Education Drivers

Teacher Retention

Teacher turnover has been a persistent challenge; while the national rate has hovered at 16% in recent decades, more teachers are leaving the profession, contributing to teacher shortages in hard-to-staff subjects and schools. Higher attrition rates coupled with disproportionate teacher movement away from schools in economically disadvantaged communities has resulted in inequitable distributions of high-quality teachers across schools. Teacher turnover is quite costly, and primarily has negative consequences for school operations, staff collegiality, and student learning. Turnover rates are highest among minority teachers working in high-need schools, beginning teachers, and those who are alternatively certified; higher rates are also found for those teaching math, science, and English as a foreign language, and for special education teachers. Teachers are less likely to be retained in schools with poor working conditions, particularly those led by principals perceived to be less effective, and in schools where they are paid less. Teacher retention may be improved with combinations of targeted financial incentives and improved working conditions (e.g., better principal preparation), and through better supports for early career teachers through effective induction and mentoring programs. Linking financial incentives with enhanced leadership opportunities and career paths also offer potential for retaining effective teachers in classrooms where they are most needed.

Teacher Retention Overview

Teacher Retention PDF

Donley, J., Detrich, R, Keyworth, R., & States, J. (2019). Teacher Retention. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-retention

Research has consistently demonstrated that classroom teachers have the strongest influence on students’ educational outcomes (Coleman et al., 1966; Hanushek & Rivken, 2006), including both short- and long-term academic (Chetty, Freidman, & Rockoff, 2014; Lee, 2018) and noncognitive outcomes such as motivation, self-efficacy, etc. (Jackson, 2018). Research also suggests that economically disadvantaged students are more likely than their advantaged peers to have less experienced and lower quality teachers (Clotfelter, Ladd, Vigdor, & Wheeler, 2006; Goldhaber, Lavery, & Theobald, 2015; Goldhaber, Quince, & Theobald, 2018; Kalogrides & Loeb, 2013). Issues with teacher attrition, recruitment problems, and fewer students choosing a teaching career have resulted in a short supply of qualified teachers in certain locations (e.g., high-poverty urban and rural communities), in particular subject areas (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and math [STEM] courses) and among certain student groups (e.g. special education students) (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond, & Carver-Thomas, 2019). These issues have led to the inequitable distribution of high-quality teachers and poor outcomes for the students most in need of consistent high-quality instruction (Goldhaber, Gross, & Player, 2010; Goldhaber, et al., 2015; Goldhaber, Gross, & Player, 2010; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivken, 2004).

Keeping effective teachers in classrooms is, therefore, of great importance to ensure positive and equitable student outcomes. This research overview documents recent U.S. teacher shortages and retention data, reviews the factors that predict the likelihood of teachers staying in the classroom, and discusses the research support for addressing relevant issues and interventions that seek to improve teacher retention.

 

The Problem of Teacher Shortages

While teacher shortages have been the subject of recent media reports in nearly every U.S. state, the issue is not new and has been documented throughout the country’s history (Behrstock-Sherratt, 2016). For example, reports of shortages of math and science teachers first surfaced in the 1950s, and severe shortages of special education teachers have been documented since the 1960s (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010; U.S. Department of Postsecondary Education, 2017). While current teacher shortages are not occurring nationwide and, in fact, the teaching force overall has ballooned (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, & Collins, 2018) with only half of education graduates hired in a given year (Cowan, Goldhaber, Hayes, & Theobald, 2016), significant shortages of certified teachers in certain subject areas such as STEM and in many districts, especially rural and disadvantaged urban ones, exist across the country.

These shortages are projected to continue and even worsen in the future as demand increases and supply decreases (Sutcher et al., 2019). Expected increases in public school enrollment, teacher retirements, and preretirement attrition, together with reductions in student-teacher ratios and new teachers entering the profession, will likely create the demand for additional teachers (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Hussar & Bailey, 2014; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Sutcher et al., 2019). Several factors influence teacher supply, including the varying ability of labor markets across the country to attract teachers (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005), offer salary and wage competitiveness (Adamson & Darling-Hammond, 2012; Baker, Farrie, & Sciarra, 2016), and provide positive teacher working conditions that lower attrition rates (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Kraft, Marinell, & Yee, 2016; Ladd, 2011).

In a comprehensive review and analysis of available supply and demand data, Sutcher et al. (2019) attributed the source of shortages to four factors: 1) decline in enrollment in teacher preparation programs (Dee & Goldhaber, 2017); (2) efforts to increase K–12 course offerings back to levels seen prior to the Great Recession (2007–2009), when substantial numbers of teachers were laid off ; (3) increases in student enrollment; and, (4) continuing high rates of teacher attrition. Sutcher et al. (2019) and others (e.g., Cowan, Goldhaber, Hayes, et al., 2016; Goldhaber, Krieg, Theobald, & Brown, 2015; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Ingersoll & May, 2012; Ingersoll & Perda, 2010) argue that teacher turnover is a highly significant factor in the staffing shortages that plague many schools and districts throughout the country. Fully understanding the problem of teacher turnover and its consequences is the focus of the following section of this report.

 

Understanding the Importance of Teacher Retention

The Problem of Teacher Turnover and Attrition.Teacher turnover, defined as “change in teachers from one year to the next in a particular school setting” (Sorenson & Ladd, 2018, p. 1), has been a persistent problem often described as a revolving door in the teaching profession (Ingersoll, 2003). Teacher turnover includes teachers who move to a different school (“movers”) and those who either leave the profession to retire or leave voluntarily prior to retirement (“leavers”) (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019). Movers and leavers together represent the degree of “churn” in the teacher workforce (Atteberry, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2017; Ingersoll et al., 2018), while leavers considered separately represent the rate of attrition in the workforce. Rates of churn vary greatly across states, districts, and schools, and across subject areas and student populations (Redding & Henry, 2018). Figure 1 shows that teacher turnover rates in the United States have hovered around 16% over the last 10 years; this percentage includes both movers (8%) and leavers (8%) (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014). When broken out by school classification, rates of turnover were higher at charter schools (10.2% movers, 8.2% leavers), than at traditional public schools (8.0% movers, 7.7% leavers) (Goldring et al., 2014); these findings are consistent with other research showing higher charter school turnover rates (Gross & DeArmond, 2010; Stuit & Smith, 2010).

 

Adapted from U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics report “Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2012–13 Teacher Follow-up Survey” (Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, 2014).

 

Figure 1. Percentage of public school teacher movers and leavers, 1988–1989 through 2012–2013

 

Figure 1 shows that while the percentage of movers has remained fairly consistent across 25 years of the study, the percentage of leavers increased substantially during this time period, suggesting increasing problems with attrition. In fact, an additional analysis of the sources of turnover from 2011–2012 to 2012–2013, using the most recent data available, found that of teachers who left, 14% left involuntarily (due in part to higher layoff rates caused by the Great Recession), 18% retired, 37% voluntarily moved to another school, and 30% were voluntary preretirement leavers; therefore, voluntary preretirement turnover represented two thirds of the turnover rate during these years (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019). Research shows that the movement of teachers out of schools was not equally distributed across states, regions, and districts (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) found higher rates in the South, in Title I schools (particularly in math and science, and for alternatively certified teachers), in schools serving higher numbers of students of color, and among teachers of color working in schools with higher turnover rates. The rates of turnover have been highest in economically disadvantaged and high-minority urban (Papay, Bacher-Hicks, Page, & Marnell, 2017) and rural schools (Sutton, Bausmith, O’Connor, Pae, & Payne, 2014), and the rates of mobility (movers) have often reflected an annual disproportionate shuffling from more to less disadvantaged schools, from high- to low-minority schools, and from urban to suburban schools (Ingersoll & May, 2012). While attrition due to retirement is predictable and has increased as the teacher workforce ages (Ingersoll et al., 2018), the relatively high preretirement attrition rate is a cause for concern. Attrition rates that have persistently hovered around 8% over the past 10 years in the United States compare unfavorably with those in high-performing countries such as Finland and Singapore, which typically average rates between 3% and 4% (Loeb, Darling-Hammond, & Luczak, 2005; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017).

While most research has focused attention on end-of-year teacher turnover, some studies have addressed teacher turnover duringthe school year (Redding & Henry, 2018, 2019). An analysis of turnover data in North Carolina showed that an average of 4.64% of teachers turned over during the school year, accounting for one quarter of the total turnover volume (Redding & Henry, 2018). Within-year turnover contributes to the workforce churn generated by end-of-year turnover and to the negative outcomes discussed later in this overview.

 

The Consequences of Failing to Retain Teachers.Teacher shortages are often a consequence of high attrition rates, as noted earlier; these shortages in turn commonly lead to inequitable distributions of quality teachers across schools and, not surprisingly, inequitable student outcomes, also as noted earlier. For example, many studies show that districts with more disadvantaged students have higher teacher attrition rates, translating into the need to hire additional teachers each year and a considerable degree of churn in the workforce (e.g., Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldhaber et al. 2010; Hanushek et al., 2004). High turnover in these schools often translates into fewer qualified and experienced teachers, placing students at a great learning disadvantage (Kini & Podolsky, 2016).

When teachers leave a school, they take along their knowledge and expertise in instructional strategies, collaborative relationships with colleagues, professional development training, and understanding of students’ learning needs at the school. High rates of teacher turnover and attrition disrupt the continuity of students’ learning experiences, staff collegiality and cohesion, and school operations and organizational cultures (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppescu, & Easton, 2010; Ingersoll, 2001; Simon & Johnson, 2015). High turnover rates can serve as a barrier to the teacher collaboration that is essential for instructional improvement (Guin, 2004). Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff (2013) found that teacher turnover in New York City elementary schools reduced standardized test performance for students whose teachers left as well as students whose teachers remained at the school. Hanushek, Rivkin, & Schiman (2016) similarly found reduced student achievement as a result of teacher turnover in low-achieving but not higher achieving schools. Turnover that occurs withinthe school year has recently been shown to be of particular concern for the disruption of student learning, accounting for approximately one quarter of all turnover (Redding & Henry, 2018). This type of turnover can result in classroom disruption, staff instability, and changes to teacher quality, all of which can combine to negatively impact student learning and achievement (Henry & Redding, in press). Within-year turnover has been shown to produce lower levels of elementary and middle school student achievement in reading and math, particularly when it occurs after the first semester and closer to the end of the school year (Henry & Redding, in press). Schools with higher proportions of minority and economically disadvantaged students are more likely to experience within-year turnover (Redding & Henry, 2018), making a collaborative work environment difficult and resulting in insufficient resources to mentor the large numbers of new teachers who enter during the school year (Simon & Johnson, 2015).

The research literature on the impact of turnover on teacher quality is mixed, with studies that used value-added measures of teacher effectiveness finding that teachers who exited were less able than those who stayed (e.g., Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, Ronfeldt, & Wyckoff, 2010; Hanushek & Rivken, 2007), suggesting that workforce composition in some cases may improve as a result of turnover. Feng and Sass (2017) found that top quartile and bottom quartile teachers (based on value-added teacher effectiveness data) left their schools at higher rates than teachers rated average, and that the likelihood of teachers moving to other district schools decreased as the share of experienced and highly qualified teachers increased within a school. Therefore, it is equally important to understand the quality of teachers who replace those who leave (Hanushek et al., 2016). In studying the long-term impacts of teacher turnover on the composition of teachers in North Carolina middle schools, Sorensen and Ladd (2018) found that turnover from the 1990s to 2016 increased a school’s portion of teachers lacking full licensure and teachers with fewer years of experience, with the strongest effects found for economically disadvantaged schools. Such schools frequently have difficulty recruiting high-quality teachers (Dee & Goldhaber, 2017), and improvements to retention will likely require improved recruiting tools and practices (Wronowski, 2018).

Teacher turnover is also quite costly, with more than $7 billion spent annually on separation, recruitment, hiring, and induction and training that otherwise could be used for academic programs and services (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014; Barnes, Crowe, & Schaefer, 2007; Darling-Hammond & Sykes, 2003; Sorenson & Ladd, 2018). Teacher replacement costs range from $9,000 per teacher in rural districts to more than $20,000 per teacher in urban districts (Barnes et al., 2007). One study found that district costs per year for teacher turnover ranged from $3.2 million to $5.6 million, with the higher costs in urban districts that frequently have higher turnover rates (Synar & Maiden, 2012). Not easily calculated are the costs resulting from a loss in productivity when a more experienced teacher is replaced by a less experienced or less qualified one (Watlington, Shockley, Guglielmino, & Felsher, 2010).

