in poor student outcomes. Saying the same words with sincerity and enthusiasm is likely to result in very different outcomes.

            If quality of delivery is inadequate, then action should be taken to improve it before making decisions about the effectiveness of the intervention on student performance. As with the previous steps, once the assessed quality of delivery is at an adequate level, data should be reviewed to determine if the student is making adequate progress. If the student is making adequate progress, then nothing further needs to be done.

            If the student is not making adequate progress, then the final dimension of treatment integrity, student responsiveness, should be assessed. If student responsiveness, like all the other dimensions of treatment integrity, is sufficiently high, then a new intervention should be considered. If student engagement is low, then efforts should be taken to increase it before making any decisions about the intervention.  

            In summary, if a particular dimension of treatment integrity is increased to higher levels and student performance data indicate that adequate progress is being made then no further assessment of the other dimensions of treatment integrity is required. On the other hand, if student performance does not improve when a particular dimension of treatment integrity is increased then it is necessary to keep assessing and improving the other dimensions of treatment integrity until the student is making adequate progress. If all dimensions of treatment integrity are being implemented at high levels then the pragmatic choice is to change the intervention. This iterative process continues until the student is making adequate progress. Across all phases of this process, data about student performance and treatment integrity should be the primary consideration in making decisions about continuing or changing an intervention. Basing decisions on only one source of data increases the risk of error.

Citations

Detrich, R. (2013). Innovation, implementation science, and data-based decision making: Components of successful reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on Innovations in Learning (pp. 33–49). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity assessment: How estimates of adherence, quality, and exposure influence interpretation of implementation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209–232.

 

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Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evidence-based practice in the broader context: How can we really use evidence to inform decisions

This article examines the evidence-based practice decision-making heuristic in the broader context of clinical decision making.

Chorpita, B. F., & Starace, N. K. (2010). Evidence-based practice in the broader context: How can we really use evidence to inform decisions. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 47-61.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity

Strategies designed to increase treatment integrity fall into two categories: antecedent-based strategies and consequence-based strategies.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Approaches to Increasing Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute

 

Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, the is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Treatment Integrity Strategies Overview

Student achievement scores in the United States remain stagnant despite repeated attempts to reform the education system. New initiatives promising hope arise, only to disappoint after being adopted, implemented, and quickly found wanting. The cycle of reform followed by failure has had a demoralizing effect on schools, making new reform efforts problematic. These efforts frequently fail because implementing new practices is far more challenging than expected and require that greater attention be paid to how initiatives are implemented. Treatment integrity is increasingly recognized as an essential component of effective implementation in an evidence-based education model that produces results, and inattention to treatment integrity is seen as a primary reason new initiatives fail. The question remains, what strategies can educators employ to increase the likelihood that practices are implemented as designed? The Wing Institute overview on the topic of Treatment Integrity Strategies examines the essential practice elements indispensable for maximizing treatment integrity.

 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. http://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity-strategies.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs
If programs are to sustain they must be implemented with integrity. If there is drift over time, it raises questions about whether the program is sustaining or has been substantially changed.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity and Program Fidelity: Necessary but Not Sufficient to Sustain Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-aba-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Component of PBS
School-wide initatives have to be well implemented if there is to be any benefit. This talk describes methods for assuring high levels of treatment integrity.
Detrich, R. (2008). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Component of PBS [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-apbs-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity
If research supported interventions are to be effective it is necessary that they are implemented with integrity. This paper describes approahes to assuring high levels of treatment integrtiy.
Detrich, R. (2011). Toward a Technology of Treatment Integrity [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes
Treatment integrity is necessary to improve outcomes but it is not sufficient. It is also necessary to implement scientifically supported interventions.
Detrich, R. (2015). Treatment Integrity: Necessary by Not Sufficient for Improving Outcomes [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2015-ebpindisabilities-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment integrity: A wicked problem and some solutions

Presentation by Wing Institute with goals: Make the case that treatment integrity monitoring is a necessary part of service delivery; describe dimensions of treatment integrity; suggest methods for increasing treatment integrity; place treatment integrity within systems framework . 

