Education Drivers

Teacher Program Accountability

All states in the United States require teachers to be licensed. A total of 27,914 programs from 2,137 providers offered preparation for licensing in 2015. Alternative options to traditional preparation have arisen to meet critical teacher shortages. These differ from traditional preparation by course work occurring while candidates are already teaching. No national standards exist, so each state is responsible for identifying training that will meet licensing requirements. Two organizations have the mission to improve programs through accreditation: National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC). No national or state accountability systems currently exist to identify and hold accountable poorly performing programs. To hold programs answerable to consumers, National Council of Teacher Quality (NCTQ) publishes a comprehensive review of preparation programs that ranks undergraduate and graduate elementary and second programs. The review ranks undergraduate and graduate elementary and secondary programs as a way to hold programs answerable to consumers. Valued-added modeling, a statistical analytical method, has shown promise in matching student achievement to teachers and programs that provided the preparation. Progress in valued-added modeling is hindered by questions of efficacy that remain to be addressed.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

From “learning to learn” to “training to teach”: Changing the culture of teacher preparation

This paper considers issues confronted by National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) upon publishing their second edition of Teacher Prep Review, a comprehensive evaluation of programs that train new teachers. Changing the culture of teacher preparation has proven to be extremely challenging. The paper examines the deeply entrenched preparation program culture that has been resistant to changes proposed by policy makers, school systems, and the public. Arthur reviews the current state of teacher preparation, the efforts of NCTQ to raise the standards of preparation, and looks at what can be done in the future to continue the progress that has been already achieved.

McKee, A. (2014). From “learning to learn” to “training to teach”: Changing the culture of teacher preparation Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2014%20Wing%20Summit%20AM.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough?
This analysis examines the rigor of teacher pre-service coursework in comparison to other common disciplines.
States, J. (2014). Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough? Retrieved from is-teacher-preparation-challenging.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Educating School Teachers
This report provides an examination of the successes and failures of university-based teacher education programs.
Levine, A., (2006). Educating School Teachers. The Education Schools Project
Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

This paper: reviews research on beginning teacher induction programs, summarizing previous reviews of the topic; identifies various state- and local-level induction programs, analyzing best practices that exist today. 

Arends, R. I., & Rigazio-DiGilio, A. J. (2000). Beginning Teacher Induction: Research and Examples of Contemporary Practice.

Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles

This paper addresses only the use of data on the learning gains of graduates’ students to evaluate teacher preparation programs. This paper offer six core principles for strong design based on the models developed in three pioneering states: Louisiana, North Carolina and Tennessee.

Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles. (2013). National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Preparation_Program_Student_Performance_Data_Models_NCTQ_Report

The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS)

This report presents PEDS findings from the 2011 and 2012 surveys, which reported on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Some of the findings in this report counter common myths about higher education-based preparation programs. Others show that there is still much work to be done. 

The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS). (2013). Washington: American Association of College for Teacher Education. 

A Measured Approach to improving Teacher Preparation

This paper offer three strategies that will create the right conditions for states and institutions to reform poor-performing teacher preparation programs, improve preparation as a whole, and help keep more well-prepared teachers in the classroom after they graduate.

Aldeman, C., Carey, K., Dillon, E., Miller, B., & Silva, E. (2011). A measured approach to improving teacher preparation. Education Sector Policy Brief, 5-22.

Teacher Preparation and Induction.

This issue is the second in a three-part series on quality teaching. The other two issues in the series focus on teacher recruitment and teachers' career structures and work environment. This issue examines research and expert consensus on teacher preparation,

Allen, M. (2000). Teacher Preparation and Induction. Progress of Education Reform, 1999-20012(3), n3.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs

A 10-year comparison of graduates from 4- and 5-year teacher education programs at the same institution revealed significant differences between graduates of the two programs. Limitations of the study and alternative explanations for these differences are discussed.

Andrew, M. D. (1990). Differences between graduates of 4-year and 5-year teacher preparation programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 41, 45–51

Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of eleven teacher education programs.

