Student Teaching and Clinical In-Service: Overview
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Student Teaching. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/pre-service-student.
Student Teaching PDF
Quality teachers are an important factor in student achievement and make a big difference in student success (Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004). Pre-service teachers’ experiences are important for their future success (Bacharach, Heck, & Dahlberg, 2010). During teacher education programs, student teaching (also called clinical in-service) is, when pre-service teachers learn and practice techniques of teaching under the direction of a certified “cooperating teacher” (Wentz, 2001). This is often pre-service teachers’ first classroom experience that encompasses the responsibilities of teaching.
Pre-service teachers’ experiences have important long-term ramifications and can shape their expectations for the job, for students, and work habits like perseverance (Greenburg, Pomerance, & Walsh, 2011). The importance of this experience is not lost on pre-service teachers; in one survey, teachers indicated that student teaching was the most important part of their teacher preparation program (Levine, 2006).
The student teaching experience has remained largely unchanged since the 1920s (Guyton & McIntyre, 1990). It typically involves working with a cooperating teacher for a 10 weeks or one-semester. During their internship, pre-service teachers perform many duties, including planning and implementing lessons, under the supervision of a cooperating teacher (Greenburg et al., 2011). Currently, all 50 states require some form of student teaching experience as part of teacher education (Bacharach et al., 2010). While no state has comprehensive guidelines for student teaching programs, most states (39) set a minimum standard (Greenburg et al., 2011).
Cooperating teachers are arguably the most important aspect of student teaching. Typically, school leaders identify cooperating teachers (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020), often with minimal guidance from universities. State regulations are weak when it comes to setting standards for cooperating teachers. Greenburg, Pomerance, and Walsh (2011) reported that some states required cooperating teachers to be “accomplished professionals,” but did not define what that meant. Only five states indicated the need for a cooperating teacher to have at least three years of experience and specific training before hosting a student teacher. And, Florida was the only state that required cooperating teachers to have a record of effectiveness in the classroom.
This overview focuses on student teaching experiences in traditional university teacher education programs (not alternative or lateral certification programs). The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on student teaching, its impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations.
Important questions about student teaching programs include:
- What should high-quality student teaching programs include?
- What outcomes can be expected from student teaching programs?
- What concerns are there about student teaching programs?
Current State of Student Teaching
In 2018, 257,950 people graduated with an education degree (Educationdata.org, 2018). For these new teachers, student teaching is a capstone experience. It is also a great undertaking for teacher education programs (Greenburg et al., 2011). The stakes are high. The National Research Council (2010) identified student teaching as one of the three aspects of teacher preparation that had the highest potential for impacting student outcomes.
It is not a surprise, then, that many teacher education programs prioritize student teaching. In a survey of 134 higher education institutions, Greenburg et al. (2011) found that:
- o 99% of institutions required full time student teaching,
- o 91% prohibited other coursework during student teaching, and
- o 100% required 10 weeks of student teaching or more.
Cooperating teachers play an important role in student teachers’ success, so it is encouraging that Krieg, Goldhaber, and Theobold (2019) found that, across 14 universities in Washington State, teachers with more experience, higher degree levels, and higher value-added scores in math were more likely to be cooperating teachers. However, Krieg, Goldhaber, and Theobold (2018) identified a concern with the supply of cooperating teachers, estimating that because they need to be highly-qualified or highly effective, there may be a limited number available to mentor pre-service teachers.
Research on Student Teaching
There is extensive research on the practice of student teaching that goes back decades (Anderson & Stillman, 2013; Dunst, Hamby, Howse, Wilkie, & Annas, 2019). Dunst, Hamby, Howse, Wilkie, and Annas (2019) conducted a metasynthesis of 14 types of teacher preparation practices, including student teaching. Their syntheses included 118 meta-analysis and 12 surveys including more than three million participants across preschool through university settings. Findings indicated it was important for pre-service teachers to master the use of instructional practice as well as acquiring knowledge and skills. In the studies reviewed, various lengths of student teaching were included; 10 or more weeks, 5-9 weeks, or little to no student teaching. Outcomes for student teaching included classroom quality (instructional planning and classroom management), and teaching practices (instructional methods and subject matter teaching). Extended student teaching (10 weeks or more) produced positive results with large effect sizes on teacher practice (ES = 1.52) and classroom quality (ES = 1.59). Limited student teaching (5-9 weeks) produced moderate effect sizes on teaching practices (ES = 0.77) and classroom quality (ES = 0.73). This study supports longer student teaching experiences, which aligns with many established programs that already have a minimum expectation of 10 weeks for student teaching (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020).
Anderson and Stillman (2013) reviewed 54 articles about student teaching in diverse contexts (i.e., schools in underserved communities) that were published between 1990 and 2020 to analyze how student teaching experiences of at least six weeks contributed to teacher development. Their qualitative analysis revealed themes about pre-service teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about teaching in high-needs or urban communities. Most studies claimed positive changes related to attitudes and beliefs in their ability to teach in high-needs contexts, though some studies showed a negative or neutral change. These studies presented a cloudy view of student teachers’ preparedness, however. Studies relied on self-reported information and did not address the skills that student teachers were learning, or student outcomes. On the whole, it was unclear how student teaching contributed to changes in student teachers’ beliefs, and did not distinguish changes in teacher beliefs from the expectation from their professors that pre-service teachers would be more prepared simply because they had completed student teaching.
Ample research has been done on student teaching as a practice to support the length of student teaching (Dunst et al., 2019) and how student teaching influences teacher beliefs (Anderson & Stillman, 2013). Research on how student teaching impacts specific teacher practice and student outcomes is lacking. Additional research about how pre-service teachers’ thoughts and actions intersect as they learn how to teach as well as longitudinal studies about how pre-service teachers learn to teach are necessary (Anderson & Stillman, 2013).
Questions about Student Teaching
Student teaching is a significant effort in time and staff energy for universities and districts. Understanding what programs should include, expected outcomes, and concerns is important for designing and implementing strong student teaching programs.
What should high-quality student teaching programs include?
The National Council on Teacher Quality (Greenburg et al., 2011) has set standards for high-quality student teaching (Table 1).
Table 1: Standards for high-quality student teaching
From these standards, additional questions about cooperating teachers and the aspects of student teaching programs arise.
What format should student teaching take?
Traditionally, student teaching has been implemented as a mentorship model that involves a cooperating teacher overseeing a student teacher in his or her classroom. In this model, student teachers observe first, then take over the class with supervision and feedback (Bacharach et al., 2010).
This is not the only option. Bacharach, Heck, and Dahlberg (2010) created a co-teaching model and implemented it for four years in Minnesota. Co-teaching was defined as two teachers (cooperating teacher and pre-service teacher) working together to share the work of teaching, including planning, organizing, delivering and assessing instruction. Across four years, students who were in co-taught classrooms scored higher on the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment math test. There was also a positive trend in reading for English language learners (no difference in math scores for English language learners). In addition, 400 students were interviewed in focus groups. Students identified the positives of having a co-taught class, including: getting help when they needed it, less time waiting, receiving different teaching styles, fewer disruptions, and better student behavior.
What constitutes high-quality cooperating teachers?
Cooperating teachers play important roles in the development of teacher candidates (Clarke, Triggs, & Nielsen, 2014; Graham, 2006; Hoffman et al., 2015). In short, their role is to provide pre-service teachers with strong examples of classroom preparation, instructional leadership, student engagement, and school practices and processes (Krieg et al., 2018).
In daily practice, the role of the cooperating teacher is complex. Clarke, Triggs, and Nielsen (2014) reviewed 60 years of research with a focus on cooperating teachers and identified the many roles cooperating teachers take on (Table 2).
Table 2: Roles of the Cooperating Teacher
The selection of cooperating teachers is primarily driven by schools. Pomerance and Walsh (2019) found that a small percentage (4%) of university teaching education programs take a significant role in deciding who serves as cooperating teachers. Instead, most accept school leaders’ recommendations, though universities may push back against cooperating teachers they have had negative experiences with. Increasingly, states and universities are establishing criteria for cooperating teachers with the assumption that a cooperating teachers’ influence will have an impact on the pre-service teacher’s effectiveness (Ronfeldt, Brokman, & Campbell, 2018).
Given that cooperating teachers have a complex role, Greenburg et al. (2011) set expectations for cooperating. Cooperating teachers should have:
- At least three years of experience,
- Demonstrated a positive impact on student learning, and
- The capacity to mentor another adult, including observing, providing feedback, holding professional conversations, and working collaboratively.
In addition to cooperating teachers, what are other important inputs?
Universities have the option of aligning student teaching with the university calendar or the school district calendar. However, it fits into district and university calendars, the majority of programs (68%) required student teachers to be present on the first day of school (Greenburg et al., 2011). This is beneficial because student teachers see how effective teachers handle this important transition period.