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.

This book is compiled from the proceedings of the sixth summit entitled “Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance.” The 2011 summit topic was selected to help answer the following question: What basic practice has the potential for the greatest impact on changing the behavior of students, teachers, and school administrative personnel?

States, J., Keyworth, R. & Detrich, R. (2013). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Sixth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 3, pp. ix-xii). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

 

Evidence-based practice in the broader context: How can we really use evidence to inform decisions

This article examines the evidence-based practice decision-making heuristic in the broader context of clinical decision making.

Chorpita, B. F., & Starace, N. K. (2010). Evidence-based practice in the broader context: How can we really use evidence to inform decisions. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools11(1), 47-61.

Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control

Dane and Schneider propose treatment integrity as a multi-dimensional construct and describe five dimensions that constitute the construct.

Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control. Clinical psychology review, 18(1), 23-45.

Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting

The impact of an intervention is influenced by how well it fis into the context of a classroom.  This paper suggests a number of variables to consider and how they might be measured prior to the development of an intervention.

Detrich, R. (1999). Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 608-620.

Treatment Integrity: Fundamental to Education Reform

To produce better outcomes for students two things are necessary: (1) effective, scientifically supported interventions (2) those interventions implemented with high integrity.  Typically, much greater attention has been given to identifying effective practices.  This review focuses on features of high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. (2014). Treatment integrity: Fundamental to education reform. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13(2), 258-271.

Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform

Over the last fifty years, there have been many educational reform efforts, most of which have had a relatively short lifespan and failed to produce the promised results. One possible reason for this is for the most part these innovations have been poorly implemented. In this chapter, the author proposes a data-based decision making approach to assuring high quality implementation.

Detrich, R. Innovation, Implementation Science, and Data-Based Decision Making: Components of Successful Reform. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, and J. Twyman (Eds). Handbook on Innovations in Learning, 31. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing

Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs.

Reform efforts tend to come and go very quickly in education. This paper makes the argument that the sustainability of programs is closely related to how well those programs are implemented.

Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2010). Treatment Integrity: A Fundamental Unit of Sustainable Educational Programs. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 4-29.

Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, there is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Overview of Treatment Integrity

For the best chance of producing positive educational outcomes for all children, two conditions must be met: (a) adopting effective empirically supported (evidence-based) practices and (b) implementing those practices with sufficient quality that they make a difference (treatment integrity)

Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2107). Overview of Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance.

This study evaluated the impact of public feedback in RtI team meetings on the quality of implementation.  Feedback improved poor implementation and maintained high level implementation.

Duhon, G. J., Mesmer, E. M., Gregerson, L., & Witt, J. C. (2009). Effects of public feedback during RTI team meetings on teacher implementation integrity and student academic performance. Journal of School Psychology, 47(1), 19-37.

Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation

The first purpose of this review is to assess the impact of implementation on program outcomes, and the second purpose is to identify factors affecting the implementation process.

Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American journal of community psychology, 41(3-4), 327-350.

An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods.

This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.

Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.

The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement

To help states and districts make informed decisions about the PD they implement to improve reading instruction, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned the Early Reading PD Interventions Study to examine the impact of two research-based PD interventions for reading instruction: (1) a content-focused teacher institute series that began in the summer and continued through much of the school year (treatment A) and (2) the same institute series plus in-school coaching (treatment B).

Garet, M. S., Cronen, S., Eaton, M., Kurki, A., Ludwig, M., Jones, W., ... Zhu, P. (2008). The impact of two professional development interventions on early reading instruction and achievement. NCEE 2008-4030. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Assessment of Treatment Integrity in School Consultation and Prereferral Intervention.

Technical issues (specification of treatment components, deviations from treatment protocols and amount of behavior change, and psychometric issues in assessing Treatment Integrity) involved in the measurement of Treatment Integrity are discussed.