It is important to note that, in some cases, teacher turnover may result in benefits for students, schools, and districts. For example, some within-year turnover is due to supportive parental and medical leave policies that make it possible for teachers to temporarily exit for family considerations and return to the school, thus defraying the costs of recruiting new teachers (Papay et al., 2017). As noted earlier, it is also possible that teacher exits due to extremely poor performance can benefit the composition of the teaching workforce and student learning, if low-performing teachers are replaced with more effective ones. In a study of the District of Columbia Public School (DCPS) system, Adnot, Dee, Katz, and Wyckoff (2017) found that using a teacher evaluation and compensation system that moved ineffective teachers out of schools and provided financial and nonfinancial rewards to highly effective teachers who remained was beneficial both to the overall effectiveness of the teaching workforce and to student achievement. Cullen, Koedel, & Parsons (2016) found that a teacher evaluation system increased the exit rate for low-performing teachers, but the changes to workforce composition were not large enough to improve student achievement, a finding the authors attributed in part to the lack of a financial reward system for high-performing teachers like the one used in the DCPS system.

While some positive benefits to teacher turnover have been identified, in general the failure to retain teachers has a negative impact on students and schools. Understanding the factors that influence teacher retention can illuminate potential strategies for enhancing the likelihood that effective teachers remain in their classrooms.

 

Factors Related to Teacher Turnover and Retention

Research has documented a number of factors that are related to teachers’ decisions to leave or remain in their schools. Certain demographic characteristics, level of teaching experience, qualifications, and teaching area can predict the likelihood of turnover. In addition, school contextual factors and teacher working conditions influence teachers’ decisions to remain in their schools. A discussion of important predictors of teacher retention follows.

 

Teacher Characteristics and Qualifications.The exit of teachers from schools is not uniformly spread across different teacher characteristics and qualifications. While women represent the majority of teachers, particularly at the elementary level (Ingersoll et al., 2018), they are also more likely to leave teaching than men due to a variety of factors such as childbearing and better opportunities in other workforce sectors (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014).

While significantly more ethnic/racial minority teachers have entered the workforce in recent years due in part to minority recruitment programs, just 20% of teachers are minorities compared with more than half of the student population (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of the increase in minority teachers has occurred in high-poverty, hard-to-staff schools (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017); however, the turnover rate among minority teachers has also increased by 45% in recent years (Ingersoll, May, & Collins, 2017) and exceeds that of white teachers (Goldring et al., 2014).  Research by Ingersoll and colleagues (2017) found larger gaps between minority and white teacher movers than leavers, and the data suggested that the difficult working conditions in many hard-to-staff schools were responsible for the higher rates of minority teacher turnover.  Minority teacher turnover in these schools may be particularly problematic given research that suggests positive academic and behavioral benefits for minority students assigned to teachers of the same ethnicity (Redding, 2019).

Research shows that beginning teachers have the highest turnover rate of any teacher group (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll, 2003; Papay et al., 2017), with recent national data showing that more than 44% of new teachers exit within 5 years (Ingersoll et al., 2014; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Raue & Gray, 2015). Papay and colleagues (2017) reported even higher turnover rates in a study on urban schools, with early career attrition rates ranging from 46% to 71% depending on the district. Nationally, nearly two thirds of the turnover among beginning teachers occurs within the first 3 years of teaching (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of this turnover is voluntary (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017) and includes moving to a different school, leaving teaching temporarily, or leaving the profession permanently. When asked for their reasons for exit, roughly one third of first-year teachers indicated their exit was due to involuntary staffing changes, 40% indicated that family or personal issues were important, 32% left to pursue another job or career, and 44% left due to dissatisfaction with their position (respondents could report more than one reason for their exit) (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Involuntary transfer or dismissal has frequently targeted early-career teachers, with personnel decisions focused on “last in, first out” policies to determine which teachers to discharge (Kraft, 2015).

Working conditions likely explain a large portion of turnover for all teachers, but particularly for beginning teachers, who are adjusting to the profession and their school context (Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Simon & Johnson, 2015). Some evidence suggests that quality mentoring and induction programs can provide supportive structures for new teachers that increase their chances of being retained (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Raue & Gray, 2015). Unfortunately, research shows that many teachers in high-poverty schools do not have mentors, and even those who do have them are less likely to report meaningful interactions about their instruction, partially because their mentors often teach different grades or subjects, or do not teach at the same school (Donaldson & Johnson, 2010).

A teacher’s qualifications and entry pathway into the profession also predict the likelihood of turnover. The percentage of teachers entering the profession from outside traditional, in-state university teacher preparation programs nearly doubled from 1999–2000 (13%) to 2011–2012 (25%) (Redding & Smith, 2016), in large part due to staffing shortages in hard-to-staff subjects and schools (Redding & Henry, 2019). Research shows that, even after controlling for factors that predict high turnover, alternatively certified teachers are still more likely than traditionally prepared teachers to exit the profession (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Boyd et al., 2012; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Redding & Smith, 2016). Alternatively certified teachers are more likely to work in urban schools in disadvantaged communities, where working conditions are often less than optimal (Cohen-Vogle & Smith, 2007), with less preparation and support than for traditionally certified teachers (Redding & Smith, 2016). Combining teaching and coursework for certification likely is overwhelming and contributes to the difficult professional situation for these teachers (Redding & Henry, 2019). Some evidence also suggests higher turnover rates for teachers prepared in out-of-state as compared with in-state preparation programs (Bastian & Henry, 2015).

 

Teaching Area.Results from analyses of teacher attrition and mobility suggest that elementary and humanities teachers have among the lowest turnover rates, and teachers of math, science, special education, and English for foreign language speakers have significantly higher rates (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). Math and science teachers are significantly more likely to leave high-minority, high-poverty, and Title I schools than their counterparts teaching math and science in other types of schools (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Ingersoll & May, 2012). As many as 30% of math and science teachers in schools with large numbers of students of color are alternatively certified, compared with just 12% of those in schools with mostly White students (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). This is concerning as many alternative certification pathways lack important coursework and student teaching experiences, which can stymie beginning teachers’ performance and ultimately lead to higher turnover rates (Redding & Henry, 2019). Relatively high turnover rates among math and science teachers in high-need schools contribute to shortages in these schools in both urban and rural areas (Goldhaber, Krieg et al., 2015; Player, 2015).

Teacher shortages in special education represent the largest shortages in 48 of the 50 states (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond, & Carver-Thomas, 2016). They are due to insufficient numbers of special education teachers being prepared and to high numbers leaving their positions. Special education teachers have higher average turnover rates than general education teachers, particularly during the early career years (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017; Vittek, 2015). While no differences in turnover have been found for special education teachers in Title I versus non-Title I schools, rates are considerably higher in high-minority than low-minority schools (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019). Special education teachers are likely to face difficult working conditions, such as excessive paperwork, lack of collaboration with colleagues, lack of appropriate induction/mentoring, and lack of administrative support, all of which increase the likelihood that these teachers will transfer to a general education position or leave teaching entirely (Boe, Cook, & Sunderland, 2008; McLesky, Tyler, & Flippin, 2004; Vittek, 2015). Recent research by Gilmour and Wehby (in press) has also found that as the proportion of students with disabilities increases in the classrooms of general education teachers, the likelihood of turnover increases; teaching students with emotional/behavioral disabilities is related to increased turnover rates of not just special education teachers but also general education teachers.

 

Reasons for Teacher Turnover.Ascertaining the reasons for teacher turnover provides important information for understanding the relevant factors in teachers’ decisions to leave. Recent data illustrate the factors that teachers report as very important in their decision to leave the teaching profession (Figure 2) or to move to a different school (Figure 3) (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017).

 

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond (2017). Figure displays percentages of teachers reporting each factor as important; teachers were able to select more than one reason, so percentages do not total 100.

 

Figure 2. Factors important in teachers leaving the profession

  

 

Adapted from Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond (2017). Figure displays percentages of teachers reporting each factor as important; teachers were able to select more than one reason, so percentages do not total 100.

 

Figure 3. Factors important in teachers moving to another school

 

Dissatisfaction was most frequently cited by both movers and leavers as important in their decision to leave. Leavers most frequently cited testing/accountability (25%), problems with administration (21%), and dissatisfaction with teaching as a career (21%) as sources of dissatisfaction; the family/personal reasons they cited included moving to a more conveniently located job, health reasons, and caring for family members. Two thirds of movers reported dissatisfaction as a reason to move, citing concerns with school administration, lack of influence on school decision making, and school conditions such as facilities and resources (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond’s 2019 research also found that a perceived lack of administrative support and compensation were significantly related to turnover. These findings highlight the importance of working conditions in teacher retention.

 

Teacher Working Conditions.Working conditions are an important predictor of teacher turnover (e.g., Borman & Dowling, 2008; Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Johnson, Kraft, & Papay, 2012). Research has demonstrated that student demographics are important in teachers’ decisions to remain at their schools and that they most often leave schools containing large numbers of low-income, low-achieving, and minority students (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Clotfelter et al., 2006; Hanushek et al., 2004). However, teacher interviews have revealed that dysfunctional school contexts that make it difficult to succeed with these student populations, rather than the students themselves, are responsible for the decision to leave (Allensworth, Ponisciak, & Mazzeo, 2009; Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Johnson et al., 2012). In fact, several studies have demonstrated that teacher working conditions explain most of the relationship between student demographics and teacher turnover (Allensworth et al., 2009; Ingersoll et al., 2018; Ladd, 2011; Simon & Johnson, 2015).

A critical aspect of teacher working conditions that influences retention is the quality of principal leadership (Boyd et al., 2011; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Johnson et al., 2012; Ladd, 2011; Marinell & Coca, 2013). Research shows that as school leadership improves, the likelihood of teacher turnover decreases (Kraft, Marinell, & Shen-Wei, Marinell, & Shen-Wei Yee, 2016; Ladd, 2011). For example, teachers were more likely to stay at schools where they reported the principal was trusting and supportive of teachers, a knowledgeable instructional leader, an efficient manager, and skilled at forming external partnerships with external organizations (Marinell & Coca, 2013). Additional research shows that teachers who left schools led by the most effective principals were less likely to be effective than those who left schools led by less successful principals (Branch, Hanushek, & Rivken, 2013). Unfortunately, high-poverty schools are often staffed with less experienced and weaker principals (Loeb, Kalogrides, & Horng, 2010); on a positive note, research has also shown that an effective principal may offset teacher turnover in disadvantaged schools (Grissom, 2011; Kraft et al., 2016).

Additional teacher working conditions that have been identified as important to teacher retention (and that are related to administrative leadership) include a sense of collective responsibility for student outcomes, a sense of collegiality and trusting working relationships, a sense of safety and discipline in the school, parent-teacher interaction, time for collaboration and planning, and expanded roles for teachers (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Kraft et al., 2016; Simon & Johnson, 2015). Simon and Johnson cited three factors supporting teachers’ work with their colleagues: (1) an inclusive environment of respect and trust (e.g., teachers respect one another and trust that their colleagues are “doing the right thing for the right reasons”); (2) formal structures for collaboration and support (e.g., well-designed induction/mentoring programs and well-designed instructional teams or professional learning communities, or PLCs); and (3) a shared set of professional goals and purposes (e.g., all teachers share a social justice perspective and are motivated to help disadvantaged students achieve). The research literature also suggests that professional empowerment and opportunities for autonomy and shared decision making are important (Goldring et al., 2014; Ingersoll, 2003; Ingersoll & May, 2012; Marinell & Coca, 2013; Wronowski, 2018). Goldring et al. (2014) found that of teachers who left the profession, more than half indicated they had more autonomy in their work and greater influence over workplace practices and policies in their current job than they did as teachers. Inadequate autonomy and empowerment may be particularly important for minority teachers teaching in hard-to-staff schools as well as responsible for many of these teachers leaving the profession and subsequent teacher shortages (Ingersoll & May, 2012 Ingersoll et al., 2017). In addition, research has ascribed higher teacher attrition to a perceived lack of influence and autonomy in the school, and few opportunities for career advancement and career pathways (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010; TNTP, 2012), suggesting that leadership opportunities may encourage many teachers to stay. A recent study found that two thirds of national and state “teacher of the year” award winners rated teacher leadership opportunities as a top growth experience that contributed positively to their career progression (Behrstock-Sherratt, Bassett, Olson, & Jacques, 2014).