Location of Student Teaching
A significant majority (75%) of institutions required student teachers to complete their student teaching near campus, allowing for better oversight (Greenburg et al., 2011). However, having student teachers teach closer to their universities may not be ideal.
Ronfeldt (2012) studied data from almost 3,000 New York City teachers and schools and found that learning to teach in an easier-to-staff school, one with better capacity to host a student teacher, had positive effects on retention and student achievement, even for teachers who ended up teaching in more difficult-to-staff schools. Regardless of placement for student teachers, there was no impact on teacher effectiveness in working with underserved student populations.
The school environment also matters. Ronfeldt (2015) analyzed data from a large urban district and found that teachers who learned to teach in schools with stronger collaboration, achievement gains, and high teacher retention were more likely to be effective at raising student achievement. However, these types of schools were less likely to host student teachers.
There is some discussion about the school demographics that are most important for student teaching. Goldhaber, Kreig, and Theobald (2017) found that teachers were more effective in their first years of teaching when they student taught in schools with demographics that were similar to the demographics of their initial teaching placement. This suggests that the demographics of schools may also be considered, as student teachers develop teaching skills that benefit their future teaching.
Furthermore, where student teachers are placed may have long term effects. Krieg, Theobold, and Goldhaber (2016) found that where student teachers taught contributed to two trends in student teaching. First, the “draw of home” or tendency of teachers to stay and work near their hometowns. Also, the tendency of more qualified teacher candidates to student teach and take jobs in more advantaged districts. Both of these trends contribute to the inequitable distribution of teacher quality across districts (Krieg et al., 2016; Reininger, 2012).
Communication between universities and schools
The university provides an important connection between schools and student teachers. The majority (71%) of universities provided sufficient observations during student teacher programs (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020). However, communication with the school is important as well. For example, when universities provided information in writing there was a stronger likelihood that principals would know the criteria for cooperating teachers (Greenburg et al., 2011), which is important because cooperating teachers are selected at the school level.
Length of Student Teaching Placement
The National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ; Greenburg et al., 2011) recommends that student teaching lasts 10 weeks or more; a recommendation supported by research (Dunst et al., 2019).
There may be benefits to student teaching placements that last longer than 10 weeks. One study that compared a year-long internship with a semester-long internship found that the year-long internship produced better relationships with cooperating teachers, greater knowledge of school procedures, and higher scores for student teachers’ perceptions of how they performed. There was no difference in student teachers’ perception of teaching ability (Spooner, Flowers, Lambert, and Algozzine, 2008).
What outcomes can be expected from student teaching programs?
The goal of student teaching is to train teachers who are highly effective in their own classrooms. To that end, the influence of cooperating teachers and the effects of student teachers on their immediate placement and eventual classrooms are worth consideration.
What effect does hosting a student teacher have on student performance in cooperating teachers’ classrooms?
A cooperating teacher’s skill and effectiveness is important. In a review of data from more than 2,900 pre-service teachers who were mentored by 3,200 cooperating teachers across the state of Tennessee, student teachers who worked with cooperating teachers that received higher observational ratings on the state’s evaluation rubric and value-added scores on the state testing measures also received better ratings and higher value-added scores when they became teachers (Ronfeldt, Brockman, & Campbell, 2018).
Goldhaber, Krieg, and Theobald (2018) studied the effects of hosting a student teacher on student reading and math scores across reading and math classrooms in grades 4-8. Data from 1,319 student teachers with 1,086 cooperating teachers in math classrooms and 1,358 student teachers with 1,107 cooperating teachers in ELA classrooms was analyzed. When cooperating teachers hosted a student teacher there was no impact on student reading and math scores. This supports teachers hosting student teachers without an impact on student achievement.
What effects does the student teaching experience have on pre-service teachers’ eventual impact in the classroom?
The effects of student teaching on teachers’ performance are generally positive. Dunst et al. (2019) found that both limited and extended lengths of student teaching produced positive results on teacher practice and classroom quality. Pomerance and Walsh (2020) found that first year teachers can be as effective as typical 3rd year teachers if the student teachers were paired with highly effective teachers. This indicates that strong student teaching experiences may boost teacher performance in their first years. However, more research is necessary to understand the specific skills that pre-service teachers gain from student teaching and how this impacts achievement in their first years of teaching. Also, research on how student teaching impacts achievement in specific student populations, including student with disabilities and English language learners is necessary.
What outcomes should we expect from student teaching programs?
One outcome of student teaching is teacher self-efficacy. Teacher self-efficacy can be defined as an “individual teachers’ beliefs in their own ability to plan, organize, and carry out activities that are required to attain given educational goals” (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2009, 1059). Teacher self-efficacy has been found to be connected with effective teaching, structures, and classroom management. (Anderson, Greene, & Loewes, 1988; Tschannan-Moran, Woolfolk, & Hoy, 1998).
Teacher’s self-efficacy increased after student teaching (Ronfeldt & Reininger, 2012). Knobloch and Hoy (2008) investigated teachers’ efficacy beliefs (n = 102) and found that all student teachers demonstrated an increase in self-efficacy after student teaching regardless of their location (urban, suburban, or rural). Teachers who reported better quality student teaching reported greater self-efficacy, compared to those who reported lower quality experiences. However, the effect of these outcomes did not depend on a longer student teaching experience, (Ronfeldt & Reininger, 2012).
Chambers and Hardy (2005) administered two questionnaires to 55 secondary pre-service teachers who were enrolled in student teaching and had completed either one or two semesters of student teaching. Self-efficacy and classroom control orientation was established using two measures (the Attitudes and Beliefs on Common Control Inventory and the Teacher Efficacy Scale). There was no significant difference between teachers who completed one or two semesters on instructional management, people management, behavior management, or self-efficacy. The study did not address how student teachers gained skills or the impact on student outcomes.
Swan, Wolf, and Cano (2011) followed 17 teachers who completed student teaching at The Ohio State University. Teachers completed a self-efficacy survey after student teaching and after each of their first three years of teaching. Self-efficacy reports were highest just after student teaching, and lowest after their first year of teaching. This suggests that teachers’ self-efficacy fluctuates over time and that there may be a connection between completing student teaching and high self-efficacy. More research is needed to ascertain if this higher self-efficacy is connected to stronger teaching practice.
Brown, Lee, and Collins (2015) measured 71 pre-service teachers’ perception of self-efficacy before and after student teaching. Teacher candidates’ perception of preparedness and self of efficacy increased significantly from pre to post-student teaching. In interviews, pre-service teachers identified the opportunity for hands-on teaching, observing experienced teachers, and their relationship with the cooperating teacher as the most significant experiences.
How do student teaching programs impact district teacher recruitment pipelines?
One important outcome of student teaching programs is to recruit future teachers for schools. Goldhaber, Krieg, and Theobald (2014) used data of student teachers from six Washington state universities to examine how pre-service teachers moved into teaching positions across the state. Related to student teachers, pre-service teachers who completed their student teaching at schools with high turnover were more likely to be employed and often were employed at the schools where they completed their student teaching.
Ronfeldt and Reininger (2012) examined the effect of student teaching on teacher preference to work in underserved schools. While teachers with a strong or weak preference to work in underserved schools did not change their preference, teachers who had a moderate initial preference did change their preference towards working in underserved schools.
In special education in particular, student teaching may impact later retention. Connelly & Graham (2009) studied data from special education teachers and found that teachers who substantial student teaching experience were more likely to remain in the field. This suggests that longer student teaching may help special education teachers transition into the profession.
What concerns are there about student teaching programs?
Student teachers have an important place within teacher education programs, so it is worrying that there are concerns about the quality of student teaching. A 2019 NCTQ study found that the average student teaching program garnered a C rating. Furthermore, there was no change from 2013, the last time ratings were set (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020).
There are concerns about the supply of high quality cooperating teachers (Greenburg et al., 2011; Krieg et al., 2019). Greenburg et al. (2011) identified that, for student teachers to be effective, local schools must have the capacity to host and train all the teacher candidates adequately. This may be a challenge for some districts. Greenburg et al. (2011) estimated that when teachers who are better than average are considered to be cooperating teachers, there may be few teachers at each school who are able to support teacher candidates or student teachers may be mentored by teachers who are ineffective, which raises concern about the skills student teachers take from the experience.
Specifically, cooperating teachers may not be able to provide student teachers with diverse experiences (Krieg et al., 2019). In a large-scale empirical analysis of cooperating teacher placements across Washington State (reaching 80% of schools in WA), Krieg et al. (2019) found that there was homogeneity in the matching of cooperating teachers and teacher candidates. Student teachers were more likely to be placed with cooperating teachers of the same gender and race or ethnicity.