This article describes the efforts of eleven universities and colleges to assess their teacher education programs based on broad, commonly held outcomes.

Andrew, M. D., & Schwab, R. L. (1995). Has reform in teacher education influenced teacher performance? An outcome assessment of graduates of an eleven-university consortium. Action in teacher education17(3), 43-53.

Reforming teacher preparation and licensing: What is the evidence?

Using professional self-regulation in medicine as a model, the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future has proposed sweeping changes in how teachers are trained and licensed, claiming that the reforms are well-grounded in research. This paper argues that the research literature offers far less support for the Commission's recommendations than is claimed. 

Ballou, D., & Podgursky, M. (2000). Reforming Teacher Preparation and Licensing: What is the Evidence?. Teachers College Record102(1), 5-27.

Pay for Percentile

This paper proposes an incentive scheme for educators that links compensation to the ranks of their students within comparison sets. 

Barlevy, G., & Neal, D. (2012). Pay for percentile. The American Economic Review, 102(5), 1805-1831.

Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs

This article reviewed a number of comprehensive instructional-mentoring programs and identified three critical factors that seem to be making a positive difference. 

Barlin, D. (2010). Better mentoring, better teachers: Three factors that help ensure successful programs. Education Week29, 27.

What Do Surveys of Program Completers Tell Us About Teacher Preparation Quality?

This study uses statewide completer survey data from North Carolina to assess whether perceptions of preparation quality and opportunities to learn during teacher preparation predict completers’ value-added estimates, evaluation ratings, and retention.

Bastian, K. C., Sun, M., & Lynn, H. (2018). What do surveys of program completers tell us about teacher preparation quality? Journal of Teacher Education, November 2019.

Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City

This paper assess the long-run implications of alternatively certified teachers. 

Boyd, D., Dunlop, E., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Mahler, P., O’Brien, R., & Wyckoff, J. (2012). Alternative certification in the long run: A decade of evidence on the effects of alternative certification in New York City. In annual meeting of the American Education Finance and Policy Conference, Boston, MA.

Research on Methods Courses and Field Experiences

This chapter from "Studying Teacher Education"  focus on the research procedures and the impact claims of researchers who study the complex phenomenon commonly labeled as a methods course or a teacher-
education-related field experience in a school or community. 

Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education309424.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief

This brief explores research that points to the opportunities and the challenges that evaluating teacher preparation programs differently presents.

Coggshall, J. G., Bivona, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543773

Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010

This report describe teacher educators about their perspectives on the pressing questions surrounding teacher education and school reform today. Results show that education professors hold divided views on many issues. 

Farkas, S., & Duffett, A. (2010). Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.

Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and the foundation of education.

Teaching methods and field experience courses that focus on teaching make up only a small fraction of the postsecondary coursework required for teachers, especially for prospective secondary teachers. 

Floden, R., & Meniketti, M. (2009). Research on the effects of coursework in the arts and sciences and in the foundations of education. In Studying teacher education (pp. 273-320). Routledge.

The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis

The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement 

Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September3, 2009.

Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings

This paper provides the first empirical examination of National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) ratings,  beginning with a descriptive overview of the ratings and documentation of how they evolved from 2013-2016, both in aggregate and for programs with different characteristics.

Goldhaber, D., & Koedel, C. (2019). Public Accountability and Nudges: The Effect of an Information Intervention on the Responsiveness of Teacher Education Programs to External Ratings. American Educational Research Journal, 0002831218820863.

Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs

This study examines teacher preparation programs and how they have ineffectively been preparing teachers in critical areas necessary for effective teaching. The paper establishes ratings of key standards for 608 teacher preparation programs.

Greenberg, J., McKee, A., & Walsh, K. (2013). Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management

This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.

Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14

Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper.

This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels. 

Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review

The most successful teacher induction programs reported here include opportunities for experts and neophytes to learn together in a supportive environment promoting time for collaboration, reflection and acculturation into the profession of teaching. 