A related aspect of teacher working conditions that influences retention is the level of compensation. Teacher salaries are generally not competitive with other labor markets (Hanushek, Piopiunik, & Wiederhold, 2014), even when controlling for the shorter work year, with new teachers earning approximately 18% less than individuals working in other fields, and midcareer teachers earning 30% less (Baker, Sciarra, & Farrie, 2015, 2018). Research consistently shows that teachers who work in districts that pay less are more likely to leave their jobs (Borman & Dowling, 2008; Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2019; Goldring et al., 2014; Podolsky, Kini, Bishop, & Darling-Hammond, 2016). Carver-Thomas and Darling-Hammond (2019) found a significant relationship between the highest teacher salary possible in a district and turnover; for example, teachers who could earn more than $78,000 in their districts had an attrition rate 31% lower than those who could earn a maximum of only $60,000. Gray & Taie (2015) found a 10-point percentage gap in turnover rates between novice teachers whose first-year salary was $40,000 or higher compared with beginning teachers earning less. Whether math and science and other in-demand teachers decide to remain in teaching is particularly dependent on salary (Adamson & Darling-Hammond, 2011).

Research further indicates the highest paid teachers in high-poverty schools are paid significantly less than the highest paid teachers in less disadvantaged communities (Adamson & Darling-Hammond, 2011). The inability to adequately reward excellent teachers contributes to an inequitable distribution of high-quality teachers among schools within districts, as teachers with more seniority transfer out of less desirable placements and are replaced by less experienced and often less effective teachers (Podgursky & Springer, 2011). Many educational researchers and policymakers are advocating for reforms to the compensation teachers receive, particularly in hard-to-staff subjects and schools (Aragon, 2016; Dee & Goldhaber, 2017; Sutcher et al., 2016).

The factors that predict turnover and retention cited above (teacher demographics and teaching areas, qualifications, and working conditions) suggest where improved policies and programs can support better rates of teacher retention, particularly for schools within high-need communities. An overview of policies and programs that have received research support in the literature is provided below; where available, relevant cost-benefit research on these initiatives is included in the discussion.

 

Research-Based Strategies for Improving Teacher Retention

Strategies to Improve Compensation.As described earlier, teacher salary is an important predictor of retention. Competitive and equitable salaries as well as other incentives such as housing and child-care supports and forgivable loans and service scholarships can serve to attract and retain teachers in high-need fields and locations (Podolsky, Kini, Darling-Hammond, & Bishop, 2019; Sutcher et al., 2016). The previously cited District of Columbia’s performance pay system, which provides teacher supports in high-needs schools, has been shown to effectively remove low-performing teachers, recruit and retain high-performing teachers, and improve student achievement (Adnot et al., 2017).

The Florida Critical Teacher Shortage program provided student loan forgiveness to teachers in designated shortage areas, compensated those seeking certification in the shortage areas with paid tuition, and gave single year bonuses to those already certified and teaching in shortage areas. In a 2015 study, Feng and Sass found that the loan forgiveness program and one-time retention bonus resulted in decreased teacher attrition of math, science, foreign language and ESOL teachers, and of special education teachers receiving larger payments; in addition, the tuition reimbursement program increased the likelihood a teacher would become newly certified in a high-need area. This finding is consistent with other studies that found that providing bonuses to effective teachers already teaching in high-poverty or low-achieving schools can lead to reductions in teacher attrition (Clotfelter, Glennie, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008; Springer, Swain, & Rodriguez, 2016; Swain, Rodriguez, & Springer, 2019) and may represent a cost-effective approach. Clotfelter and colleagues found that bonus payments reduced teacher attrition rates by 17% in hard-to-staff subjects in disadvantaged and/or low-performing schools during the 3 years of the bonus program. Springer et al (2016) reported that a $5,000 bonus for high-performing teachers working in high-need schools in Tennessee improved retention in tested grades and subjects by 20% but did not impact the retention of other teachers who did not receive bonuses.

The Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI) offered a substantial financial incentive ($20,000 over 2 years) to encourage highly effective teachers in a North Carolina district to transfer to the lowest performing schools (Glazerman, Protik, Teh, Bruch, & Max, 2013). This initiative succeeded in attracting high-performing (based on value-added data) teachers to fill the vacancies in these schools and was associated with increased retention rates during the 2-year bonus period. However, turnover increased substantially after the bonus program, and no retention differences were found between bonus and non-bonus recipients after the program ended.   

Late-career financial incentives are also recommended by some researchers, as the teaching profession has a greater percentage of early retirees than other professions (Dee & Goldhaber, 2017; Harris & Adams, 2007). Some research has suggested that targeted retention bonuses for highly effective senior teachers or those teaching in STEM fields may add anywhere from 3 to 8 years to their careers, and may be a useful tool for raising teacher workforce quality and closing achievement gaps if bonuses are targeted at high-poverty schools (Kim, Koedel, Ni, Podgursky, & Wu, 2016). In addition, neutralizing “push” incentives that encourage early retirement through retention bonuses selectively targeted at the most effective teachers may offer a cost-effective way to achieve intended outcomes (Kim, Koedel, Ni, Podgursky, & Wu, 2017).

Researchers agree that, to ensure incentive programs are cost-effective, districts must target financial incentives at teachers in hard-to-staff schools and who have demonstrated positive impacts on student achievement (Dee & Goldhaber, 2017; Sutcher et al., 2016). In addition, financial incentive strategies are most effective and sustainable when paired with improvements to teachers’ working conditions (Aragon, 2016).

 

Strategies to Improve Teacher Preparation.The research suggests that retention and recruiting, particularly in high-needs fields, can be enhanced with well-designed programs that subsidize the costs of preparation (Feng & Sass, 2015; Podolsky & Kini, 2016). For example, the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program funded through the National Science Foundation “seeks to encourage talented [STEM] majors and professionals to become K–12 mathematics and science (including engineering and computer science) teachers” (National Science Foundation, n.d.). Common components of the various programs include internships, scholarships, and support systems that are built into teacher preparation programs and extend into the early years of teaching (Kirchoff & Lawrenz, 2011; Ticknor, Gober, Howard, Shaw, & Mathis, 2017). Recipients reported that the scholarship influenced their commitment to teach in a high-needs school (Liou, Kirchoff, & Lawrenz, 2010), and the greater the scholarship amount relative to tuition costs, the more the scholarship influenced the decisions of recipients, especially non-Whites, to enter the teaching profession and teach in high-needs schools (Liou & Lawrenz, 2011).

Other research has shown that supportive peer networks are important in scholarship recipients’ decisions to remain in high-need schools beyond required time periods (Ticknor et al., 2017). The North Carolina Teaching Fellows Program recruits high-performing high school students to complete a teacher preparation program in exchange for a commitment to teach in the state for at least 4 years . Researchers found that teaching fellows had higher retention rates and were more effective than educators prepared in or out of state, alternative entry educators, or Teach for America teachers; in addition, three quarters of teaching fellows returned for an additional year beyond their program commitment (Henry, Bastian, & Smith, 2012).

Teacher residencies provide another research-based strategy for enhancing the likelihood of preparing and retaining effective teachers. While many alternative certification programs require teachers to train while teaching in order to earn income, teacher residency models fund preparation costs for candidates while allowing for a full preparation year before employment (Guha, Hyler, & Darling-Hammond, 2016). These programs “place candidates who plan to teach in shortage fields and who want to commit to high-need urban or rural schools into paid year-long apprenticeships with expert mentor teachers, while they complete tightly linked credential coursework and earn a master’s degree from partnering universities” (Sutcher et al., 2016, p. 63). Program participants continue to receive mentoring while they teach, and pledge to spend a minimum of 3 to 5 years in the district’s schools. Emerging research suggests that teacher residency program graduates have higher levels of retention than their nonresidency peers, with 80% to 90% remaining as teachers within the district after 3 years, and 70% to 80% remaining after 5 years (Guha et al., 2016; Papay, West, Fullerton, & Kane, 2012; Silva, McKie, & Gleason, 2015). 

Grow Your Own (GYO) programs have been proposed as potential solutions to systemic teacher shortages and, in some cases, to increase teacher diversity in urban and isolated rural schools. GYO programs capitalize on the fact that many young teachers have a strong preference to teach close to home, and they establish career pathways or pipelines for candidates who are committed specifically to teach in these environments (Boyd et al., 2005; Reininger, 2012). GYO programs can be implemented at the high school level through cadet programs and teaching academies, and many programs also recruit and support community members, paraprofessionals, and teachers’ aides in earning a teaching credential (Sutcher et al., 2016). These programs, which increasingly receive attention in the research literature, are widely touted as avenues to increase diversity and staff hard-to-staff subjects and schools in both urban and rural settings. Some research has demonstrated high retention rates for teachers participating in various types of programs (Gist, Bianco, & Lynn, 2019), including paraprofessional (Abramovitz & D’Amico, 2011; Clewell & Villegas, 2001), and teacher assistant pipeline programs (Fortner, Kershaw, Bastian & Lynn, 2015). For example, Ross and Ahmed (2016) demonstrated long-term (10 to 15 years) retention rates for a community-focused immigrant teacher pipeline program.

 

Strategies to Improve Teacher Induction and Support.Research indicates high turnover rates within the first 5 years of teaching, particularly when teachers lack supportive school structures to develop their expertise. Most states and districts have developed induction programs for new teachers to provide a “bridge from student of teaching to teacher of students” (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011, p. 203). These programs provide a range of supports that include mentoring by experienced teachers, workshops, common planning time with experienced colleagues, and reduced course loads. Wood and Stanulis (2009) stated that a quality teacher induction program “enhances teacher learning through a multi-faceted, multi-year system of planned and structured activities that support novice teachers’ developmentally-appropriate professional development in their first through third year of teaching” (p. 3). Induction programs and mentoring components in particular have been consistently found to positively impact teacher retention (Bastian & Marks, 2017; Raue & Gray, 2015). Stronger effects, however, have been found for induction programs providing teachers with mentors from their own subject area, and for induction programs that allow for common planning or collaboration time with other colleagues teaching in the mentee’s subject area (Ingersoll, 2012). Ingersoll also found that the more comprehensive the induction package, the greater the benefits to reducing teacher attrition.

Comprehensive induction programs that contribute to improved teacher working conditions may be especially crucial for high-poverty, low-performing schools, which often have a greater number of newer, less experienced teachers who tend to be the most likely to leave the profession (Simon & Johnson, 2015). High-quality induction programs may be a cost-effective approach for schools and districts. One study found that after 5 years of a comprehensive 2-year induction program, the cost of $13,500 yielded $21,500 in benefits (including lower turnover and consequently lower recruiting costs) (Villar & Strong, 2007). See Wood and Stanulis (2009) for a review of the induction literature and quality program components.

 

Strategies toImprove Leadership and Career Advancement Opportunities.While there is little in the research literature that directly links retention to increased leadership opportunities, the research cited previously on dissatisfaction and turnover suggests that a lack of autonomy and few opportunities for professional advancement factor into teachers’ decisions to leave (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010; TNTP, 2012). Some research suggests that allocating incentives or leadership responsibilities based on attainment of National Board Certification, which has been associated with teacher effectiveness (Chingos & Peterson, 2011; Cowan & Goldhaber, 2016), may foster working conditions that allow for a meaningful career trajectory for high-quality teachers and can be a cost-effective way to retain them (Cowan & Goldhaber, 2016; Lawrence, 2015; Lawrence, Rallis, & Keller, 2014; Podolsky et al., 2016). Accomplished teachers who are given the chance to share their expertise by serving in teacher leadership roles (e.g., coaches, teacher educators, or mentors) may be less likely to leave the profession. Career advancement programs (e.g., career ladders) that offer increased compensation, responsibility, and recognition may attract larger numbers of high-quality teachers and keep them in the classroom (e.g., Natale, Gaddis, Bassett, & McKnight, 2013, 2016). Booker & Glazerman (2009) found that teachers in a career ladder program were significantly less likely to leave their districts or the teaching profession than teachers in noncareer ladder districts and were more likely to report increased job satisfaction.

The Opportunity Culture initiative provides a model to extend the reach of effective educators and sustainably fund teacher leader roles by exchanging current roles for new higher paid roles. Multi-classroom leadership involves highly effective teachers assuming a leadership role for a team of teachers along with accountability for student outcomes in the classrooms of team teachers. The multi-classroom leader (MCL) “becomes a mentor and instructional resource for all on the team, and leadership responsibilities include supervising instruction, evaluating and developing teachers’ skills, and facilitating team collaboration and planning” (Backes & Hansen, 2018, p. 5). Significant compensation is provided for these teacher leader roles, with MCLs receiving stipends between $13,000 and $23,000 depending on the numbers of students and teachers reached (Natale et al., 2016). While the impact of this model on teacher retention is unknown, a recent evaluation of the initiative in three pilot school districts found that Opportunity Culture schools, and specifically the MCL model, significantly improved students’ math performance (Backes & Hansen, 2018). The researchers concluded that the intensive, personalized instructional coaching provided by the MCL model likely led to net overall improvements in teacher quality, which is consistent with research on the positive impact of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement (Kraft, Blazar, & Hogan, 2018).

