How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools?
This analysis examines how teacher and principal perception of school working conditions differ.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How differently do principals and teachers view working condition issues in their schools? Retrieved from how-differently-do-principals.
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What makes an effective principal?
This is an analysis of two meta-analyses of principals, one looking at leadership style and the second examines what school principals activities have the greatest impact on student outcomes.
States, J. (2010). What makes an effective principal? Retrieved from what-makes-effective-principal.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement?
This meta-analysis examines 26 studies on school leadership to identify the magnitude of direct and indirect effects of leadership on teacher and student performance.
States, J. (2012). What roles do principal's play that have the greatest impact on student achievement? Retrieved from what-roles-do-principal's.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.
This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.
Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look
The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.
Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
BURIED TREASURE: Developing a Management Guide From Mountains of School Data
This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.
Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.
Incentives in organizations
The author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. The author concludes by suggesting two avenues for further progress in agency theory: better integration with organizational economics, and cross-pollination with other fields that study organizations.
Gibbons, R. (1998). Incentives in organizations. Journal of economic perspectives, 12(4), 115-132.
Does the Match Matter? Exploring Whether Student Teaching Experiences Affect Teacher Effectiveness
This descriptive study examines the relationship between student teaching experiences and a teacher’s future effectiveness on the job. The primary finding is that teachers are more effective when the student demographics of their current schools are similar to the student demographics of the schools in which they did their student teaching. This study suggests that further experimental research be conducted to determine if the data hold up. If they do, the implication is that, in recruiting new teachers, school principals would be well served by choosing candidates whose student teaching experiences were in schools whose demographics match those of their own schools. Teacher preparation programs can also assist by assessing candidates’ preferences for where they plan on working and match student teaching placements to schools with similar demographics where new teachers are likely to be employed.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J. M., & Theobald, R. (2017). Does the match matter? Exploring whether student teaching experiences affect teacher effectiveness. American Educational Research Journal, 54(2), 325–359.
Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12
This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.
Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.
Cost-effectiveness and educational policy.
This article provides a summary the issue of cost effectiveness and its applications to educational policy. It concludes that there is great potential for the use of cost-effectiveness applications in education, but there is little capability for doing so among most policymakers. Examples are provided of productive cost-effectiveness applications, and recommendations are made with regard to increasing the capacity of educational evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use the tools appropriately or more efficient source allocation.
Levin, H. M. (1988). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10(1), 51-69.
Cost-effectiveness and educational policy.
This article provides a summary of measuring the fiscal impact of practices in education
Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2002). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Exceptional Returns: Economic, Fiscal, and Social Beneļ¬ts of Investment in Early Childhood Development
This study demonstrates, for the first time, that providing all 20% of the nation’s three- and four-year-old children who live in poverty with a high-quality ECD program would have a substantial payoff for governments and taxpayers in the future.
Lynch, R. G. (2004). Exceptional Returns: Economic, Fiscal, and Social Beneļ¬ts of Investment in Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Databurst: Teacher Shortages and Surpluses
The Teacher Shortages and Surpluses Databurst is an analysis of states' work to track teacher shortages and surpluses, and to implement the policy solutions to address these challenges. This resource includes an overview of promising practices currently being implemented, a snapshot of all 50 states' and the District of Columbia's efforts in addressing teacher supply and demand challenges, and noteworthy state policies by region across the country.
The Hidden Cost Of California's Harsh School Discipline: And The Localized Economic Benefits From Suspending Fewer High School Students.
This study shows that the overuse of suspensions in California schools is harming student achievement and graduation rates, and resulting in billions of dollars in economic damage. The study quantifies the financial consequences of school suspensions down to the district level, reporting both the additional costs borne by taxpayers as a result of suspensions and the economic benefit lost to the state.
Rumberger, R. and Losen, D. (2017). The Hidden Cost Of California's Harsh School Discipline: And The Localized Economic Benefits From Suspending Fewer High School Students. The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project, UCLA and California Dropout Research Project.
A Guide to Calculating District Expenditure-to-Performance Ratios Using Publicly Available Data
Efficient use of educational resources is a perennial challenge for school systems. Maximizing the impact of education interventions to magnify student achievement is an important goal for all school districts. This guide examines the use of expenditure-to-performance ratios as a critical indicator for school systems to help decide which interventions make sense when education dollars are at a premium. It describes how states and districts can use available data on district expenditures and student academic achievement to calculate six district-level expenditure-to-performance ratios.
Ryan, S., Lavigne, H. J., Zweig, J. S., & Buffington, P. J. (2017). A guide to calculating district expenditure-to-performance ratios using publicly available data. (REL 2017-179). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands.
Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look
The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. One of the follow-up reports tracks information specifically on traditional public and charter school principals across various school and student characteristics (e.g. number of principals, age, advance degrees, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.). A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. The higher the percent of a school’s students qualifying for free- or reduced-price lunches, the shorter the tenure of the school’s principal. Charter school principals are paid less than those in traditional public school; they have a lower percentage of advanced college degrees; they are younger; and they have more control over standards, curriculum, and professional development.
Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015–16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.
The teacher pay penalty has hit a new high: Trends in the teacher wage and compensation gaps through 2017
This study concludes that teacher compensation is falling further and further behind that of comparable career opportunities each year. The study also downplays the impact of the recent recession on this trend, highlighting the impact of state government decisions on reducing education funding.
Do Test Score Gaps Grow Before, During, or Between the School Years? Measurement Artifacts and What We Can Know in Spite of Them.
This research looked at test score gaps for a range of populations: between boys and girls; between black, white, and Hispanic children; between the children and the mother’s education; between children in poor and nonpoor families; and the gaps between high-poverty and low-poverty schools. They wanted to know whether gaps grow faster during summer or the school year. They were unable to answer this question as the results were inconclusive. Although, von Hippel and Hamrock did find the total gap in performance from kindergarten to eighth grade, is substantially smaller than the gap that exists at the time children enter school. The conclusion is that gaps happen mostly in the first five years of life. study suggests students who are behind peers at the time they enter kindergarten should receive early remedial instruction as the most efficacious way to improve overall performance.
von Hippel, P. T., & Hamrock, C. (2019). Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between the school years? Measurement artifacts and what we can know in spite of them. Sociological Science, 6, 43-80.
Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006
This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.
Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.
Using Data from High-Stakes Testing in Program Planning and Evaluation
This article intends to help school psychologists understand high stakes tests, methods for analyzing and reporting high stakes results, standards for tests and program evaluation, and application of practices to improve student performance.
Braden, J. P. (2007). Using data from high-stakes testing in program planning and evaluation. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 23(2), 129-150.
From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services
The goal of this article is to illustrate various strategies that the Hawaii Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division adopted to increase the use of empirical evidence to improve the quality services and outcomes for youth.
Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From data to wisdom: Quality improvement strategies supporting large-scale implementation of evidence-based services. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 14(2), 329-349.
Bringing Out The Best In People
This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.
Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.
Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance
This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.
Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competenceengineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.
Why Data Don't Matter
This paper discusses reasons why educators fail to embrace the collection and use of data.
Landrum, T. J. (1997). Why data don't matter. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(2), 123-129.
Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
This paper uses research to show how schools and districts are analyzing achievement test results and other types of data to make decisions to improve student success.
Marsh, J. A., Pane, J. F., & Hamilton, L. S. (2006). Making sense of data-driven decision making in education.
Use of Education Data at the Local Level From Accountability to Instructional Improvement
This report looks at the implementation of student data systems and the use of data for improving student performance.
Means, B., Padilla, C., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement. US Department of Education.
Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools-Teacher Access, Supports and Use
This paper documents education data systems and data-informed decision making in districts and schools. It examines implementation and the practices involving the use of data to improve instruction.
Means, B., Padilla, C., DeBarger, A., & Bakia, M. (2009). Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use. US Department of Education.
Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning
This policy brief addresses why using data represents a significant shift for most teachers on how they perform their jobs and details the infrastructure necessary to encourage teachers' use of data.
Miller, M. (2009). Achieving a Wealth of Riches: Delivering on the Promise of Data to Transform Teaching and Learning. Policy Brief. Alliance for Excellent Education.
Value Added Modeling: The Challenge of Measuring Educational Outcomes
This paper examines the critical issues that need to be addressed if value-added modeling is to be effectively used in education.
Stewart, B. E. (2006). Value-added modeling: The challenge of measuring educational outcomes. Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Putting Data into Practice: Lessons From New York City
This report looks at New York City's efforts to create an evidence-based and collaborative teaching culture.
Tucker, B. (2010). Putting data into practice: Lessons from New York City. Education Sector Reports.
Software Enabling School Improvement Through Analysis of Student Data
This paper considers issues surrounding the use data and data based decision-making in schools. It describes the state of the field and possible future directions in school based technology.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Sam Stringfield, and Mary Yakimowski. "Software enabling school improvement through analysis of student data." (2004).
The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District, 2007
This is an analysis of a district-wide evaluation of data uses and procedures for data-based decision-making.
Wayman, Jeffrey C., Vincent Cho, and Mary T. Johnston. "The data-informed district: A district-wide evaluation of data use in the Natrona County School District." (2007).