Gresham, F. M. (1989). Assessment of treatment integrity in school consultation and prereferral intervention. School Psychology Review, 18(1), 37-50.

Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation.

This study evaluated the differences in estimates of treatment integrity be measuring different dimensions of it.

Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment Integrity Assessment: How Estimates of Adherence, Quality, and Exposure Influence Interpretation of Implementation. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(3), 209-232.

Observational Assessment for Planning and Evaluating Educational Transitions: An Initial Analysis of Template Matching

Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.

Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.

Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support.

The purposes of this manuscript are to propose core features that may apply to any practice or set of practices that proposes to be evidence-based in relation to School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). 

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1.

 

The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions.

“Contextual fit” is based on the premise that the match between an intervention and local context affects both the quality of intervention implementation and whether the intervention actually produces the desired outcomes for children and families.

Horner, R., Blitz, C., & Ross, S. (2014). The importance of contextual fit when implementing evidence-based interventions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/77066/ib_Contextual.pdf

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory

The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin119(2), 254.

Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction

This book examines the use of video recording to to improve teacher performance. The book shows how every classroom can easily benefit from setting up a camera and hitting “record”.  

Knight, J. (2013). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. (Pages 8-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Treatment integrity of school‐based interventions with children

This paper examines school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years between 1991 and 2005.  Only 30% of the studies provided treatment integrity data. Nearly half of studies (45%) were judged to be at high risk for treatment inaccuracies.

McIntyre, L. L., Gresham, F. M., DiGennaro, F. D., & Reed, D. D. (2007). Treatment integrity of school‐based interventions with children in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1991–2005. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 659–672.

Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies.

This study compared the effects of discussing issues of implementation challenges and performance feedback on increasing the integrity of implementation. Performance feedback was more effective than discussion in increasing integrity.

Noell, G. H., & Witt, J. C. (2000). Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: A comparison of two follow-up strategies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 271.

Diffusion of innovations

This book looks at how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind. 

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment.

This paper reviews options for treatment integrity measurement emphasizing how direct behavior rating technology might be incorporated within a multi-tiered model of intervention delivery.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Chafouleas, S. M., Christ, T. J., & Gritter, K. L. (2009). Extending Use of Direct Behavior Rating Beyond Student Assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34(4), 251-258. 

Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009

The authors reviewed all intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999-2009 to determine the percent of those studies that reported a measure of treatment integrity. Slightly more than 40% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Dobey, L. M., & Gritter, K. L. (2012). Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: From 1999 to 2009. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 29-46.

Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008

The authors reviewed four school psychology journals between 1995-2008 to estimate the percent of intervention studies that reported some measure of treatment integrity. About 50% reported a measure of treatment integrity.

Sanetti, L. M. H., Gritter, K. L., & Dobey, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity of interventions with children in the school psychology literature from 1995 to 2008. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 72-84.

Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches

This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. 

Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.

Treatment Integrity Strategies Overview

Inattention to treatment integrity is a primary factor of failure during implementation. Treatment integrity is defined as the extent to which an intervention is executed as designed, and the accuracy and consistency with which the intervention is implemented 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-treatment-integrity-strategies.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity.

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between training procedures and treatment integrity. 

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., Wildmon, M., Watkins, C., & Little, E. (2001). Investigating the relationship between training type and treatment integrity. School Psychology Quarterly16(1), 56.

Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development

In a randomized control study, Head Start teachers were assigned to either an intervention group that received intensive, ongoing professional development (PD) or to a comparison group that received the “business as usual” PD provided by Head Start. The PD intervention provided teachers with conceptual knowledge and instructional strategies that support young children’s development of vocabulary, alpha- bet knowledge, and phonological sensitivity.

Wasik, B. A., & Hindman, A. H. (2011). Improving vocabulary and pre-literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers through teacher professional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 455.

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of? the independent variable

This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on increasing the quality of implementation of interventions by teachers in a public school setting.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of ?the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693.

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