 

Strategies to Improve Teacher Working Conditions.Research suggests that when the organizational contexts in which teachers work are enhanced, teachers are more likely to persist in their positions (Kraft et al., 2016). Working conditions have been described in the literature as a mediator in the relationship between teacher turnover and school demographic characteristics (Geiger & Pivovarova, 2018), and may be particularly important for minority teacher retention. As noted previously, principal leadership plays a large role in determining working conditions and strongly impacts teacher turnover, particularly in high-need schools (Grissom, 2011); school districts that struggle with teacher turnover must recruit principals who have the proven capacity to improve teacher working conditions (Burkhauser, 2017). Principals are charged with shaping the school’s vision, serving as instructional leaders, developing teachers’ leadership skills, managing people and processes, and ensuring a hospitable and safe school environment (Wallace Foundation, 2013). Some research demonstrates that high-quality principal preparation and development programs can increase principals’ effectiveness in retaining effective teachers. Providing principal professional development activities such as coaching and/or mentoring holds promise for improving principal practice and reducing teacher attrition (Jacob, Goddard, Kim, Miller, & Goddard, 2015; Lochmiller, 2013).

One research-based principal and teacher-leader development program is the McREL Balanced Leadership Program, designed to provide research-based guidance in the form of 21 key leadership responsibilities that help principals and other leaders become more effective and improve their capacity to enhance student achievement. A randomized control trial study of rural schools in Michigan showed that the program significantly reduced teacher turnover among both teachers participating in the program and colleagues who did not participate but worked at the same school (Jacob et al., 2015).

Teacher surveys or other assessments of working conditions can be used to determine the quality of the school working environment, and the data can be used to target improvements as necessary to foster higher levels of retention (Burkhauser, 2017; Kraft et al., 2016; Podolsky et al., 2019). For example, the Teaching, Empowering, Leading and Learning (TELL) Survey was used to garner support for statewide education initiatives (e.g., increased planning time and funding for professional learning) that could improve teacher working conditions in North Carolina (Burkhauser, 2017). Another study found that teachers’ survey responses to items addressing principal leadership, the school’s climate, and relationships with colleagues strongly predicted teacher satisfaction and plans to remain in teaching (Johnson et al., 2012).

Improved working conditions may also be fostered through targeted professional learning strategies and school redesign (Podolsky et al., 2019). Teachers need ample time for productive collaboration to plan, evaluate, and modify curricula (Simon & Johnson, 2015), and regular blocks of time that are built into the daily schedules of teachers teaching the same subject or who share groups of students may foster teacher retention. Redesigned high schools that incorporate additional time for teachers offer the potential for improved teacher working conditions and retention (Glennie, Mason, & Edmunds, 2016); however, research has yet to address this topic fully. In many cases, additional resources will be necessary to compensate teachers for professional learning that occurs outside their contract roles, or to hire additional staff to cover teachers’ classes during professional learning time (Podolsky et al., 2019).

 

Summary and Conclusions

Problems with teacher turnover contribute significantly to teacher shortages and result in the inequitable distribution of effective and qualified teachers across schools. The consequences of turnover are primarily negative; they include fewer effective teachers in disadvantaged, high-needs schools, disruptions to school operations and teacher collegiality, poorer student outcomes, and higher costs for districts. The research cited in this report suggests several common themes that predict teacher turnover and attrition. Teacher turnover is highest among minority teachers (particularly those working in high-needs schools), beginning teachers, alternatively certified teachers, special education teachers, and teachers of math, science, and English for foreign language speakers. The key reasons for turnover have centered primarily around dissatisfaction with the job or school due to poor working conditions, which are more predictive of turnover than student demographic characteristics. Principal leadership, teacher relationships and collaboration, a safe school climate, autonomy, shared decision making, and opportunities for leadership and advancement are all important components of teacher working conditions. In addition, compensation levels are predictive of turnover, with teachers (particularly those teaching hard-to-staff subjects or students) more likely to exit districts that pay less.

Several strategies for improving teacher retention have received support in the research. Improved compensation through competitive and equitable salary structures, incentives such as loan forgiveness and paid tuition for preparation, and, in certain cases, targeted bonuses for effective teachers can serve to attract and retain teachers in hard-to-staff subjects and schools. Working conditions may be improved through enhanced principal preparation and coaching/mentoring, assessing teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions to target improvements, and increasing opportunities for collaboration and professional learning. Combining financial incentives with initiatives to enhance teacher working conditions may be particularly effective; more research is needed to identify how best to design programs that combine incentives and improved working conditions.

Teacher residencies and Grow Your Own programs can also attract potential educators to hard-to-staff subjects and schools, enhancing their preparation and increasing their odds of being retained. Higher quality induction and mentoring approaches better prepare teachers for their roles and reduce teacher attrition, and offer a cost-effective way to improve retention. Providing a meaningful career trajectory for teachers through financial incentives linked to enhanced leadership opportunities and additional career paths in teaching are also linked to lower rates of turnover.

Finally, a note of caution: While many of the retention strategies highlighted in this report have research support, there are a number of implementation barriers that must be considered when evaluating their potential to enhance teacher retention. For example, while mentoring programs have been found to positively impact retention (Bastian & Marks, 2017), inadequate compensation may prevent the most effective teachers from being recruited into mentoring positions (Goldhaber, Krieg, Naito, & Theobald, 2019). These barriers are discussed more fully in the Teacher Retention Strategies report, also available on this site.

 

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Guha, R., Hyler, M. E., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). The teacher residency: An innovative model for preparing teachers. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Teacher_Residency_Innovative_Model_Preparing_Teachers_REPORT.pdf

Guin, K. (2004). Chronic teacher turnover in urban elementary schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(42), 1–30.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J., & Rivkin, S. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources, 39, 326–354.

Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance. Working Paper No. 20727. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w20727.pdf

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. A. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education,vol. 2 (pp. 1051–1078). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2007). Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality. The Future of Children,17(1), 69–86. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795875.pdf

Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G., & Schiman, J. C. (2016). Dynamic effects of teacher turnover on the quality of instruction. Economics of Education Review, 55, 132–148.

Harris, D. N., & Adams, S. J. (2007). Understanding the level and causes of teacher turnover: A comparison with other professions. Economics of Education Review, 26(3), 325–337.

Henry, G. T., Bastian, K. C., & Smith, A. A. (2012). Scholarships to recruit the “best and brightest” into teaching: Who is recruited, where do they teach, how effective are they, and how long do they stay? Educational Researcher, 41(3), 83–92.

Henry, G. T., & Redding, C. (in press). The consequences of leaving school early: The effects of within-year and end-of-year teacher turnover. Education Finance and Policy.Retrieved from https://cdn.theconversation.com/static_files/files/269/withinyear_efp_final.pdf?1536242239

Hussar, W. J., & Bailey, T. M. (2014). Projections of education statistics to 2022 (NCES 2014-051).Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014051.pdf

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534.

Ingersoll, R. (2003). Is there really a teacher shortage? Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

Ingersoll, R. (2012). Beginning teacher induction: What the data tell us.Phi Delta Kappan, 93(8), 47–51. Retrieved from http://pdk.sagepub.com/content/93/8/47.full.pdf+html http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/05/16/kappan_ingersoll.h31.html

Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 435–464.

Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. (2017). Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, E. (2017). A quarter century of changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force: From 1987 to 2012 (NCES 2017-092). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Ingersoll, R. M., Merrill, L., & Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated April 2014. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.cpre.org/sites/default/files/workingpapers/1506_7trendsapril2014.pdf

Ingersoll, R., Merrill, E., Stuckey, D., & Collins, G. (2018). Seven trends: The transformation of the teaching force—updated October 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=cpre_researchreports

Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. A. (2010). Is the supply of mathematics and science teachers sufficient? American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 563–594.

Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201–233.

Jackson, C. K. (2018). What do test scores miss? The importance of teacher effects on non-test score outcomes. Journal of Political Economy, 126(5), 2072–2107.

Jacob, R., Goddard, R., Kim, M., Miller, R., & Goddard, Y. (2015). Exploring the causal impact of the McREL Balanced Leadership Program on leadership, principal efficacy, instructional climate, educator turnover, and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(3), 314–332.

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 581–617.

Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), p. 1–39.

Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2013). Different teachers, different peers: The magnitude of student sorting within schools. Educational Researcher, 42(6), 304–316.

Kim, D., Koedel, C., Ni, S., Podgursky, M., & Wu, W (2017). Pensions and late-career teacher retention. Working Paper No. 164. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). Retrieved from https://caldercenter.org/sites/default/files/WP 164_0.pdf

Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Teaching_Experience_Report_June_2016.pdf

Kirchhoff, A., & Lawrenz, F. (2011). The use of grounded theory to investigate the role of teacher education on STEM teachers’ career paths in high-need schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(3), 246–259.

Kraft, M. A. (2015). Teacher layoffs, teacher quality, and student achievement: Evidence from a discretionary layoff policy. Education Finance and Policy, 10(4), 467–507.

Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547–588.

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Yee, D. (2016). School organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Educational Research Journal,53(5), 1411–1449.

Ladd, H. F. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(2), 235–261.

Lawrence, R. (2015). Promoting teacher professionalism: Lessons learned from Portland’s Professional Learning Based Salary Schedule. American Journal of Education Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.ajeforum.com/promoting-teacher-professionalism-lessons-learned-from-portlands-professional-learning-based-salary-schedule-by-rachael-b-lawrence/

Lawrence, R., Rallis, S. F., & Keller, L. A. (2014). Rewarding professionals to learn together: A tool for turnaround in Portland, Maine.Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(3), 359–381.

Liou, P. Y., Kirchoff, A., & Lawrenz, F. (2010). Perceived effects of scholarships on STEM majors’ commitment to teaching in high need schools. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21(4), 451–470.

Liou, P. Y., & Lawrenz, F. (2011). Optimizing teacher preparation loan forgiveness programs: Variables related to perceived influence. Science Education Policy, 95(1), 121–144.

Lochmiller, C. R. (2013). Leadership coaching in an induction program for novice principals: A 3-year study. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 9(1), 59–84.

Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L., & Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3), 44–70.

Loeb, S., Kalogrides, D., & Horng, E. L. (2010). Principal preferences and the uneven distribution of principals across schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(2), 205–229.

Maddock, A. (2009). North Carolina teacher working conditions: The intersection of policy and practice.New Teacher Center. Retrieved from http://www.jntp.org/sites/default/ les/ntc/main/pdfs/NC_TWC_Policy_Practice.pdf

Marinell, W. H., & Coca, V. M. (2013). Who stays and who leaves? Findings from a three-partstudy of teacher turnover in NYC middle schools. New York, NY: The Research Alliance for New York City Schools. Retrieved from https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/sg158/PDFs/ttp_synthesis/TTPSynthesis_Report_March2013.pdf

Mcleskey, J., Tyler, N. C., & Flippin, S. S. (2004). The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. The Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 5–21.

Natale, C., Gaddis, L., Bassett, K., & McKnight, K. (2013). Creating sustainable teacher career pathways: A 21st century imperative. Joint publication of Pearson and National Network of State Teachers of the Year. Retrieved from https://www.nnstoy.org/download/career_pathways/Final updated Research Report.pdf

Natale, C. F., Gaddis, L., Bassett, K., & McKnight, K. (2016). Teacher career advancement initiatives: Lessons learned from eight case studies.Joint publication of Pearson and National Network of State Teachers of the Year. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581291.pdf

National Science Foundation. (n.d.). Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program. Retrieved from https://www.nsfnoyce.org/

Papay, J. P., Bacher-Hicks, A., Page, L. A., & Marinell, W. H. (2017). The challenge of teacher retention in urban schools: Evidence in variation from a cross-site analysis. Educational Researcher, 46(8), 434–448.

Papay, J. P., West, M. R., Fullerton, J. B., & Kane, T. J. (2012). Does an urban teacher residency increase student achievement? Early evidence from Boston. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 413–434.

Player, D. (2015). The supply and demand for rural teachers. Rural Opportunities Consortium of Idaho. Retrieved from http://www.rociidaho.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ROCI_2015_RuralTeachers_FINAL.pdf

Podgursky, M., & Springer, M. (2011). Teacher compensation systems in the United States K–12 public school system. National Tax Journal, 64(1), 165–192.