In addition, universities lack clear, rigorous criteria for selecting cooperating teachers (Greenburg et al., 2011). In the analysis by Greenburg et al. (2011), all universities set some criteria for cooperating teachers in terms of years of experience, yet only 28% required cooperating teachers to be effective and 38% required some level of mentorship quality. Once criteria were established, the majority of universities (77%) looked for some, not all, criteria, 9% did not look for any criteria, and only 14% looked for all criteria in cooperating. On the whole, too many programs accepted principals’ recommendations for cooperating teachers “on good faith.”
Finally, once student teaching programs are established, there was no guarantee that student teachers would have a quality experience. Greenburg, McKee and Walsh (2013) identified that only 7% of more than 800 teacher education programs ensured that student teachers would have a high quality experience, such as ensuring that student teachers would be placed with effective cooperating teachers.
Cost of Student Teaching
The cost of student teaching is born by the student teachers through their tuition, the university, and the districts involved. Cost will range depending on many factors at the local level. One unique variable is the cooperating teacher, who may receive compensation for their role. Fives, Mills, and Dacey (2016) examined the various types of compensation provided to cooperating teachers in 18 teacher education programs and created a framework for understanding cooperating teacher compensation (Table 3). The cost to the university would range depending on the cost of each of these factors.
Table 3: Cooperating Teacher Compensation
No research was found on the cost-benefit of conducting student teaching.
Recommendations for Student Teaching
Improving student teaching can help strengthen the future pool of teachers, and improve the hiring pipeline for districts (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020). Effective teachers should not be wary of hosting student teachers, as it is unlikely to impact their own students’ achievement (Goldhaber et al., 2018). The National Council on Teacher Quality recommends that universities and school districts form meaningful partnerships and use those to improve student teaching experiences (Pomerance & Walsh, 2020). This could be accomplished by:
- Establishing regular meetings between universities and school districts to discuss goals and share data,
- Tracking key data related to student teachers (e.g., placement, hiring, performance, retention),
- Matching student teachers with cooperating teachers who are passionate about mentoring new teachers, effective in the classroom, and talented in coaching and mentorship,
- Placing student teachers in well-run schools with demographics of students that they are likely to work with in the classroom, in particular, providing experiences in schools that serve high percentages of students from minority backgrounds,
- Providing stipends or scholarships for cooperating teachers and preservice teachers, and
- Connecting student teaching with employment by giving student teachers priority for full time employment as long as their performance is acceptable.
In addition, other suggestions from the research include:
- Ensure that student teaching lasts a minimum of 10 weeks. Student teaching that continues for 10 weeks or more is ideal, though some student teaching experience (5-9 weeks) can also be valuable (Dunst et al., 2019). Year-long student teaching placements may be useful to build relationships, increase pre-service teachers’ understanding of school procedures, and increase teacher self-perception (Spooner et al., 2008).
- Ensure that student teaching incorporates the start of the school year. Student teachers should engage in student teaching during the preparation for and beginning of the school year (Greenburg et al., 2011).
- Select cooperating teachers for their effectiveness. Cooperating teachers should have demonstrated positive impact on student learning, and the capacity to mentor others (Greenburg et al., 2011; Ronfeldt et al., 2018).
- Provide clear parameters for cooperating teachers. Providing districts with information in writing about cooperating teacher qualifications would increase the likelihood of providing higher quality cooperating teachers (Greenburg et al., 2011).
- Consider collaborative models for student teaching. Bacharach et al. (2010) suggest that a coteaching model could be used to increase collaboration in student teaching programs, with benefits for student learning.
- Consider more substantial student teaching experiences for special education teachers. Pre-service teachers studying special education who have more substantial student teaching may stay in teaching longer (Connelly & Graham, 2009).
Almost every teacher will experience student teaching during their teacher education program. Student teaching, when executed well, gives pre-service teachers a high sense of self-efficacy and can produce results without negative impacts on students. We know that cooperating teachers, who are an important part of student teaching, need to be highly effective teachers to provide the strong mentorship that student teachers need. However, more research is needed to learn how student teachers learn to teach, and the short and long term impacts of student teaching on specific teacher practices and student outcomes.
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Adams, M.J., Fillmore, L.W., Goldenberg, C., Oakhill, J., Paige, D.D., Rasinski, T., & Shanahan, T. (2020). Comparing Reading Research to Program Design: An Examination of Teachers College Units of Study. Student Achievement Partners.
Teachers’ subject matter knowledge as a teacher qualification: A synthesis of the quantitative literature on students’ mathematics achievement
The main focus of this study is to find different kinds of variables that might contribute to variations in the strength and direction of the relationship by examining quantitative studies that relate mathematics teachers’ subject matter knowledge to student achievement in mathematics.
Ahn, S., & Choi, J. (2004). Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement. Online Submission.
Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement
The aim of this paper is to examine a variety of features of research that might account for mixed findings of the relationship between teachers' subject matter knowledge and student achievement based on meta-analytic technique.
Ahn, S., & Choi, J. (2004). Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement. Online Submission.
Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected teachers
This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning.
Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected
teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.
Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
This case study explored the use of the Bug-in-Ear (BIE) tool for undergraduate student-teacher supervision in the hands of a novice BIE2 coach, including the ease with which BIE equipment can be set up and operated by a novice coach and naïve users in the classroom.
Almendarez, M. B., Zigmond, N., Hamilton, R., Lemons, C., Lyon, S., McKeown, M., Rock, M. (2012). Pushing the horizons of student teacher supervision: Can a bug-in-ear system be an effective plug-and-play tool for a novice electronic coach to use in student teacher supervision? ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Predictors of Elementary-aged Writing Fluency Growth in Response to a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention
The goal of the proposed study was to determine whether third-grade
students’ (n = 74) transcriptional skills and gender predicted their writing fluency growth in response to a performance feedback intervention.
Alvis, A. V. (2019). Predictors of Elementary-aged Students’ Writing Fluency Growth in Response to a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention
Teachers Matter: Evidence from Value-Added Assessments.
Value-added assessment proves that very good teaching can boost student learning and that family background does not determine a student's destiny. Students taught by highly effective teachers several years in a row earn higher test scores than students assigned to particularly ineffective teachers.
American Education Research Association (AERA). (2004). Teachers matter: Evidence from value-added assessments. Research Points, 2(2). Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/ Portals/38/docs/Publications/Teachers%20Matter.pdf
Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development
This article reviews empirical articles published over the past two decades to determine what and how student teaching experiences contribute to preservice teachers’ development. While keeping this central focus, the article also considers the implications of student teaching for the schools that play host to it and for the students who attend those schools.
Anderson, L. M., & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student Teaching’s Contribution to Preservice Teacher Development A Review of Research Focused on the Preparation of Teachers for Urban and High-Needs Contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.
Teacher preparation for K–12 online and blended learning.
This chapter reviews the state of the field as it pertains to the preparation of preservice teachers
for K-12 online and blended learning.
Archambault, L., & Kennedy, K. (2018). Teacher preparation for K–12 online and blended learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 221–245). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
K–12 online and blended teacher licensure: Striking a balance between policy and preparedness.
This article explores the theoretical underpinnings surrounding quality teaching in online settings as well as practical considerations for what teachers should know and be able to do in online environments.
Archambault, L., DeBruler, K., & Freidhoff, J. (2014). K-12 online and blended teacher licensure: Striking a balance between policy and preparedness. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(1), 83-106. Retrieved from
https://www.academia.edu/6459023/K-12_Online_ and_blended _Teacher_licensure_Striking_a_balance_between_Policy_ and_Preparedness
Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior
Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.
Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.
Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity
The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational productivity, including a conceptual framework for understanding the necessary components of rigorous productivity analyses, drawing in particular on cost-effectiveness analysis as an accessible method in education.
Bakia, M., Shear, L., Toyama, Y., & Lasseter, A. (2012). Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. https://tech.ed.gov/files/2013/10/implications-online-learning.pdf
Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives
This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 256-267.
Revisiting the Effect of Teaching of Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Findings
The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of teaching of learning strategies on academic achievement of students. The meta-analysis model was adopted to examine the effectiveness of teaching of learning strategies on academic achievement. According to moderator analyses, it was found that there was no significant difference between effect sizes of the studies in terms of sample size, publication type, course type, implementation duration, instructional level, school setting, and socioeconomic status
Bas, G., & Beyhan, Ö. (2019). Revisiting the Effect of Teaching of Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Findings. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 5(1), 70-87.
Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement
The author uses teachers’ ratings on the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System to determine whether teacher preparation programs (TPPs) are associated with the evaluation ratings of their initially prepared teachers.