Howe, E. R. (2015). Exemplary Teacher Induction: An International Review. In In Search of Subjectivities (pp. 33-44). Routledge.

Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs.

This paper describes some implication of research on learning to teach to the design of induction and mentoring programs. 

Huling-Austin, L. (1992). Research on learning to teach: Implications for teacher induction and mentoring programs. Journal of teacher education43(3), 173-180.

Characteristics of Effective Alternative Teacher Certification Programs

This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials. 

Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record110(1), 1-63.

Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?

This study examines whether such supports have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers. The study also focuses on different types and components of induction, including mentoring programs, collective' group activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads. 

Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter?. NASSP bulletin88(638), 28-40

What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City

The authors use six years of data on student test performance to evaluate the effectiveness of certified, uncertified, and alternatively certified teachers in the New York City public schools. This study also evaluates turnover among teachers with different certification status and the impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover

Kane, T. J., Rockoff, J. E., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Economics of Education review27(6), 615-631.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes.

This paper presents an early field-based course and applied teaching project to examine teaching practices and pupil outcomes.

Maheady, L., Jabot, M., Rey, J., & Michielli-Pendl, J. (2007). An early field-based experience and its impact on pre-service candidates' teaching practice and their pupils' outcomes. Teacher Education and Special Education30(1), 24-33.

Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States.

This report describes how the seven Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) evaluate their teacher preparation programs and the changes they are making to improve their approaches to evaluation.

Meyer, S. J., Brodersen, R. M., & Linick, M. A. (2014). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States. REL 2015-044. Regional Educational Laboratory Central. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED550491

Teach for America: A Return to the Evidence

The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.

Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.

A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms

A year-long researcher-teacher professional development group with a next-year followup was conducted with seven general education teachers from two elementary schools in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. The components of successful professional development programs are discussed and implications for teacher education are offered. 

Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., Schumm, J. S., & Klingner, J. (1998). A collaborative effort to enhance reading and writing instruction in inclusion classrooms. Learning disability quarterly21(1), 57-74.

Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

This report examines research on teacher certification, reviewing every published study or paper, and many unpublished dissertations, cited by prominent advocates of teacher certification.

Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher Certification Reconsidered: Stumbling for Quality.

Within Our Grasp Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep

Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep is the tenth annual publication in the State Teacher Policy Yearbook report series released by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). This report focuses on teacher preparation program compliance with admissions policies required at the state level

Walsh, K., Joseph, N., and Lewis, A. (2016). Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evidence

This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.

Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education

The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings
This study examines the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry level earnings.
Betts, J. R., & Grogger, J. (2003). The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Economics of Education Review, 22(4), 343-352.
Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement
This paper estimates the effects of features of teachers' preparation on teachers' value-added to student test score performance in math and English Language Arts.
Boyd, Donald, Grossman, Pamela, Lankford, Hamilton, Loeb, Susanna and Wyckoff, James H., Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement (September 2008). NBER Working Paper No. W14314.
Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation
The purpose of this brief is to support the efforts of state and district leaders in designing and implementing teacher evaluation.
Coggshall, J. G., Rasmussen, C., Colton, A., Milton, J., & Jacques, C. (2012). Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education
This report proposes an accountability system to regulate teacher preparation programs in essential areas: students are learning, classroom teaching skills, graduates commitment to the professional, graduates and employers feedback, and tests of teacher knowledge and skills.
Crowe, E. (2010). Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education. Online Submission.
Getting Better at Teacher Preparation and State Accountability Strategies, Innovations, and Challenges Under the Federal Race to the Top Program
This paper describes the key findings from 12 winners of the Race-to-the-Top federal school reform initiative including recommendations the winners, and others interested in teacher quality.
Crowe, E. (2011). Getting Better at Teacher Preparation and State Accountability: Strategies, Innovations, and Challenges under the Federal Race to the Top Program. Center for American Progress.
Race to the Top and Teacher Preparation: Analyzing State Strategies for Ensuring Real Accountability and Fostering Program Innovation
The purpose of this paper is to recommend policy changes for Race to the Top including: data reporting systems, measures of preparation programs; innovative strategies, ways to support non-funded states, and monitor state performance.
Crowe, E. (2011). Race to the Top and Teacher Preparation: Analyzing State Strategies for Ensuring Real Accountability and Fostering Program Innovation. Online Submission.
Value added assessment of teacher preparation in Louisiana: 2005-2006 to 2008-2009
This paper examines the degree to which the educational attainment of students taught by recent graduates of specific teacher preparation programs either met, failed to meet, or exceeded expectations based on prior achievement and demographic factors as compared to experienced teachers..
Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Knox, R. M., & Schafer, M. J. (2010). Value added assessment of teacher preparation in Louisiana: 2005-2006 to 2008-2009. Baton Rouge, LA Louisiana State University.
A Research & Policy Brief: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability
This research synthesis examines dozens of research studies that link a number of teacher quality variables to student achievement, as measured by standardized tests.
Goe, L., & Stickler, L. M. (2008). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: Making the Most of Recent Research. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The Gateway to the Profession: Assessing Teacher Preparation Programs Based on Student Achievement.
This paper presents the results of research investigating the relationship between teachers who graduate from different training programs and student achievement on state reading and math tests.
Goldhaber, D., Liddle, S., & Theobald, R. (2013). The gateway to the profession: Assessing teacher preparation programs based on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 34, 29-44.
High-stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams
This study examines the relationship between teacher candidate scores on authentic measures and their scores on certification exams required by the state of Texas.
Goodman, G., Arbona, C., & Dominguez De Rameriz, R. (2008). High-stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(1), 24-39.
No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America’s Education Schools
This study examines selected education schools teacher preparation-mathematics courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of mathematics.
Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2008). No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs Using the Performance of their Graduates
This commentary addresses concerns for the use of value-added outcome measures commonly used to evaluate teachers and implications for the use of these metrics to assess the effectiveness of preparation programs.
Koedel, C. and Parsons, E., (2014). Evaluating teacher preparation programs using the performance of their graduates. Teachers College Record. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=17741
Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality Are There Real Differences Across Programs?
This paper offers a sobering view of teacher preparation programs. It uses a statewide longitudinal dataset from Missouri to examine the extent to which teachers who are prepared by different programs differ in effectiveness.
Koedel, C., Parsons, E., Podgursky, M., & Ehlert, M. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality: Are There Real Differences Across Programs?. Education Finance and Policy.
The Curriculum Wars.
This paper examines the history and issues that are fundamental to the clash between those promoting an evidence-based approach to education and those favoring a constructivist approach to learning.
Loveless, T. (2014). The Curriculum Wars. Date Accessed: 4/1/2014. http://www.hoover.org/publications/defining-ideas/article/171441
Where You Come From or Where You Go? Distinguishing Between School Quality and the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Program Graduates
This paper examines the challenges and implications of controlling for school contextual bias when modeling teacher preparation program effects.
Mihaly, K., McCaffrey, D., Sass, T. R., & Lockwood, J. R. (2012). Where you come from or where you go? Distinguishing between school quality and the effectiveness of teacher preparation program graduates. Distinguishing between School Quality and the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Program Graduates (March 2, 2012). Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series, (12-12).
Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading
This paper looks at the reasons why despite education having an extensive knowledge base in what works in teaching reading, teacher preparation programs continue to turn out teachers who are not competent in the skills needed to effectively teach reading.
Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Preparing Teachers: Are American Schools of Education Up to the Task
This education brief examines research on the effectiveness of teacher preparation programs.
Steiner, D. (2003). "Preparing Teachers: Are American Schools of Education Up to the Task?". American Enterprise Institute. Date accessed: 2/11/14 http://www.education-consumers.org/briefpdfs/3.11-preparing_teachers.pdf

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