Podolsky, A., & Kini, T. (2016). How effective are loan forgiveness and service scholarships for recruiting teachers? Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

Podolsky, A., Kini, T., Bishop, J., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). Solving the teacher shortage: How to attract and retain excellent educators.Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf#page=19

Podolsky, A., Kini, T., Darling-Hammond, L., & Bishop, J. (2019). Strategies for attracting and retaining educators: What does the evidence say? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(38). Retrieved from https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/3722

Raue, K., & Gray, L. (2015). Career paths of beginning school teachers: Results for the first through fifth waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study.Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015196.pdf

Redding, C. (2019). A teacher like me: A review of the effect of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on teacher perceptions of students and student academic and behavioral outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 89(4), 499–535.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2018). New evidence on the frequency of teacher turnover: Accounting for within-year turnover. Educational Researcher, 47(9), 577–593.

Redding, C., & Henry, G. T. (2019). Leaving school early: An examination of novice teachers’ within- and end-of-year turnover. American Educational Research Journal, 56(1), 204–236.

Redding, C., & Smith, T. M. (2016). Easy in, easy out: Are alternatively certified teachers turning over at increased rates? American Educational Research Journal, 53(4), 1086–1125.

Reininger, M. (2012). Hometown disadvantage? It depends on where you’re from: Teachers’ location preferences and the implications for staffing schools.Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(2), 127–145.

Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4–36.

Ross, F., & Ahmed, A. (2016). Fostering globalism: Community partnership to grow your own teachers. In C. Schmidt & J. Schneider (Eds.),Diversifying the teaching force in transnational contexts: Critical perspectives (pp. 73–86). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Silva, T., McKie, A., and Gleason, P. (2015). New findings on the retention of novice teachers from teaching residency programs(NCEE 2015-4015). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20154015/pdf/20154015.pdf

Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117(3), 1–36.

Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. F. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working Paper No. 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). Retrieved from https://caldercenter.org/publications/hidden-costs-teacher-turnover

Springer, M. G., Swain, W. A., & Rodriguez, L. A. (2016). Effective teacher retention bonuses: Evidence from Tennessee. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38(2), 199–221.

Stuit, D., & Smith, T. (2010). Teacher turnover in charter schools. Nashville, TN: National Center on School Choice, Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Thomas_Smith26/publication/255600494_Teacher_Turnover_in_Charter_Schools/links/0c960537cf9c4b270c000000/Teacher-Turnover-in-Charter-Schools.pdf

 Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the U.S. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT.pdf

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2019). Understanding teacher shortages: An analysis of teacher supply and demand in the United States. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(35), 1–39.

Sutton, J. P., Bausmith, S. C., O’Connor, D. M., Pae, H. A., & Payne, J. R. (2014). Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a Grow Your Own program. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 33(4), 14–23. Retrieved from http://www.sccreate.org/Research/article.CREATE.RSEQ.14.pdf

Swain, W. A., Rodriguez, L. A., & Springer, M. G. (2019). Selective retention bonuses for highly effective teachers in high poverty schools: Evidence from Tennessee. Economics of Education Review, 68, 148–160.

Synar, E., & Maiden, J. (2012). A comprehensive model for estimating the impact of teacher turnover. Journal of Education Finance, 38, 130–144.

Ticknor, C. S., Gober, D., Howard, T., Shaw, K., & Mathis, L. A. (2017). The influence of the CSU Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program on undergraduates’ teaching plans. Georgia Educational Researcher, 14(1), 69–97.

TNTP. (2012). The irreplaceables: Understanding the real retention crisis in America’s urban schools.New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP_Irreplaceables_2012.pdf

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2017). Teacher shortage areas nationwide listings 1990–1991 through 2017–2018. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/pol/ateachershortageareasreport2017-18.pdf

Villar, A., & Strong, M. (2007). Is mentoring worth the money? A benefit-cost analysis and five-year rate of return of a comprehensive mentoring program for beginning teachers. ERS Spectrum, 25(3), 1–17.

Vittek, J. E. (2015). Promoting special educator teacher retention: A critical review of the literature. SAGE Open, (5)2, 1–6.

Wallace Foundation. (2013). The school principal as leader: Guiding schools to better teaching and learning. New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/The-School-Principal-as-Leader-Guiding-Schools-to-Better-Teaching-and-Learning-2nd-Ed.pdf

Watlington, E., Shockley, R., Guglielmino, P., & Felsher, R. (2010). The cost of leaving: An analysis of the cost of teacher turnover. Journal of Education Finance,36(1), 22–37.

Wood, A. L., & Stanulis, R. N. (2009). Quality teacher induction: “Fourth-wave” (1997–2006) induction programs. The New Educator, 5(1), 1–23. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868911.pdf

Wronowski, M. L. (2018). Filling the void: A grounded theory approach to addressing teacher recruitment and retention in urban schools. Education and Urban Society, 50(6), 548–574.

 

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Teacher-student Relationships.

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of working conditions how this correlates to student performance.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between901.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race experience and age on teacher recruiting and retention.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting899.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This analysis looks at retention and experience data for teachers in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting927.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This analysis examines evidence on the influence of teacher induction programs on reducing teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact884.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This review examines the effectiveness of teacher induction.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact928.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This inquiry looks at the effect of time on the job and the quality of a teacher's skills.
Keyworth, R. (2010). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between882.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover898.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of poverty on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover897.
How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover for public and private schools.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Percent of Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-percent-of.
How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time?
This analysis lookes at data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at trends in teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Has Teacher Turnover Changed Over Time? Retrieved from how-has-teacher-turnover.
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.
What is the turnover for new teachers over time?
This analysis looks at the rate of teacher turnover as it relates to the length of time a person is on the job.
States, J. (2009). What is the turnover for new teachers over time? Retrieved from what-is-turnover-for.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
Can the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) and Promise Academies of the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) charter school model be replicated on a national scale?
The analysis examined the impact of two charter school models, Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) academic performance and Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) and looks at issues of taking these models to scale.
States, J. (2014). Can the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) and Promise Academies of the Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) charter school model be replicated on a national scale? Retrieved from can-knowledge-is-power.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This analysis is based on data from New York City public schools that linking working conditions to teacher career trajectories and retention with a focus on administrative support.
States, J. (2014). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals833.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, MB. (2011). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Progress [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-wing-presentation-mary-beth-celio.

 

Student Research

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes.

This study evaluated the effects of a problem solving intervention package that included problem-solving information, performance feedback, and coaching in a student intervention planning protocol.

Vaccarello, C. A. (2011). Effects of a problem solving team intervention on the problem-solving process: Improving concept knowledge, implementation integrity, and student outcomes. Retrieved from student-research-2011.

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement

This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented. 

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health74(7), 262-273.

Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples

This book share issues of equity and school transformation, and shows how one indigenous minority teachers' group engaged in a process of transforming schooling in their community. Documented in one small locale far-removed from mainstream America, the personal narratives by Yupík Eskimo teachers. 

 Lipka, J., & Ilutsik, E. (2014). Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup¡ k Eskimo Examples. Routledge.

The impact of communication factors on job satisfaction among Icelandic employees in the public sector

The main purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of communicative factors on job satisfaction and employee’s desired need for new ways of communicating.

Þorkelsson, J. The Impact of Communication Factors on Job Satisfaction Among Icelandic Employees in the Public Sector (Doctoral dissertation).

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013)

This report from KIPP provides a snap short of critical indicators from KIPP schools from across the United States.

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013) Retrieved from http://www.kipp.org/reportcard.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis

This is a meta-analysis that examines teacher-student relations impact on student performance.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/1/113.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=sprer;77/1/113.

Inequality and Economic Growth: The Perspective of the New Growth Theories

We analyze the relationship between inequality and economic growth from two directions. The first part of the survey examines the effect of inequality on growth. The second part analyzes several mechanisms whereby growth may increase wage inequality, both across and within education cohorts.

Aghion, P., Caroli, E., & Garcia-Penalosa, C. (1999). Inequality and economic growth: The perspective of the new growth theories. Journal of Economic literature37(4), 1615-1660.

Cultural Diversity and School Equity. A Model to Evaluate and Develop Educational Practices in Multicultural Education Contexts

The main purpose of this research is to explore whether the proper strategies to deal with cultural diversity in school is being implemented, and to assess how cultural diversity is addressed in our school.

Aguado, T., Ballesteros, B., & Malik, B. (2003). Cultural diversity and school equity. A model to evaluate and develop educational practices in multicultural education contexts. Equity &Excellence in Education36(1), 50-63.

Social Powers and Effective Classroom Management: Enhancing Teacher–Student Relationships

This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally. 

Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic47(1), 39-44.

Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system–secondary

Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary.

Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher–student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system—secondary. School Psychology Review42(1), 76.

ACHIEVEMENT AND ENROLLMENT STATUS OF SUSPENDED STUDENTS: Outcomes in a Large, Multicultural School District

This article presents the results of longitudinal retrospective analyses on suspensions, achievement, and long-term enrollment status of students in a large, urban school district. Findings indicated that suspended students had substantially lower presuspension achievement than did students in the comparison group, gained considerably less academically throughout 3 years with suspensions, and had high drop-out rates.

Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education and Urban Society38(3), 359-369.

Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand.

This research objective was to study soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. The data were collected from 60 purposive samples of new teachers by interviewing and questionnaires. The results of this study were informed that new teachers have all of soft skills at high level totally. Communicative skills were highest among seven of soft skills and next Life-long learning and information management skills, Critical and problem solving skills, Team work skills, Ethics, moral and professional skills, Leadership skills and Innovation invention and development skills were lowest in all skills. Based on the research findings obtained, the sub-skills of seven soft skills will be considered and utilized in the package of teacher development program of next research.

Attakorn, K., Tayut, T., Pisitthawat, K., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences112, 1010-1013.

 

The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school’s contribution to dropout and completion.

Using a structural perspective from organizational theory, the authors review aspects of schooling associated with dropout. They then briefly review selected reform initiatives that restructure the school environment to improve student achievement and retention.

Baker, J. A., Derrer, R. D., Davis, S. M., Dinklage-Travis, H. E., Linder, D. S., & Nicholson, M. D. (2001). The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school's contribution to dropout and completion. School psychology quarterly16(4), 406.

Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities.

This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.

Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.

Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives

This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence41(3), 256-267.

The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study

This research reports on the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. It reports the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers.

Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

Enhancing Adherence to a Problem Solving Model for Middle-School Pre-Referral Teams: A Performance Feedback and Checklist Approach

This study looks at the use of performance feedback and checklists to improve middle-school teams problem solving.

Bartels, S. M., & Mortenson, B. P. (2006). Enhancing adherence to a problem-solving model for middle-school pre-referral teams: A performance feedback and checklist approach. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(1), 109-123.

School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities

Selection practices in education, such as tracking, may represent a structural obstacle that contributes to the social class achievement gap. The authors hypothesized that school’s function of selection leads evaluators to reproduce social inequalities in tracking decisions, even when performance is equal. 

Batruch, A., Autin, F., Bataillard, F., & Butera, F. (2018). School Selection and the Social Class Divide: How Tracking Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequalities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167218791804.

Implicit discrimination

What drives people to discriminate? Economists focus on two main reasons: "taste-based" and "statistical" discrimination. Motivated by a growing body of psychological evidence, the authors put forward a third interpretation: implicit discrimination. The authors argue that discrimination may be unintentional and outside of the discriminator's awareness.

Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review95(2), 94-98.

Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes

This study examines the detrimental impact of principal turnover, including lower teacher retention and lower student achievement. Particularly hard hit are high poverty schools, which often lose principals at a higher rate as they transition to lower poverty, higher student achievement schools.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2012). Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(4), 904-919.

Assertive supervision: Building involved teamwork.

This well-written book on assertiveness clearly describes the non assertive, assertive, and aggressive styles of supervision. Each chapter provides numerous examples, practice exercises, and self-tests. The author identifies feelings and beliefs that support aggressiveness, non aggressiveness, or non assertiveness which help the reader "look beyond the words themselves."

Black, M. K. (1991). Assertive Supervision-Building Involved Teamwork. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing22(5), 224-224.

Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale

This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed.

Bolkan, S. (2017). Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education66(1), 19-36.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Parochial Empathy Predicts Reduced Altruism and the Endorsement of Passive Harm

This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern. 

Bruneau, E. G., Cikara, M., & Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science8(8), 934-942.

Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process

This study examines the importance of implementation integrity for problem-solving teams (PST) and response-to-intervention models.

Burns, M. K., Peters, R., & Noell, G. H. (2008). Using performance feedback to enhance implementation fidelity of the problem-solving team process. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 537-550.

Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers

The study investigated the impact of organizational and personality factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one conceptual framework. 

Byrne, B. M. (1994). Burnout: Testing for the validity, replication, and invariance of causal structure across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers. American Educational Research Journal31(3), 645–673.

Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental stud- ies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. 

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational research, 64(3), 363-423.

Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental stud- ies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. 

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational research, 64(3), 363-423.

The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results.
 