Bastian, K. C., Patterson, K. M., & Pan, Y. (2017). Evaluating teacher preparation programs with teacher evaluation ratings: Implications for program accountability and improvement. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(5), 429–447.
Creating sound policy for digital learning: The costs of online learning
In these pages, we estimate the costs of blendedlearning models and fulltime virtual schools as currently operated in the U.S.
Battaglino, T. B., Haldeman, M., & Laurans, E. (2012). Creating sound policy for digital learning: The costs of online learning. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2012/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning.pdf
Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text
The book presents many examples of Questioning the Author (QtA) in action as children engage with narrative and expository texts to construct meaning.
Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G., Hamilton, R. L., & Kugan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text.Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Exploring the lecture method: An empirical study.
In this article aspects of lecturing are explored. Attention is given to explaining and to other strategies of lecturing and to the possibility of demarcating certain lecturing styles.
Behr, A. L. (1988). Exploring the lecture method: An empirical study. Studies in Higher Education, 13(2), 189-200.
Blended learning in practice: Case studies from leading schools, featuring KIPP Empower Academy
A report about blended learning programs analyzes the instruction, operational, and financial models of Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) schools. KIPP focuses on blending technology with in-class education to provide small group instruction and to meet the needs of each individual student.
Bernatek, B., Cohen, J., Hanlon, J., & Wilka, M. (2012). Blended learning in practice: Case studies from leading schools, featuring KIPP Empower Academy. Austin, TX: Michael and Susan Dell Foundation. https://www.heartland.org/_template-assets/documents/publications/kipp.pdf
Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities.
This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.
Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf
Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.
The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively.
Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership, 76(2), 22-28.
A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impacts of the Kids Read Now Summer Reading Program
Drawing on administrative data and reading achievement data
provided by two Midwestern school districts for three participating
Kids Read Now schools, the current study provides the first opportunity to study the reading outcomes of Kids Read Now students.
Borman, G.D., Yang, H., Xie, X. (2019). A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impacts of the Kids Read Now Summer Reading Program. University of Wisconsin—Madison
Parent and student perceptions of parent engagement at a cyber charter high school
Researchers have hypothesized that parental engagement is even more critical when online students learn from home, but few researchers have examined parents’ engagement behavior—especially parents of adolescent learners. In this case study, we addressed this gap using parent and student interviews at a full-time online charter school.
Borup, J., Stevens, M. A., & Hasler Waters, L. (2015). Parent and student perceptions of parent engagement at a cyber charter high school. Online Learning, 19(5), 69–91. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1085792.pdf
Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 259-267.
Summary of research on online and blended learning programs that offer differentiated learning options
This report summarizes the methodology, measures, and findings of research on the influence on student achievement outcomes of K–12 online and blended face-to-face and online learning programs that offer differentiated learning options.
Brodersen, R. M., & Melluzzo, D. (2017). Summary of research on online and blended learning programs that offer differentiated learning options (REL 2017–228). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Central. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED572935.pdf
Achieving Equitable Accessing to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders
The purpose of this guide is to help district leaders take on the challenge of ensuring that students have equitable access to excellent teachers. It shares some early lessons the Education Trust has learned from districts about the levers available to prioritize low-income students and students of color in teacher quality initiatives. The guide outlines a seven-stage process that can help leaders define their own challenges, explore underlying causes, and develop strategies to ensure all schools and students have equitable access to effective teachers.
Bromberg, M. (2016). Achieving Equitable Access to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders. Education Trust.
Motivating Students to Learn.
This book offers principles and strategies to use in motivating students to learn.
Brophy, J. (2013). Motivating students to learn. Routledge.
Technology and education: Computers, software, and the internet.
This paper explores the theoretical and empirical literature on the impacts of technology on educational outcomes. The literature focuses on two primary contexts in which technology may be used for educational purposes: i) classroom use in schools, and ii) home use by students.
Bulman, G., & Fairlie, R. W. (2015). Technology and education: Computers, software, and the internet. Working Paper 22237. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w22237.pdf
Online learning and students with disabilities: Parent perspectives.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental challenges.
Burdette, P. J., & Greer, D. L. (2014). Online learning and students with disabilities: Parent perspectives. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(2), 67–88. https://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/13.2.4.pdf
How COVID-19 is shaping tech use. What that means when schools reopen.
Education Week is learning as it surveys educators across the country about the impact school closures have had on their morale, student engagement, technology skills, and many other factors.
Bushweller, K. (2020, June 2). How COVID-19 is shaping tech use. What that means when schools reopen. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/03/how-covid-19-is-shaping-tech-use-what.html
Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?.
The authors discuss the emergence of the evidence-based practice movement and the challenges of integrating what we know from scientific research into daily practice with children and families.
Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?. Zero to Three (J), 27(2), 50-55.
National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. They compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers.
Cantrell, S., Fullerton, J., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (No. w14608). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Teacher's Craft: The 10 Essential Skills of Effective Teaching
This book provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching. College students preparing to teach, new teachers struggling to find their way, and experienced teachers eager to hone their skills will benefit from this set of commonsense principles that, when practiced together, will markedly improve student performance.
Chance, P. (2008). The teacher's craft: The 10 essential skills of effective teaching. Waveland PressInc.
Innovation and American K–12 education
The author reviews the economics literature at the intersection between innovation and K-12 education from two different, but related perspectives.
Chatterji, A. (2018). Innovation and American K–12 education. Working Paper 23531. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w23531.pdf
Blended Learning Definitions
This article briefly describes blending learning definition and models.
Christensen Institute (2020). Blended learning definitions. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/blended-learning-definitions-and-models/
Learning to be learning disabled.
Argues that learning disabled (LD) children in reading, writing, and spelling are inadequately distinguishable from low-achieving children, based on behavioral evidence, achievement batteries, or tests of organic functioning.
Clay, M. M. (1987). Learning to be learning disabled. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies.
Teacher Preparation: Overview
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the methods of teacher preparation, the current state of research on teacher preparation, challenges, trends, questions, and recommendations for those working to prepare teachers for success in the classroom.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Teacher Preparation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-pre-service.
The 4I Model for scaffolding the professional development of experienced teachers in the use of virtual learning environments for classroom teaching.
This paper discusses an adapted-Continuous Practice Improvement model, which qualitative findings indicate was effective in facilitating the transfer of creative and innovative teaching approaches from the expert or Resident Teacher’s school to the novice or Visiting Teachers’ classrooms over the duration of the project.
Cowan, P. (2013). The 4I Model for scaffolding the professional development of experienced teachers in the use of virtual learning environments for classroom teaching. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 13(1), 82–98. https://citejournal.org/volume-13/issue-1-13/current-practice/the-4i-model-for-scaffolding-the-professional-development-of-experienced-teachers-in-the-use-of-virtual-learning-environments-for-classroom-teaching/
A mixed methods study investigating parental involvement and student success in high school online education
This mixed-methods study investigates student achievement in the full-time, online learning environment and the effect parents have on student success.
Curtis, H. (2013). A mixed methods study investigating parental involvement and student success in high school online education [Doctoral dissertation, Northwest Nazarene University]. https://nnu.whdl.org/sites/default/files/Curtis%20Final%20Dissertation.pdf
Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching
The framework for teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction that are grounded in a constructivist view of learning and teaching. The framework defines four levels of performance--Unsatisfactory, Basic, Proficient, and Distinguished--for each element, providing a valuable tool that all teachers can use.
Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. ASCD.
Using technology to support at-risk students’ learning.
Based on a review of more than seventy recent studies, this brief describes these approaches, particularly as they apply to high school students who have been at risk of failing courses and exit examinations or dropping out due to a range of personal factors and academic factors. The brief then outlines policy strategies that could expand the uses of technology for at-risk high school youth.
Darling-Hammond, L., Zielezinski, M. B., & Goldman, S. (2014). Using technology to support at-risk students’ learning. Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education; Alliance for Excellent Education. https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/scope-pub-using-technology-report.pdf
Teacher Learning through Assessment: How Student-Performance Assessments Can Support Teacher Learning
This paper describes how teacher learning through involvement with student-performance assessments has been accomplished in the United States and around the world, particularly in countries that have been recognized for their high-performing educational systems
Fluency Practice: Techniques for Building Automaticity in Foundational Knowledge and Skills
This article discusses the seven components of fluency practice, and describes a number of simple-to-implement strategies available to teachers to improve students' fluency with foundational academic skills. A check list of steps to complete a fluency practice session and a chart for self-monitoring fluency practice sessions are provided.
Datchuk, S. M., & Hier, B. O. (2019). Fluency Practice: Techniques for Building Automaticity in Foundational Knowledge and Skills. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 51(6), 424-435.
Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning
The Handbook of Research on K-12 Online and Blended Learning is an edited collection of chapters that sets out to present the current state of research in K-12 online and blended learning.