In this paper, the authors show that the questions we asked are fundamental and that our meta-analytic techniques are appropriate, robust, and statistically correct. In sum, the results and conclusions of our meta-analysis are not altered by our critics’ protests and accusations.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1996). The debate about rewards and intrinsic motivation: Protests and accusations do not alter the results. Review of Educational Research, 66(1), 39–51.

Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

This paper describes a survey of teachers trained in Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA). The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues. 

Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.

Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge

In this article, the author argues convincingly for a view of American's cultural diversity as a self-evident reality - one that must be effectively addressed by inservice and preservice teacher education programmes.

Carrington, V. (1999). Student Cultural Diversity: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy43(4), 386.

Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality

This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.

Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams

A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate-related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. 

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology92(2), 331–346.

 

The Development of The Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) to Measure Clear Teaching in The Classroom

This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity. 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The development of the teacher clarity short inventory (TCSI) to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports15(3), 262-266.

The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension

This study examined the impact of state receiver apprehension in the instructional context. Because of its negative relationship with information processing effectiveness, receiver apprehension is an experience which can act as a barrier to elective learning.

 

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The relationship of teacher clarity and teacher immediacy with students’ experiences of state receiver apprehension. Communication Quarterly46(4), 446–456.

 

Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students

To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence. 

Choy, S. P. (2002). Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students.Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis.

 

Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a national summit on zero tolerance.

This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. 

Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research. The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress.

Claessens, B. J., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review36(2), 255–276.

Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning

This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual and contextual factors.

Clandinin, D. J., Long, J., Schaefer, L., Downey, C. A., Steeves, P., Pinnegar, E., ... & Wnuk, S. (2015). Early career teacher attrition: Intentions of teachers beginning. Teaching Education26(1), 1-16.

Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams

Solid evidence supports claims that motivational programs can increase the quality and quantity of performance from 20 to 40 percent. Motivation can solve three types of performance problems: 1) people are refusing to change; and/or 2) allowing themselves to be distracted and not persist at a key task; and/or 3) treating a novel task as familiar, making mistakes but not investing mental effort and taking responsibility because of overconfidence. After describing a number of general strategies for fostering individual motivation, the article focuses on the unique motivational issues faced by teams and how to overcome them.

Clark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. Performance Improvement42(3), 21–29.

 

Overview of Teacher Evaluation

This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.

Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

School climate and social-emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy.

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers’ perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers’ sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology104(4), 1189.

“I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change

This study investigated inner-city middle school teachers' perceptions of the importance of time in learning and sharing information. The survey identified ways that teachers shared what they had learned and discussed factors that helped or hindered them in sharing. Teacher interviews examined: knowledge, skills, and insights gained by participating in the EELC.

Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration39(3), 266–281.

Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis.

The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.

Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research77(1), 113-143.

On the teachability of communication strategies.

This article describes what communication strategies are and provides an overview of the teachability issue, discussing the arguments for and against strategy instruction, and suggests three possible reasons for the existing controversy. 

Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL quarterly29(1), 55-85.

Motivational Strategies in the language classroom
This book is the first of its kind in the second/foreign language (L2) ®eldthat is entirely devoted to discussing
motivational strategies, that is, methods and techniques to generate and maintain the learners' motivation.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bringing Out The Best In People

This book by organizational psychologist Aubrey C. Daniels is a guide for anyone who is required to supervise people and is particularly relevant to school principals. It is based on applying positive consequences to improve performance and offers strategies to reduce undesirable behavior so your school and employees can be successful.

Daniels, A. C., Tapscott, D., & Caston, A. (2000). Bringing out the best in people. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs

Few studies have examined factors relating to ineffective school leadership. Such knowledge can help principals refine leadership behaviors and enhance job security. This study used experiences and perceptions from 99 California public school superintendents to examine the reasons why some principals lose their jobs. 

Davis, S. H. (1998). Superintendents’ perspectives on the involuntary departure of public school principals: The most frequent reasons why principals lose their jobs. Educational Administration Quarterly34(1), 58–90.

Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation

Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. 

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18,105–115.

The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis

A meta‐analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task‐based skill, objective task‐based skill, and teamwork skill.

Delise, L. A., Allen Gorman, C., Brooks, A. M., Rentsch, J. R., & Steele‐Johnson, D. (2010). The effects of team training on team outcomes: A meta‐analysis. Performance Improvement Quarterly22(4), 53–80.

School psychologist as problem solver

Deno, S. L. (1995). School psychologist as problem solver. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology III(pp. 471–484). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance

This study reports the results of several meta-analyses examining the relationship between four operational definitions of cognitive ability within teams (highest member score, lowest member score, mean score, standard deviation of scores) and team performance. 

Devine, D. J., & Phillips, J. L. (2000). Do smarter teams do better? A meta-analysis of team-level the cognitive ability and team performance. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.

 

Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention

The authors developed a multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention to produce long-term reductions in implicit race bias. The intervention is based on the premise that implicit bias is like a habit that can be broken through a combination of awareness of implicit bias, concern about the effects of that bias, and the application of strategies to reduce bias.

Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(6), 1267–1278.

It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students

Studying teacher workload issues has become somewhat of a trend in recent years with studies having already been completed in most other Canadian provinces. The consistency in teacher workload across the country is remarkable (see Appendix 2), and many of the findings in this study are supported by research in other jurisdictions. However, this discussion of the findings will deal primarily with the issues in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Dibbon, D. C. (2004). It’s about Time!! A Report on the Impact of Workload on Teachers and Students. St. John’s, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Implementation Quality: Lessons Learned in the Context of the Head Start REDI Trial

This study uses data collected in the intervention classrooms of Head Start REDI (Research- based, Developmentally Informed), a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a comprehensive preschool curriculum targeting children’s social-emotional competence, language, and emergent literacy skills delivered by teachers who received weekly coaching support.

Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Jones, D., Gill, S., & DeRousie, R. M. S. (2010). Implementation quality: Lessons learned in the context of the Head Start REDI trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly25(3), 284-298.

The bases of teacher experiences: A meta-analysis

Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies. 

Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology75(3), 327.

Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement

This meta-analysis systematically synthesized results from 26 component studies, including dissertations and published articles, which reported at least one correlation between collective teacher efficacy and school achievement.

Eells, R. J. (2011). Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement.

Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?

An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that (a) detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; (b) mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and (c) positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory. 

Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist51(11), 1153.

Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?

Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction. 

Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education28(4), 291-329.

The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis

This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.

Fendick, F. (1992). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis.

Is "Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement? A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences between Low Achievers with and without the Label.

This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.

Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct.

The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then  review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice18(3), 157-171.

Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies

The authors assessed the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction (L. S. Fuchs et al., 2003), on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., Hamlett, C. L., Owen, R., & Schroeter, K. (2003). Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology95(2), 306–315.

The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement

The purpose of this study is to examine how the principal preparation programs of newly hired elementary school principals might influence school achievement. The study looks at differing elementary school principal preparation program approaches impact on build teams and the affect this has on student achievement.

Fuller, E. J., Young, M. D., & Baker, B. (2007). The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf

Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited

Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations.  The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic44(4), 195-205.

Preparing for culturally responsive teaching.

In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.

Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education53(2), 106-116.

Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.

Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.

A practical application of time management

This chapter progresses four specific components of “a practical application of time management”.

George, D. (2012). A practical application of time management.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221928054_A_Practical_Application_of_Time_Management

Incentives in organizations

The author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. The author concludes by suggesting two avenues for further progress in agency theory: better integration with organizational economics, and cross-pollination with other fields that study organizations. 

Gibbons, R. (1998). Incentives in organizations. Journal of economic perspectives12(4), 115-132.

Teamwork, soft skills, and research training.

This paper provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on the authors own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. This paper also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.

Gibert, A., Tozer, W. C., & Westoby, M. (2017). Teamwork, soft skills, and research training. Trends in ecology & evolution32(2), 81-84.

Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement.

This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction. 

Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation1(2), 183-201.

Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

This book is written by Tom Gilbert who is one of the most influential theorists in building a science of performance management. Although not explicitly written for educators, it offers concrete examples principals can apply to improve the performance of teachers and other school personnel so student’s can ultimately be successful.

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence�engineering worthy performance. NSPI Journal, 17(9), 19-27.

Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers.

The article presents an overview of these tenets drawn from opinion positions, practical experiences, and empirical research studies. There is clear evidence that additional empirical research would be beneficial.

Gillard, S. (2009). Soft skills and technical expertise of effective project managers. Issues in informing science & information technology6.

When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior.

This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.

Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives25(4), 191-210.

The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life.

Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”

Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.

Why marriages succeed or fail.

This breakthrough book guides you through a series of self-tests designed to help you determine what kind of marriage you have, where your strengths and weaknesses are, and what specific actions you can take to help your marriage.

Gottman, J., Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (1995). Why marriages succeed or fail: And how you can make yours last. Simon and Schuster.

Implicit bias: Scientific foundations.

This Article introduces implicit bias-an aspect of the new science of unconscious mental processes that has substantial bearing on discrimination law.

Greenwald, A. G., & Krieger, L. H. (2006). Implicit bias: Scientific foundations. California Law Review94(4), 945-967.

Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom

This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority. 

Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review37(3), 337.

A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships.

The purpose of the current study was to test theoretically derived hypotheses regarding the relationships between team efficacy, potency, and performance and to examine the moderating effects of level of analysis and interdependence on observed relationships.

Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of applied psychology87(5), 819.

Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses.

Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. 

Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin97(3), 363.

Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement

Hattie’s book is designed as a meta-meta-study that collects, compares and analyses the findings of many previous studies in education. Hattie focuses on schools in the English-speaking world but most aspects of the underlying story should be transferable to other countries and school systems as well. Visible Learning is nothing less than a synthesis of more than 50.000 studies covering more than 80 million pupils. Hattie uses the statistical measure effect size to compare the impact of many influences on students’ achievement, e.g. class size, holidays, feedback, and learning strategies.

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die

This book reveal the anatomy of ideas that stick and explain ways to make ideas stickier, such as applying the human scale principle, using the Velcro Theory of Memory, and creating curiosity gaps. Along the way, we discover that sticky messages of all kinds draw their power from the same six traits.

Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.

Hard evidence on soft skills.

This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life.

Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour economics19(4), 451-464.

Evaluating the relationships between poverty and school.

This study examined the relationships between poverty and a school's academic performance (both student achievement and growth).

Hegedus, A. (2018). Evaluating the Relationships between Poverty and School Performance. NWEA Research. NWEA.

What do we know about time management? A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the existing time management literature.

Hellsten, L. M. (2012). What do we know about time management. A review of the literature and a psychometric critique of instruments assessing time management. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech, 21-22.

A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures.

A meta-analysis on the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and corresponding explicit self-report measures was conducted.

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(10), 1369-1385.

Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention

The purpose of this study was to examine the workplace factors that positively and negatively impact Black K12 teacher retention. This study utilized a mixed-method approach to examine the qualitative and quantitative data.

Hollinside, M. M. (2017). Education reparation: an examination of Black teacher retention (Doctoral dissertation).

Principal’s time use and school effectiveness.

This paper examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes including student achievement, teacher and parent assessments of the school, and teacher satisfaction.

Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's time use and school effectiveness. American journal of education116(4), 491-523.

Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong.

This study have sought to investigate teacher success in Hong Kong. The study aims to achieve the following objectives: to acquire an initial understanding of how Hong Kong teachers conceptualize teacher success, to identify the factors hindering teacher success; to study the relationship between professional development and teacher success.

Hung, C. M., Oi, A. K., Chee, P. K., & Man, C. L. (2007). Defining the meaning of teacher success in Hong Kong. In Handbook of teacher education (pp. 415-432). Springer, Dordrecht.

Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis

This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.

Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.

Life in Classrooms.

Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore

In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police officers, employment recruiters, and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in organizational behavior29, 39-69.

Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices

The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.

Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(3), 20-27.

Implicit bias in the courtroom.

What, if anything, should we do about implicit bias in the courtroom? The authors comprises legal academics, scientists, researchers, and even a sitting federal judge who seek to answer this question in accordance with behavioral realism.

Kang, J., Bennett, M., Carbado, D., & Casey, P. (2011). Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLa L. rev.59, 1124.

Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008–09 teacher follow-up survey

The objective of TFS is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K–12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Keigher, A. (2010). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. First Look. NCES 2010-353. National Center for Education Statistics.

How Does Reading Proficiency Correlate With a Student's Socio-Economic Status?

This analysis examines the influence of poverty on student reading performance across grade levels.

Keyworth, R. (2015). How does reading proficiency correlate with a student's socio-economic status? Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/how-does-reading-proficiency

Instructional coaching

This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. 

Knight, J. (2006). Instructional Coaching. School Administrator63(4), 36.