Dawson, K., & Dana, N. F. (2018a). Mentoring for online teachers. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 261–272). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not
The purpose of this article is to describe what RTI is and what is not. This article also considers the evidence base for RTI and discusses the implications for practitioners.
Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2009). Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not. JEBPS Vol 9-N2, 60.
Remote Learning Overview
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in school closings for the remainder of the year in 48 of 50 states and a sharp turn toward remote instruction in order to finish the year as best as possible. Understanding best practice in remote instruction and learning will be key as schools look to the future.
2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction
New data and analysis from the National Council on Teacher Quality finds significant progress on the science of reading instruction in teacher preparation.
Drake, G., & Walsh, K. (2020). 2020 teacher prep review: Program performance in early reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from www.nctq.org/publications/2020-Teacher-Prep-Review:-Program-Performance-in-Early-Reading-Instruction
The bases of teacher experiences: A meta-analysis
Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies.
Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology, 75(3), 327.
Class Meetings: A Democratic Approach to Classroom Management
Patterned after family meetings in her own home, teacher Donna Styles established a format for class meetings that enabled her students to share their thoughts and solve classroom issues on their own.
Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments = Classroom Management?
Advice and opinions about classroom arrangements and seating assignments abound -- and Education World explores the possibilities. Included: Tips from Fred Jones on how to get the most out of classroom arrangements.
Microphone-Toting Teachers Grab Students' Attention
Teachers at two elementary schools in Baltimore County, Maryland, find that students jump to attention when the teachers use sound systems in their classrooms. The microphones boost their voices over background noises and help prevent "teacher-voice" strain. Included: Tips on using sound systems in classrooms.
The Secret's in the Little Things: Simple Tips for Successful Teachers
1 quick tip to help make managing your classroom a breeze! Included are tips for getting to know your students, communicating with parents, getting your day off to a good start, and much more!
Harry K. Wong And the Real Meaning Of Classroom Management
Meet Harry K. Wong, the author of The First Days of School: How to Be an Effective Teacher, and learn the secret to your success in the classroom!
A "Nuts and Bolts" Approach To Classroom Successes
A former teacher, Dr. Jane Bluestein turned her pages of tips for teachers about classroom management and organization into a book and then a business. She works with educators seeking new ways to improve their teaching and interactions. Included: Tips for improving student behavior and school climate.
Classroom Management: Principals Help Teachers Develop Essential Skills
From time to time, Education World updates and reposts a previously published article that we think might be of interest to administrators. We hope you find this recently updated article to be of value.
Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips
Hallway conferences. Pasta discipline. Buddy rooms. Bell work. Those and six other ideas for taming temper tantrums—and other classroom disruptions—are the focus of this Education World story! Included: An opportunity for all teachers to share the classroom management techniques that work for them!
Education World. Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr261.shtml
Dr. Ken Shore's Classroom Problem Solver Creativity Flourishes In the Structured Classroom
Teachers of special subjects such as music, art and physical education need to give careful consideration to discipline in their classroom. If you're afraid that structure will stifle creativity, you need to reconsider that notion. Structure and limits are important educational tools that give rise to a climate in which creativity can emerge.
TONS of Tips! -- Five Great 'Teacher Tips' Sites on the Web
Education World introduces you to a few of the best "teacher tips" sites on the Web. In these sites you'll find hundreds of practical tips -- tried and tested tips from teachers willing to share.
Creating A Climate for Learning
How can you avoid making that technique your own and create a "climate for learning"? This week, Education World looks to the experts -- teachers who've "been there, done that" and found a better way -- for answers.
I Found My "Teacher Voice" and Transformed My Classroom
This week, educator Arnold Pulda reflects on how about with cancer precipitated his transition from a "drill sergeant" who barked orders at his students to a quieter, gentler Dr. Pulda. Included: An opportunity to share your most effective classroom management strategies!
Teaching needy kids in our backward system: 42 years of trying
This study designed to discover which models were superior in teaching basic skills and which excelled in teaching higher-order thinking skills, also which models had kids with the strongest sense of personal responsibility and which kids had the highest self-images.
Engelmann, S. (2007). Teaching needy kids in our backward system: 42 years of trying. ADI Press.
Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?
Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction.
Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education, 28(4), 291-329.
The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis
This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.
Fendick, F. (1992). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis.
Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms
Fifth-grade students with and without mild disabilities participated in an eight-week project-based, technology-supported investigation about the 19th century westward expansion in the United States. A narrative framework was used to organize and support students' understanding of the experiences of three emigrant groups.
Ferretti, R. P., MacArthur, C. D., & Okolo, C. M. (2001). Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(1), 59-71.
Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview.
The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study1 (BTES) was to identify teaching activities and classroom conditions that foster student learning in ele-mentary schools. The study focused on instruction in reading and mathematics at grades two and five.
Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. The Journal of classroom interaction, 17(1), 2-15.
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Making Classrooms More Responsive to Diversity
The primary focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a classwide peer
tutoring program in reading for three learner types: low achievers with and without
disabilities and average achievers.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., & Simmons, D. C. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 174-206.
Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences between Low Achievers with and without the Label.
This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.
Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of workgroup size and structure during collaborative work on complex tasks.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Karns, K., Calhoon, M. B., Hamlett, C. L., & Hewlett, S. (2000). Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 183-212.
Enhancing third-grade student' mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies.
The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (L. S. Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing third-grade student'mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. Journal of educational psychology, 95(2), 306.
Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited
Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations. The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.
Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.
Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.
Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.
Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content
to Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities
This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954–1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings.
Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Peterson, A., & Dimino, J. (2006). Eyes on the prize: Teaching history to students with learning disabilities in inclusive settings. Exceptional Children, 72, 264-280.
How technology, coronavirus will change teaching by 2025
In early March, Education Week caught up with them by phone when they were in Paris to speak at an ed-tech conference. We asked them how their 2015 predictions had fared. Then, we talked again in late April, when the coronavirus had suddenly transformed K-12 education into a massive remote learning system.
Gewertz, C. (2020, June 2). How technology, coronavirus will change teaching by 2025. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/03/how-technology-coronavirus-will-change-teaching-by.html
Conditions Under Which Assessment Supports Students’ Learning
This article focuses on the evaluation of assessment arrangements and the way they affect student learning out of class. It is assumed that assessment has an overwhelming influence on what, how and how much students study.
Gibbs, G., & Simpson, C. (2005). Conditions under which assessment supports students’ learning. Learning and teaching in higher education, (1), 3-31.
Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement.
This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction.
Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1(2), 183-201.
Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion
This paper provides students with an opportunity to improve their reading comprehension and text-based discussion skills. The activity, which can be used with intermediate and advanced learners, is ideal for English language learners in content classes and is particularly useful for building foundational knowledge of a new topic.
Giovacchini, M. (2017). Timed Partner Reading and Text Discussion. In English Teaching Forum (Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 36-39). US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037.
When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.
This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.
Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4), 191-210.
The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis
The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement
Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September, 3, 2009.
Exploring the Impact of Student Teaching Apprenticeships on Student Achievement and Mentor Teachers
This paper examines the consequences of having an apprentice teacher for 4-8 graders in the state of Washington.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J. M., & Theobald, R. (2020). Exploring the impact of student teaching apprenticeships on student achievement and mentor teachers. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 1-22.
The Importance and Decision-Making Utility of a Continuum of Fluency-Based Indicators of Foundational Reading Skills for Third-Grade High-Stakes Outcomes
In this article, we examine assessment and accountability in the context of a prevention-oriented assessment and intervention system designed to assess early reading progress formatively.
Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific studies of reading, 5(3), 257-288.
Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom
This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority.
Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37(3), 337.
Blended learning research in higher education and K–12 settings.
This chapter synthesizes and categorizes current blended learning research, with recommendations for future directions. Issues addressed in HE blended learning and K-12 blended learning are identified, compared, and evaluated by reviewing major research on the topic.
Halverson, L. R., Spring, K. J., Huyett, S., Henrie, C., & Graham, C. R. (2017). Blended learning research in higher education and K–12 settings. In J. M. Spector, B. B. Lockee, & M. D. Childress (Eds.), Learning, design, and technology: An international compendium of theory, research, practice, and policy (pp. 1–30). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Hard Words: Why aren’t kids being taught to read?
This report and podcast examines the scientific basis for how to teach reading to children. This investigation reveals how children learn to read, emphasizing the five critical components of reading instruction.
At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers.
For decades, schools have taught children the strategies of struggling readers, using a theory about reading that cognitive scientists have repeatedly debunked. And many teachers and parents don't know there's anything wrong with it.