Why incentive plans cannot work

This paper discusses about reasons for the failure of incentive programs. Studies show the ineffectivity of incentive plans to boost productivity. 

 

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Work groups and teams in organizations.

This review chapter examines the literature on work team effectiveness. This paper consider their nature, define them, and identify four critical conceptual issues—context, workflow, levels, and time—that serve as review themes and discuss the multitude of forms that teams may assume.

Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. Handbook of psychology, 333-375.

Teacher-student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school

The purpose of this literature search study was to assess the status of knowledge regarding the association between teacher–student relationship (TSR), dropout from upper secondary school, and student mental health.

Krane, V., Karlsson, B., Ness, O., & Kim, H. S. (2016). Teacher–student relationship, student mental health, and dropout from upper secondary school: A literature review. Lærer-elev-relasjoner, elevers psykiske helse og frafall i videregående skole. En eksplorerende studie om samarbeid og den store betydningen av de små ting.

Teacher stress and burnout: An international review

This paper reviews studies on teacher stress and burnout conducted over the past decade. The range of studies considered indicates that this topic is now of major international concern.

Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational research29(2), 146-152.

Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy.

This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macro analytic perspective

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American educational research journal32(3), 465-491.

The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer

This article discusses differences that are hypothesized to exist between hard‐ (technical) and soft‐ (intrapersonal and interpersonal) skills training that we believe impact the degree of training transfer achieved. 

Laker, D. R., & Powell, J. L. (2011). The differences between hard and soft skills and their relative impact on training transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly22(1), 111-122.

Academic and social integration variables and secondary student persistence in distance education.

A survey of 351 secondary distance education students (181 responses) found significant relationships between 2 academic variables (educational goals and study time) and academic persistence;

Laube, M. R. (1992). Academic and Social Integration Variables and Secondary Student Persistence in Distance Education. Research in Distance Education4(1), 2-9.

Performance pay and productivity

Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review90(5), 1346-1361.

Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decision-making, and misremembering

In this article, the author claim that judges and jurors unknowingly misremember case facts in racially biased ways.  Drawing upon studies from implicit social cognition, human memory research, and legal decisionmaking, I argue that implicit racial biases affect the way judges and jurors encode, store, and recall relevant case facts. 

Levinson, J. D. (2007). Forgotten racial equality: Implicit bias, decisionmaking, and misremembering. Duke LJ57, 345.

Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how.
In this article, the authors discuss what an anti-bias curriculum is, provide the theoretical framework and rationale for involving teacher candidates in certain activities that promote the anti-bias curriculum, and offer additional anti-bias strategies for teacher candidates and teacher educators to implement in their classrooms.

 

Lin, M., Lake, V. E., & Rice, D. (2008). Teaching anti-bias curriculum in teacher education programs: What and how. Teacher Education Quarterly35(2), 187-200.

Expectations for students.

The evidence in this paper suggest that schools can improve student learning by encouraging teachers and students to set their sights high.

Lumsden, L. S. (1997). Expectations for students.

Effects of performance feedback and coaching on the problem-solving process: Improving the integrity of implementation and enhancing student outcomes

the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process

Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of “uh,” “um,” or “er”; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word “like.” During post-intervention assessments, all 6 participants exhibited an immediate decrease in filled pauses.

Mancuso, C., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking. Journal of applied behavior analysis49(1), 188-192.

Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher

How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do 
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting 
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools, 
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom 
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these 
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

 

Team effectiveness 1997–2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future

The authors review team research that has been conducted over the past 10 years. They discuss the nature of work teams in context and note the substantive differences underlying different types of teams.

Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of management34(3), 410-476.

“Soft Skills”: A phrase in search of meaning

This literature review explores the definition of soft skills; contrasts skills with related concepts, such as personality traits, attitudes, beliefs, and values; and compares a set of soft skill typologies

Matteson, M. L., Anderson, L., & Boyden, C. (2016). " Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning. portal: Libraries and the Academy16(1), 71-88.

The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs.

This study provides a description of 34 practicing teachers' beliefs regarding the role of empathy as an attribute in their effectiveness with culturally diverse students. Empathy involves cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that teachers believed were manifested in their practice.

McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of teacher education53(5), 433-443.

Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process.

This study describes the outcomes of an intervention focused on the strategies and practices of high expectation teachers. Findings revealed that teachers involved in the intervention refined and changed their practices by creating flexible grouping, enhancing the class climate, and supporting students’ goal setting. 

McDonald, L., Flint, A., Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E. R., Watson, P., & Garrett, L. (2016). Teaching high-expectation strategies to teachers through an intervention process. Professional Development in education42(2), 290-307.

Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students.

This study investigated communicative strategies for helping female students cope with ‘‘stereotype threat’’. The results demonstrate that priming a positive achieved identity (e.g., private college student) can subdue stereotype threat associated with an ascribed identity (e.g., female).

McGlone, M. S., & Aronson, J. (2007). Forewarning and forearming stereotype-threatened students. Communication Education56(2), 119-133.

Exploring the Use of Social Media Network Methods in Designing Healthcare Quality Improvement Teams.

In this paper, the authors use tools from social network analysis (SNA) to derive principles for the design of effective clinical quality improvement teams and explore the implementation of these principles using social network data collected from the inpatient general medicine services at a large academic medical center in Chicago, USA

Meltzer, D., Chung, J., Khalili, P., Marlow, E., Arora, V., Schumock, G., & Burt, R. (2010). Exploring the use of social network methods in designing healthcare quality improvement teams. Social science & medicine71(6), 1119-1130.

Falling off track: How teacher-student relationships predict early high school failure rates

This paper examines the relationship between the climate of teacher-student relations within a school and individual student's likelihood of freshman year success.  Results find that teacher-student climate does have a significant effect.

Miller, S. R. (2000). Falling Off Track: How Teacher-Student Relationships Predict Early High School Failure Rates.

Classroom social climate and student absences and grades

this paper investigated the relationship between student and teacher perceptions of the social environments of 19 high school classes and student absenteeism rates and the average final grades given by the teacher. 

Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1978). Classroom social climate and student absences and grades. Journal of Educational Psychology70(2), 263.

Updating the Project Management Bodies of Knowledge

This paper reviews the status of BOKs and reports research on what topics should be included in the BOK (1) conducted at the Center of Research in the Management of Projects (CRMP) using data from 117 companies and (2) through ongoing work on a Global framework sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and others.

Morris, P. W. (2001). Updating the project management bodies of knowledge. Project Management Journal32(3), 21-30.

Radical equations: Math literacy and civil rights

Begun in 1982, the Algebra Project is transforming math education in twenty-five cities. The Project works with entire communities-parents, teachers, and especially students-to create a culture of literacy around algebra, a crucial stepping-stone to college math and opportunity.

Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables

Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research.

Ocak, G., & Boyraz, S. (2016). Examination of the relation between academic procrastination and time management skills of undergraduate students in terms of some variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies4(5), 76-84.

Relating communication competence to teaching effectiveness: Implication for teacher education

This paper posits that teacher education should emphasize both content knowledge and communication skills. It follows up the contention by conceptualizing communication, exploring teacher communication competence, and finally suggesting the introduction of Teacher Communication Skills (TCS) course in the curricula of teacher education across levels.

Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating Communication Competence to Teaching Effectiveness: Implication for Teacher Education. Journal of Education and Practice8(3), 150-154.

Relating communication competence to teaching effectiveness: Implication for teacher education

This paper posits that teacher education should emphasize both content knowledge and communication skills. It follows up the contention by conceptualizing communication, exploring teacher communication competence, and finally suggesting the introduction of Teacher Communication Skills (TCS) course in the curricula of teacher education across levels.

Okoli, A. C. (2017). Relating Communication Competence to Teaching Effectiveness: Implication for Teacher Education. Journal of Education and Practice8(3), 150-154.

Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis

This report seeks to highlight some disparities to draw the public’s and policymakers’ attention to the urgent need to address this educational and civil rights crisis. Using a more accurate method for calculating graduation rates, they provide estimates of high school graduation rates, distinguished at the state and district level, and disaggregated by race.

Orfield, G., Losen, D., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Civil Rights Project at Harvard University (The).

Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies

This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination.

Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of personality and social psychology105(2), 171.

Work Teams in Schools

"More is better"--this precept lies behind the burgeoning use of work teams to handle problem-solving and decision-making in schools and school districts. Teams are said to build stronger relationships among those involved in education and, ultimately, to benefit students because more people with broader perspectives help to shape a stronger educational program.

Oswald, L. J. (1996). Work teams in schools.

Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms.

Parsonson, B. S. (2012). Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies. Kairaranga13(1), 16-23.

Time Management Behavior as a Moderator for the Job Demand-Control Interaction.

The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers.

Peeters, M. A., & Rutte, C. G. (2005). Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction. Journal of occupational health psychology10(1), 64.

Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Manual

Positive teacher-student interactions are a primary ingredient of quality early educational experiences that launch future school success. With CLASS, educators finally have an observational tool to assess classroom quality in pre-kindergarten through grade 3 based on teacher-student interactions rather than the physical environment or a specific curriculum

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom Assessment Scoring System™: Manual K-3. Baltimore, MD, US: Paul H Brookes Publishing.

Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets.

Quillian, L., Pager, D., Hexel, O., & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(41), 10870–10875.

The effectiveness of teams in organizations: a meta-analysis

The proposed meta-analysis of 61 independent samples aims to identify whether, and if so under what conditions, team working in organizations is related to organizational effectiveness.

Richter, A. W., Dawson, J. F., & West, M. A. (2011). The effectiveness of teams in organizations: A meta-analysis.International Journal of Human Resource Management22(13), 2749–2769.

The Impact of Leadership On Student Outcomes: an Analysis Of The Differential Effects Of Leadership Types

The purpose of this study is to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students’ academic and nonacademic outcomes.

Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational administration quarterly.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace

This study identified the top 10 soft skills as perceived the most important by business executives: integrity, communication, courtesy, responsibility, social skills, positive attitude, professionalism, flexibility, teamwork, and work ethic.

Robles, M. M. (2012). Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 453–465.

Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies

This paper general purpose is to summarize the results of 345 experiments investigating interpersonal expectancy effects. These studies fall into eight broad categories of research: reaction time, inkblot tests, animal learning, laboratory interviews, psychophysical judgments, learning and ability, person perception, and everyday life situations. 

Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. (1978). Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 377–415.

Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes

The current study aimed to track the self‐perception outcomes of students (N = 256) whose teachers had high or low class‐level expectations. Students completed the Reading, Mathematics, Physical Abilities, and Peer Relations subscales of the Self Description Questionnaire‐1 (SDQ‐1; Marsh, 1990) at the beginning and end of 1 year.

Rubie, C. M. (2004). Expecting the best: Instructional practices, teacher beliefs and student outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland, New Zealand,database (UoA1207968).

Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes

This study aimed to explore differences in teachers’ expectations and judgments of student reading performance for Maori, Pacific Island, Asian and New Zealand European students. A further objective was to compare teacher expectations and judgments with actual student achievement.

Rubie‐Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology76(3), 429-444.

Improving Performance: How To Manage The White Space On The Chart

Improving Performance has been a pivotal book in the creation of the performance management movement by showing how to bridge the gap between organization strategy and the individual. It can be used as guide for principals to link planning to action, implementation of organization change, and offering ways to redesign processes to overcome obstacles that impede implementation.

Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.

Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines

This latest volume in the SIOP Professional Practice Series was inspired by a Leading Edge Conference sponsored by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology to bring together leading-edge practitioners and academics to exchange views and knowledge about effective teams and help lead to better practice in that area.

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S., Cohen, D., & Latham, G. (Eds.). (2013). Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines (Vol. 33). John Wiley & Sons.

Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

This paper provides an overview of previous research results pertaining to the relation between interest and academic achievement. focus on the conceptualization and operationalization of interest.

Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., & Winteler, A. (1992). Interest as a predictor of academic achievement: A meta-analysis of research.

A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States

This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. T

Schroeder, C. M., Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., Huang, T. Y., & Lee, Y. H. (2007). A meta‐analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching44(10), 1436-1460.

The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

This paper makes a survey of the importance of soft skills in students’ lives both at college and after college. It discusses how soft skills complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements of a job the student is trained to do.

Schulz, B. (2008). The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge.

Teams in the Military: A Review and Emerging Challenges

the purpose of this chapter is to review the science of teams and their effectiveness, extrapolate critical lessons learned, and highlight several future challenges critical for military psychology to address in order to prepare future military teams for success.

Shuffler, M. L., Pavlas, D., & Salas, E. (2012). Teams in the military: A review and emerging challenges. In J. H. Laurence & M. D. Matthews (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of military psychology(pp. 282–310). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice.

The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.

Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion.

This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers’ feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and discipline problems.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and teacher education27(6), 1029-1038.

Science and human behavior

The psychology classic—a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled. 

Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and human behavior (No. 92904). Simon and Schuster.

Teacher expectations.

The purpose of this paper is to integrate statistically the results of the literature on teacher expectations. 

Smith, M. L. (1980). Teacher expectations. Evaluation in Education4, 53-55.

Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills.

Several barriers can impede critical thinking instruction. However, actively engaging students in project-based or collaborative activities can encourage students’ critical thinking development if instructors model the thinking process, use effective questioning techniques, and guide students’ critical thinking processes.

Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. The Journal of Research in Business Education50(2), 90.

Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness

The present study explores conflict management as a team phenomenon in schools. The author examined how the contextual variables (task interdependence, goal interdependence) are related to team conflict management style (integrating vs. dominating) and school team effectiveness (team performance).

Somech, A. (2008). Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness. Educational administration quarterly44(3), 359-390.

Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions.

Evidence-based practice is a decision-making framework.  This paper describes the relationships among the three cornerstones of this framework.

Spencer, T. D., Detrich, R., & Slocum, T. A. (2012). Evidence-based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions. Education & Treatment of Children (West Virginia University Press), 35(2), 127-151.

Classroom Management

In this overview, classroom management strategies have been grouped into four essential areas: rules and procedures, proactive management, well-designed and delivered instruction, and disruptive behavior management. These strategies are devised for use at both school and classroom levels.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Classroom Management.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-classroom.

Effective Instruction Overview

A summary of the available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Effective Instruction Overview. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/effective-instruction-overview

Teacher Soft Skills Overview

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) and how these proficiencies support the technical competencies required for success in school 

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Teacher Soft Skills.Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-compentencies-soft-skills.

 

Teacher-student Relationships.

This overview examines the available research on the topic of soft skills (personal competencies) commonly linked to effective teacher-student relationships.

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Teacher-student Relationships Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/soft-skills-teacher-student-relationships

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support

This article considers culture within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The paper provides an overview of culture and working definitions to assist educators to more effectively implement evidence-based practices.

Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208. Can pd

A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US

Recent media reports of teacher shortages across the country are confirmed by the analysis of several national datasets reported in this brief. Shortages are particularly severe in special education, mathematics, science, and bilingual/English learner education, and in locations with lower wages and poorer working conditions. Shortages are projected to grow based on declines in teacher education enrollments, coupled with student enrollment growth, efforts to reduce pupil-teacher ratios, and ongoing high attrition rates.

Sutcher, L., Darling-Hammond, L., & Carver-Thomas, D. (2016). A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US. Washington, DC: Learning Policy Institute. Available at: https://learningpolicyinstitute. org/sites/default/files/product-files/A_Coming_Crisis_in_Teaching_REPORT. pdf.

Best practices in school psychology III.

Increasingly, school services are being guided by a problem solving approach and are evaluated by the achievement of positive outcomes. This shift is explored here in 96 chapters and 11 appendices. The volume provides a comprehensive reference relating contemporary research and thought to quality professional services

Thomas, A., & Grimes, J. (Eds.). (1995). Best practices in school psychology III.Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model.

This chapter chronicles some of the major steps school psychology has taken toward adopting science as the basis of practice. Each step has yielded benefits for students as well as practice challenges to be overcome.

Tilly, W. D. (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology–5(pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning.

This article reports the findings of two meta-analyses that explored the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Combined, the results suggest that teacher clarity has a larger effect for student affective learning than for cognitive learning. However, neither the effects for cognitive learning nor affective learning were homogeneous. 

Titsworth, S., Mazer, J. P., Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Two meta-analyses exploring the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Communication Education64(4), 385-418.

Preservice teachers’ perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum.

This study investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program.

Van Hook, C. W. (2002). Preservice teachers' perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 254-265.

Are we making the differences that matter in education.

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Are we making the differences that matter in education.

This paper argues that ineffective practices in schools carry a high price for consumers and suggests that school systems consider the measurable yield in terms of gains in student achievement for their schooling effort.

VanDerHeyden, A. (2013). Are we making the differences that matter in education. In R. Detrich, R. Keyworth, & J. States (Eds.),Advances in evidence-based education: Vol 3(pp. 119–138). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Vol3Ch4.pdf

Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools

This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. This article describes the ways in which evidence-based practice (EBP) and  response to intervention (RtI) can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. 

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205-213.

What Influences Learning? A Content Analysis Of Review Literature.

This is a meta-review and synthesis of the research on the variables related learning.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. The Journal of Educational Research, 30-43.

Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change

This study examined the social attitudes related to race, gender, age, and ability among senior level health education students at a mid-sized university in the southeast by means of a personally experienced critical incident involving a cross-cultural incident. 

Wasson, D. H., & Jackson, M. H. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change. Journal of Instructional Psychology29(4), 265-277.

Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative data teams, 2006

This article offers practical suggestions on how to build a data-based culture in schools.

Wayman, J. C., Midgley, S., & Stringfield, S. (2006). Leadership for data-based decision-making: Collaborative educator teams. Learner centered leadership: Research, policy, and practice, 189-206.

Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis.

A meta-analysis of the data from empirical investigations of diversity in work groups was used to examine the impact of two types of diversity attributes, highly job-related and less-related, on work group cohesion and performance. 

Webber, S. S., & Donahue, L. M. (2001). Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of management27(2), 141-162.

Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education.

This journal discuss about inequality as a persistent problem in school. An educational system that sorts for differentiated pathways must be replaced with one that develops the talents of all. Psychology has a critical role to play in promoting a new understanding of malleable human capabilities and optimal conditions for their nurturance in schooling. 

Weinstein, R. S., Gregory, A., & Strambler, M. J. (2004). Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist59(6), 511.

Hard Thinking on Soft Skill

A prudent way forward for educators given the many acknowledged unknowns in soft skills reform is to substantially enhance efforts that fall within traditional school practices and responsibilities rather than to boldly make risky bets on unproven programs and measures. This paper breakdown the steps for school and district administrators.

Whitehurst, G. J. (2016). Hard thinking on soft skills. Evidence Speaks Reports1(14), 1-10.

The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta‐analysis.

Results of this meta‐analysis research, testing for a moderator effect, show that support for the overjustification effect occurs only when intrinsic motivation is operationalized as task behaviour during a free‐time measure.

Wiersma, U. (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.

Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse.

This paper looks at scope and sequence as essential to effective instruction Instructional.

Wiley, D., & Waters, S. (2005). Scoping and sequencing educational resources and speech acts: A unified design framework for learning objects and educational discourse. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 1(1), 143-150.

4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.

Help your students understand the perspectives of other people with these tried-and-tested methods.

Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2017). 4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-proven-strategies-teaching-empathy-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers

Time management: An experimental investigation.

Four groups of preservice teachers participating in student teaching seminars were randomly assigned to one of three conditions to test the effectiveness of brief training in time-management techniques. 

Woolfolk, A. E., & Woolfolk, R. L. (1986). Time management: An experimental investigation. Journal of school Psychology24(3), 267-275.

Failing Teachers?

This book describes the research undertaken during the Teaching Competence Project, a two-year research project funded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation. There were five interlinked studies in the research.

Wragg, E. C., Chamberlin, R. P., & Haynes, G. S. (2005). Failing teachers?. Routledge.

The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students

This paper analyzes the research base on recruiting, preparing, and retaining good teachers being implemented in U.S. teacher education.

Zeichner, K. M. (2003). The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers college record, 105(3), 490-519.

Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22)
This report to the North Carolina General Assembly provides detailed information on teacher retention in the state’s public schools for the period ending 2013.
Coby, W. et al., (2013). Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22). North Carolina Department Of Public Instruction, Educator Effectiveness Division. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/meetings/TempFolder/Meetings/Attachment%201%20-%202012-13%20Teacher%20Turnover%20Report_19785ndyywn45kqzxm045lztxku45.pdf
2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook National Summary
This paper is an analysis of 50 state’s performance toward 36 teacher policy goals aimed at helping states build a comprehensive policy framework in support of teacher effectiveness.
Coggshall, J. G. (2012). Toward the Effective Teaching of New College-and Career-Ready Standards: Making Professional Learning Systemic. Research-to-Practice Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The Revolving Door of the Principalship
This study examines the importance of selection and retention of quality principals for improving and sustaining school success. Data from Texas educational employment files provides a basis for inquiry into this problem.
Fuller, E., Terry Orr, M., & Young, M. D. (2008). The Revolving Door of the Principalship. Implications from UCEA. University Council for Educational Administration. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers
This is taken from the testimony of Richard Ingersoll in front the Pennsylvania legislature on the issues of school turnover.
Ingersoll, R. M. (2013). Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers. Retrieved October 3, 2014
2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: National Summary
This is a national analysis of each state’s performance against and progress toward a set of 36 specific, research-based teacher policy goals aimed at helping states build a comprehensive policy of teacher effectiveness.
Jacobs, S., Brody, S., Doherty, K, and Michele, K. (2011). 2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: National Summary. National Council on Teacher Quality.
The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership (2012)
The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher has been completed annually since 1984. This report examines the views of teachers and principals on the responsibilities and challenges facing schools.
Markow, D., Marcia, L., and Lee, H. (2012). The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership. Metlife Incorporated. Retrieved August 19, 2014
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey
This survey provides information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States and the District of Columbia.
Marvel, J., Lyter, D. M., Peltola, P., Strizek, G. A., Morton, B. A., & Rowland, R. (2007). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307. National Center for Education Statistics.
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach
This book offers a thorough array of practical teaching methods backed by rigorous research to have the greatest effect along with practical techniques to apply these in actual classroom settings.
Petty. G. (2009). Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.
Research Synthesis: Does evidence suggest that some teachers are significantly more effective than others at improving student achievement?
This report looks at the evidence behind the proposition that some teachers are more effective than other teachers.
Prince, C., Koppich, et al., (2007). Research Synthesis: Does evidence suggest that some teachers are significantly more effective than others at improving student achievement? Center for Education Compensation
Teaching and Learning International Survey
In 2013, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Defelopment (OECD) published the results of their second international, large-scale survey of the teaching workforce, the conditions of teaching, and the learning environments of schools in participating countries, titled, Teaching and Learning International Survey.
Rutkowski,D., Rutkowski,L., Blanger,J., Knoll,S., Weatherby,K., and Prusinski, E. (2013). Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS 2013, Conceptual Framework
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Bellwether Education Partners
Bellwether Education Partners is a nonprofit dedicated to helping education organizations in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors.
Calder: Longitudinal Data in Education Research
CALDER is a National Research and Development Center that utilizes longitudinal state and district data on student and teachers to examine the effects of real policies and practices on the learning gains of students over time.
Center on Great Teachers and Leaders
The Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) is dedicated to supporting state education leaders in their efforts to grow, respect, andretain great teachers and leaders for all students.
Common Core of Data (CCD)
CCD is a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics that annually collects fiscal and non-fiscal data about all public schools, public school districts and state education agencies in the United States
Condition of Education
The Condition of Education is an annual report on key indicators of the U.S. education system. It is published by the Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
CCSSO is a nonpartisan, nationwide, nonprofit organization of public officials who head departments of elementary and secondary education in the states, provides leadership, advocacy, and technical assistance on major educational issues.
Council of the Great City Schools

The Council’s mission is to promote the cause of urban schools and to advocate for inner-city students through legislation, research and media relations.

Education Week
This organization is a source of news, information, and analysis on American education
Education Writers Association (EWA)
EWA is a professional organization of members of the media who cover education at all levels.
EducationNews.org
EducationNews provides the latest daily coverage from U. S. and world media publications, commentaries and reports are featured and include comprehensive views on education issues from all sides of the political spectrum.
Hechinger Report | Common Core
The Hechinger Report is an independent, nonprofit newsroom that covers inequality and innovation in education with in-depth journalism.
Joyce Foundation
The Joyce Foundation invests in and focuses on today's most pressing problems while also informing the public policy decisions critical to creating opportunity and achieving long-term solutions. The work is based on sound research and is focused on where it can add the most value.
K-12 Education: Gates Foundation
K-12 Education works to make sure tools, curriculum, and supports are designed using teacher insights.
National Commission on Teaching & America's Future (NCTAF)
NCTAF is a bipartisan endeavor to engage experienced policymakers and practitioners in researching the entrenched national challenge of recruiting, developing, and retaining teachers.
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

New Teacher Center
The New Teacher Center provides research, policy analyses, training and support for improving new teacher support and induction.
Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)
The SASS is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education and policymakers a variety of statistics on the condition of education in the United States.
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