Hanford, E. (2019). At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers. APM Reports. https://www.apmreports.org/story/2019/08/22/whats-wrong-how-schools-teach-reading
Empowering students through speaking round tables
This paper will explain Round Tables, a practical, engaging alternative to the traditional classroom presentation. Round Tables are small groups of students, with each student given a specific speaking role to perform.
Harms, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Empowering students through speaking round tables. Language Education in Asia, 4(1), 39-59.
Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed.
This paper critically analyzes extant approaches to technology integration in teaching,
arguing that many current methods are technocentric, often omitting sufficient consideration
of the dynamic and complex relationships among content, technology, pedagogy, and
Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393–416.
Parental involvement in K–12 online and blended learning
Research indicates children generally fare better in traditional schools when parents are
involved. However, scant research exists in alternative settings such as blended and online
Hasler Waters, L., Borup, J., & Menchaca, M. P. (2018). Parental involvement in K–12 online and blended learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 403–422). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement
Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.
Visible Learning Insights
Offering a concise introduction into the ‘Visible Learning Story’, the book provides busy teachers with a guide to why the Visible Learning research is so vital and the difference it can make to learning outcomes.
Hattie, J., & Zierer, K. (2019). Visible Learning Insights. Routledge.
A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content.
The purpose of this article is to examine research on the effectiveness of guided notes. Results indicate that using guided notes has a positive effective on student outcomes, as this practice has been shown to improve accuracy of note taking and student test scores.
Haydon, T., Mancil, G. R., Kroeger, S. D., McLeskey, J., & Lin, W. Y. J. (2011). A review of the effectiveness of guided notes for students who struggle learning academic content. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(4), 226-231.
A Comparison of Choral and Individual Responding: A Review of the Literature
This article aimed to review the literature and examine and compare the effects of choral and individual responding. Results indicate a generally positive relationship between using choral responding versus individual responding on student variables such as active student responding, on-task behavior, and correct responses.
Haydon, T., Marsicano, R., & Scott, T. M. (2013). A comparison of choral and individual responding: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(4), 181-188.
Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB
This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Hazi, H. M., & Rucinski, D. A. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. education policy analysis archives, 17, 5.
Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes
This paper briefly discuss some pros and con of lecturing as a teaching method, describe how a strategy called "guided notes" can make lecturing more effective, and offer some specific suggestions for developing and using guided notes.
Heward, W. L. (2004). Want to improve the effectiveness of your lectures? Try guided notes. Talking About Teaching.
Using choral responding to increase active student response.
There are numerous practical strategies for increasing active student response during group instruction. One of these strategies, Choral Responding, is the subject of this article.
Heward, W. L., Courson, F. H., & Narayan, J. S. (1989). Using choral responding to increase active student response. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(3), 72-75.
Higher percentage of eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015.
This Article provide the chart of the percentages of eighth-grade students performing at each of the reading achievement levels in 2017.
Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership and professional development.
This study will discuss a guiding definition for blended learning, benefits, team support, policy, management issues, rationale for expansion, professional development, purchasing, funding, evaluation, and lenses of the future and implications.
Hilliard, A. T. (2015). Global blended learning practices for teaching and learning, leadership and professional development. Journal of International Education Research, 11(3), 179–188. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1070786.pdf
Effects of Two Levels of Procedural Fidelity with Constant Time Delay on Children's Learning
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of constant time delay delivered with high procedural fidelity to constant time delay with high procedural fidelity on all variables except delivery of the controlling prompt
Holcombe, A., Wolery, M., & Snyder, E. (1994). Effects of two levels of procedural fidelity with constant time delay on children's learning. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4(1), 49-73.
Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development
The authors report an investigation of a five-step structured study-group approach to promoting a self-sustaining learning community that supports teachers in developing the ‘habits of mind’ necessary for improving literacy acquisition and development for urban African American students attending a low-performing, high-poverty elementary school.
Hollins, E. R., McIntyre, L. R., DeBose, C., Hollins, K. S., & Towner, A. (2004). Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(2), 247–264.
Variability in reading ability gains as a function of computer-assisted instruction method of presentation
This study examines the effects on early reading skills of three different methods of
presenting material with computer-assisted instruction.
Johnson, E. P., Perry, J., & Shamir, H. (2010). Variability in reading ability gains as a function of computer-assisted instruction method of presentation. Computers and Education, 55(1), 209–217.
Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach
Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.
Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation
This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.
Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing
Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students
The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with several suggestions for creating and using guided notes to enhance other effective teaching methods, support students’ studying, and promote higher order thinking.
Konrad, M., Joseph, L. M., & Itoi, M. (2011). Using guided notes to enhance instruction for all students. Intervention in school and clinic, 46(3), 131-140.
Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement.
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a classroom-based active learning strategy, in which students work on a problem posed by the instructor, first individually, then in pairs, and finally as a classwide discussion. This study investigate the quantity and quality of student engagement in a large CS1 class during the implementation of TPS activities.
Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S., & Iyer, S. (2013, August). Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. In Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research (pp. 137-144). ACM.
Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students.
The authors evaluated the effects of response cards on the disruptive behavior and academic responding of students in two urban fourth-grade classrooms.
Lambert, M. C., Cartledge, G., Heward, W. L., & Lo, Y. Y. (2006). Effects of response cards on disruptive behavior and academic responding during math lessons by fourth-grade urban students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 88-99.
Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read.
Headsprout Early Reading™ is a new engaging, Internet-based reading program that effectively teaches the essential skills and strategies required for rapid reading success.
Layng, T. J., Twyman, J. S., & Stikeleather, G. (2003). Headsprout Early Reading: Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral technology today, 3(7), 20.
Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers.
This report is based on efforts by the National Center for Education Statistics to collect data on teacher preparation and qualifications using a nationally representative survey of full-time public school teachers whose main teaching assignment is in English/language arts, social studies/social sciences, foreign language, mathematics, or science (or who teach a self-contained classroom).
Lewis, L., Parsad, B., Carey, N., Bartfai, N., Farris, E., & Smerdon, B. (1999). Teacher quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers. NCES 1999-080. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999080.pdf
A brief look at the methodologies used in the research on online teaching and learning.
This chapter looks at the research methods used during the first ten years of research on
online teaching and learning
Lowes, S., & Lin, P. (2018). A brief look at the methodologies used in the research on online teaching and learning. In K. Kennedy & R. E. Ferdig (Eds.), Handbook of research on K–12 online and blended learning (2nd ed., pp. 91–110). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, ETC Press. https://www.academia.edu/37013644/Handbook_of_Research_on_K-12_and_Blending_Learning_Second_Editio.pdf
Expectations for students.
The evidence in this paper suggest that schools can improve student learning by encouraging teachers and students to set their sights high.
Lumsden, L. S. (1997). Expectations for students.
Critical Conceptual and Methodological Considerations in Reading Intervention Research
This article identifies a number of conceptual and methodological issues that should be considered when conducting and interpreting reading intervention research.
Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of learning disabilities, 30(6), 578-588.
An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes.
This paper presents an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.
Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 24-33.
Four Classwide Peer Tutoring Models: Similarities, Differences, and Implications for Research and Practice
In this special issue, this Journal introduce a fourth peer teaching model, Classwide Student Tutoring Teams. This journal also provide a comprehensive analysis of common and divergent programmatic components across all four models and discuss the implications of this analysis for researchers and practitioners alike.
Maheady, L., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2006). Four classwide peer tutoring models: Similarities, differences, and implications for research and practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 65-89.
A Collaborative Research Project to improve the Academic Performance of a Diverse Sixth Grade Science Class
Using an alternating treatments design, the authors compared the effects of Response Cards, Numbered Heads Together, and Whole Group Question and Answer on 6th graders daily quiz scores and pretest-posttest performance in chemistry, and examined how each instructional intervention affected teacher questioning and student responding patterns in class.
Maheady, L., Michielli-Pendl, J., Mallette, B., & Harper, G. F. (2002). A collaborative research project to improve the academic performance of a diverse sixth grade science class. Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1), 55-70.
Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance
This study investigates teacher empowerment in schools that have at least four years of experience with some form of decentralized or school-based management.
Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 19(3), 245-275.
Teacher Preparation Programs: Research and Promising Practices
This paper reports evidence-based research and offers suggestions based on studies that include theoretical work, qualitative analysis, statistical analysis, and randomized experience that could provide strong causal evidence of the effects of teacher preparation on student learning.
Should U.S. Students Do More Math Practice and Drilling?
Should U.S. students be doing more math practice and drilling in their classrooms? That’s the suggestion from last week’s most emailed New York Times op-ed. The op-ed’s author argued that more practice and drilling could help narrow math achievement gaps. These gaps occur in the U.S. by the primary grades.
Morgan, P. L. (2018). Should U.S. students do more math practice and drilling? Psychology Today.Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/children-who-struggle/201808/should-us-students-do-more-math-practice-and-drilling
Using Response Cards to Increase Student Participation in an Elementary Classroom.
The use of response cards during large-group social studies instruction was evaluated in a fourthgrade classroom. The experiment consisted of two conditions, hand raising and write-on response cards, alternated in an ABAB design.
Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., & Omness, C. K. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(4), 483-490.
The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey.
In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.
Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 895-934.
Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale.
This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide
variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states.
Pane, J. F., Griffin, B. A., McCaffrey, D. F., & Karam, R. (2014). Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(2), 127–144.
Continued progress: Promising evidence on personalized learning
This report examines achievement in 62 public charter and district schools that are pursuing a variety of personalized learning practices, and examines implementation details in 32 of those schools
Pane, J. F., Steiner, E. D., Baird, M. D., & Hamilton, L. S. (2015). Continued progress: Promising evidence on personalized learning. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1365.html
The Learning Styles Educational Neuromyth: Lack of Agreement Between Teachers’ Judgments, Self-Assessment, and Students’ Intelligence.
This study examined the hypothesis that teachers’ and students’ assessment of preferred LS correspond. The study found no relationship between pupils’ self-assessment and teachers’ assessment. Teachers’ and students’ answers didn’t match up. The study suggests that teachers cannot assess the LS of their students accurately.
Papadatou-Pastou, M., Gritzal, M., & Barrable, A. (2018). The Learning Styles educational neuromyth: Lack of agreement between teachers’ judgments, self-assessment, and students’ intelligence. Frontiers in Education, 3, 1-5. . https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00105
Active Student Response Strategies
a written guide for Active Student Response Strategies.
Pearce, A. R. (2011). Active student response strategies. CDE Facilities Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/facilityschools/download/pdf/edmeetings_04apr2011_asrstrategies.pdf
Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis
This research synthesis examines randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental research on the mathematics achievement outcomes for elementary school programs. The best outcomes were found for tutoring programs. The findings suggest that programs emphasizing personalization, engagement, and motivation are most impactful in elementary mathematics instruction.
Pellegrini, M., Lake, C., Inns, A, & , Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Best Evidence Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.bestevidence.org/word/elem_math_Oct_8_2018.pdf
Helping students help themselves: Generative learning strategies improve middle school students’ self-regulation in a cognitive tutor
The current study investigated whether prompting students to engage in generative learning strategies improves students' subsequent judgments of learning and self-regulation. Seventy- eight middle school students in a pre-algebra class completed worksheets in between problem-solving sessions in a computer-based cognitive tutor.
Pilegard, C., & Fiorella, L. (2016). Helping students help themselves: Generative learning strategies improve middle school students’ self-regulation in a cognitive tutor. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 121–126.
Leveled Reading: The Making of a Literacy Myth
This article discuss about common core, leveled reading in student learning.
Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education from 2008–2015
This paper discusses definitions of blended learning and explores ways in which blended learning is being developed by a number of schools
Powell, A., Watson, J., Staley, P., Patrick, S., Horn, M., Fetzer, L.,…Verma, S. (2015). Blended learning: The evolution of online and face-to-face education from 2008–2015. http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/iNACOL_Blended-Learning-The-Evolution-of-Online-And-Face-to-Face-Education-from-2008-2015.pdf
Teachers matter: Understanding teachers’ impact on student achievement,
Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective than others. It also reveals that being taught by an effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement. The best way to assess a teacher's effectiveness is to look at his or her on-the-job performance.
RAND Education. (2012).Teachers matter: Understanding teachers’ impact on student achievement, Santa Monica, Calif.: Author. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/CP693z1-2012-09.html
Cloze Procedure and the Teaching of Reading
The terms cloze procedure and cohesion are associated with reading development. Specifically, doze applies to the testing and teaching of reading while cohesion applies to a description of how the way in which reading material is written can affect reading development.
Raymond, P. (1988). Cloze procedure in the teaching of reading. TESL Canada Journal, 6(1), 91–97.
Competencies and personalized learning
This chapter elaborates on a definition of personalized learning, delineates aspects of competency inherent in the definition, traces the evolution of personalized learning, and explores the complementarity of the personal and the interpersonal in personalized education.
Redding, S. (2016). Competencies and personalized learning. In M. Murphy, S. Redding, & J. Twyman (Eds.), Handbook on personalized learning for states, districts, and schools (pp. 3–18). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University, Center on Innovations in Learning. http://www.centeril.org/2016handbook/resources/Redding_chapter_web.pdf
Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?
This article discuss how "Micro-Credentialing" offer an opportunity to shift away from credit-hour and continuing-education requirements that dominate the PD apparatus in most states, toward a system based on evidence of progress in specific instructional skills.
A meta- analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States
This is a meta-analysis of research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement.
Schroeder, C. M., Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Lee, Y. H. (2007). A meta?analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(10), 1436-1460.
Teacher-centered instruction: The Rodney Dangerfield of social studies.
Teacher-centered instruction implies a high degree of teacher direction and a focus of students on academic tasks. And it vividly contrasts with student-centered or constructivist approaches in establishing a leadership role for the teacher
Schug, M. C. (2003). Teacher-centereed instruction. Where did social studies go wrong, 94-110.
Cooperative teaching project: A model for students at risk
This article describes an innovative teaching model designed to impact students at risk with the cooperative efforts of regular and special education in Grades K-3.
Self, H., Benning, A., Marston, D., & Magnusson, D. (1991). Cooperative teaching project: A model for students at risk. Exceptional Children, 58(1), 26-34.
How Personalized Learning Can Support Equity and Excellence
In our day-to-day roles as a school system leader and the CEO of the nonprofit curriculum publisher Zearn, we focus on the moments of learning that occur between students and teachers—and on how personalized learning can make those moments richer and more frequent.
Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting.
The purpose of this article was to describe the developmental effects of one elementary physical education teacher's proactive teaching of prosocial behavior. An ABA (B) design coupled with a control group comparison across six matched urban physical education classes was used to assess the teaching strategy.
Sharpe, T., Crider, K., Vyhlidal, T., & Brown, M. (1996). Description and effects of prosocial instruction in an elementary physical education setting. Education & Treatment of Children, 19(4), 435.
Training in Evidence-Based Interventions (EBIs): What are school psychology programs teaching?
This study examined the degree to which school psychology programs provided training in Evidence-Based Interventions (EBIs), examined the contextual factors that interfere with EBI training, and whether students are taught to apply the criteria developed by Divisions 12, 16, and 53 of the APA when evaluating outcome research.
Shernoff, E. S., Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2003). Training in Evidence-Based Interventions (EBIs): What are school psychology programs teaching?. Journal of School Psychology, 41(6), 467-483.
Using the think-pair-share technique.
In this strategy guide, you will learn how to organize students and classroom topics to encourage a high degree of classroom participation and assist students in developing a conceptual understanding of a topic through the use of the Think-Pair-Share technique.
Simon, C. A. (2019). National Council of Teachers of English. Using the think-pair-share technique. Retrieved from http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/using-think-pair-share-30626.html
High-Quality Education Research.
This study highlights the progress made over the past 30 years in delivering the evidence that education practitioners need to make informed decisions. His conclusions are based on three studies: Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis; A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students; and Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. The research found that the number of rigorous randomized or quasi-experimental studies in elementary reading for struggling readers, secondary reading, and elementary math rose significantly over the past 20 years.
Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/
Baye, A., Inns, A., Lake, C., & Slavin, R. E. (2018). A synthesis of quantitative research on reading programs for secondary students. Reading Research Quarterly.
Inns, A., Lake, C., Pellegrini, M., & Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC.
Pellegrini, M., Inns, A., & Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC.
A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers.
In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior.
Smart, J. B., & Igo, L. B. (2010). A grounded theory of behavior management strategy selection, implementation, and perceived effectiveness reported by first-year elementary teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 567-584.
Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom.
In this book the author describes six teaching myths that prevent reform in education.
Snider, V. (2006). Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706.
Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Several barriers can impede critical thinking instruction. However, actively engaging students in project-based or collaborative activities can encourage students’ critical thinking development if instructors model the thinking process, use effective questioning techniques, and guide students’ critical thinking processes.
Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. The Journal of Research in Business Education, 50(2), 90.
Blended learning research yields limited results.
Blended learning is gaining considerable popularity in American classrooms, but the question remains: Is there strong evidence that the strategy helps K-12 students?
Sparks, S. (2015, April 13). Blended learning research yields limited results. Education Week.https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/04/15/blended-learning-research-yields-limited-results.html
Which blended model should K–12 schools choose?
Which blended-learning model should they choose? Are Station Rotations the ideal, or Flex studios? Is Carpe Diem’s Individual Rotation the gold standard, FirstLine’s Lab Rotation, Summit’s Flex model, or Woodland Park’s Flipped Classroom?
Staker, H. (2014, January 10). Which blended model should K–12 schools choose? Christensen Institute. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/which-blended-model-should-schools-choose/
Why Education Practices Fail?
This paper examines a range of education failures: common mistakes in how new practices are selected, implemented, and monitored. The goal is not a comprehensive listing of all education failures but rather to provide education stakeholders with an understanding of the importance of vigilance when implementing new practices.
States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2020). Why Practices Fail. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/roadmap-overview
This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships
Effective Teachers Make a Difference
This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
The Effect of Team-Based Learning on Content Knowledge: A Meta-Analysis
This meta-analysis examines the impact of team-based learning strategies on achievement and student engagement. The study finds that team-based strategies were found to have a positive impact on grades, test performance, and engagement.
Swanson, E., McCulley, L. V., Osman, D. J., Scammacca Lewis, N., & Solis, M. (2017). The effect of team-based learning on content knowledge: A meta-analysis. Active Learning in Higher Education, 1469787417731201.
What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study
This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison.
Tamim, R., Bernard, R., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P., & Schmid, R. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4–28. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f8fa/160a2552568e102b0cac11ad0a48fc635b0e.pdf?_ga=2.248632325.343379521.1591299854-1379934943.1547574243
Classroom assessment: Supporting teaching and learning in real classrooms
The second edition of this exceptionally lucid and practical assessment text provides a wealth of powerful concrete examples that help students to understand assessment concepts and to effectively use assessment to support learning.
Taylor, C. S., & Nolen, S. B. (2005). Classroom assessment: Supporting teaching and learning in real classrooms (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management.
This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning.
Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..
Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning.
This article reports the findings of two meta-analyses that explored the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Combined, the results suggest that teacher clarity has a larger effect for student affective learning than for cognitive learning. However, neither the effects for cognitive learning nor affective learning were homogeneous.
Titsworth, S., Mazer, J. P., Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Communication Education, 64(4), 385-418.
Reconcilable differences: Standards-based teaching and differentiation.
Standards-based instruction and differentiated learning can be compatible approaches in today's classrooms.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Reconcilable differences: Standards-based teaching and differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6–11. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ614602
Virtual schools: The changing landscape of K–12 education in the U.S.
This paper examines some of the challenges and strengths of virtual schools, it offers questions to consider when deciding whether or not a virtual school option would be ideal, and it draws conclusions, which provide an outlook for the future of virtual schools in k-12 education.
Toppin, I. N., & Toppin, S. M. (2016). Virtual schools: The changing landscape of K–12 education in the U.S. Education and Information Technologies, 21(6), 1571–1581.
Tutor Trust: Affordable Primary Tuition: Evaluation report and executive summary November 2018
The purpose of this study is the examination of low-cost interventions to improve the performance of disadvantaged students. The intervention was designed to improve the performance of students by providing small-group tutoring sessions. The research found that children who received tutoring progressed more in math compared to children in control schools (effect size = +0.19).
Torgerson, C. J., Bell, K., Coleman, E., Elliott, L., Fairhurst, C., Gascoine, L., Hewitt, C. E., & Torgerson, D. J. (2018). Tutor Trust: Affordable Primary Tuition. The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF).
Individual Differences in Response to Early Interventions in Reading: The Lingering Problem of Treatment Resisters
Five recent studies of methods to prevent reading difficulties were examined in light of the goal that every child should acquire adequate word reading skills during early elementary school.
Torgesen, J. K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15(1), 55-64.
Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction
This experiment evaluated the effects of requiring overt answer construction in computer-based programmed instruction using an alternating treatments design.
Tudor, R. M. (1995). Isolating the effects of active responding in computer‐based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 343-344.
Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching.
In this book, we’ll briefly explore why we’re still only in the early stages of the educational technology revolution. Then we’ll look at how some innovative schools and other organizations are pioneering new methods of personalized learning built on new technology
Vanderkam, L. (2013). Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching. Washington, DC: Philanthropy Roundtable. https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/docs/default-source/guidebook-files/blended_learning_guidebook.pdf?sfvrsn=afaba740_0
A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning
After an overview of the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs), this manuscript presents a review of 10 American studies and one English study on the impact of PLCs on teaching practices and student learning.
Early Implementation Findings From a Study of Teacher and Principal performance Measurement and Feedback: Year 1 Report
The purpose of this study is to describe teachers’ and principals’ experiences with the study’s performance measures and feedback over two years, and to examine whether the information provided by the measures and feedback affected educator and student outcomes.
Wayne, A. J., Garet, M. S., Brown, S., Rickles, J., Song, M., Manzeske, D., & Ali, M. (2016). Early implementation findings from a study of teacher and principal performance measurement and feedback: year 1 report. Technical report, American Institutes of Research, Washington, DC.
The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies
This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems.
Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders, 19(1), 79.
Measuring the impact of a blended learning model on early literacy growth.
In the context of trying to improve reading proficiency in elementary school students, this study investigated the use of digital technology as part of a blended learning program, Core5, in kindergarten and first grade classes.
Wilkes, S., Kazakoff, E. R., Prescott, J. E., Bundschuh, K., Hook, P. E., Wolf, R.,… Macaruso, P. (2020). Measuring the impact of a blended learning model on early literacy growth. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Advance online publication. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcal.12429
How to teach critical thinking.
This paper considers what the research can tell us about how critical thinking is acquired, and the implications for how education might best develop young people’s critical thinking capabilities.
Willingham, D. (2019). How to teach critical thinking. New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education.
The Current Controversy About Teaching Reading: Comments for Those Left with Questions After Reading the New York Times Article.
This Op-Ed commentary by Daniel Willingham discusses the current knowledge base on effective reading instruction in the context of a recent New York Times article on the topic.
Practice makes perfect—but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection.
On the one hand, it seems obvious that practice is important. After all, "practice makes perfect." On the other hand, it seems just as obvious that practicing the same material again and again would be boring for students. How much practice is the right amount?
Willingham, D. T. (2004). Ask the Cognitive Scientist Practice Makes Perfect, But Only If You Practice Beyond the Point of Perfection. American Educator, 28(1), 31-33.
Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation: Results from PISA 2000
This report examines students’ sense of belonging and participation at school, two of the most important measures of student engagement.
Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation. Results from PISA 2000. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.
Help your students understand the perspectives of other people with these tried-and-tested methods.
Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2017). 4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-proven-strategies-teaching-empathy-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers
Instructional Time Trends
In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation in school start dates, and trends in school day and year length.
Woods, J. R. (2015). Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends. Education Commission of the States.
The Effect of Teaching “Learning Strategies” on Academic Achievement:
A Meta-Analysis Study*
This study employed a meta-analysis method to combine the results of experimental studies on the effect of teaching learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. This study indicated that the learning strategies had 26.8% positive effect on students’ academic achievement.
YILDIRIM, I., CIRAK-KURT, S., & SEN, S. (2019). The Effect of Teaching” Learning Strategies” on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), (79).
Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evidence
This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.
Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education
Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview.
This overview presents a general definition of self-regulated academic learning and identifies the distinctive features of this capability for acquiring knowledge and skill.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3–17.
Do high grading standards affect student performance?
This paper explores the effects of high grading standards on student test performance in elementary school.
Figlio, D. N., & Lucas, M. E. (2004). Do high grading standards affect student performance?. Journal of Public Economics, 88(9), 1815-1834.
Student Teaching in the United States
This study is a comprehensive review of the student teaching experience. The review looks at 134 higher education institutions offering an undergraduate student teaching program to elementary teacher candidates.
Greenberg, J., Pomerance, L., & Walsh, K. (2011). Student Teaching in the United States. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Student-teacher contracting with goal setting for maintenance
This study evaluates the use of student goal setting as a strategy for maintaining the effects of student-teacher contracting on academic productivity.
Kelley, M. L., & Stokes, T. F. (1984). Student-teacher contracting with goal setting for maintenance. Behavior modification, 8(2), 223-244.
Laboratory Experiences in Teacher Education: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research.
The study is a meta-analysis of the relative and comparative effects of several common forms of on-campus clinical experience in teacher education.
Metcalf, K. K. (1995). Laboratory Experiences in Teacher Education: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research.
Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2011 annual report, Education at a Glance, highlights the importance of education and a person’s ability to find a job and earn a good living.
OECD (2011), Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing.http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2011-en
Professional experience as a wicked problem in initial teacher education
This paper outlines what is at stake in the framing of the problem of professional experience and how constructions of the problem make it difficult to find enduring solutions.
Southgate, E., Reynolds, R., & Howley, P. (2013). Professional experience as a wicked problem in initial teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 31, 13-22.