Education Drivers

Teacher Program Accountability

All states in the United States require teachers to be licensed. A total of 27,914 programs from 2,137 providers offered preparation for licensing in 2015. Alternative options to traditional preparation have arisen to meet critical teacher shortages. These differ from traditional preparation by course work occurring while candidates are already teaching. No national standards exist, so each state is responsible for identifying training that will meet licensing requirements. Two organizations have the mission to improve programs through accreditation: National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC). No national or state accountability systems currently exist to identify and hold accountable poorly performing programs. To hold programs answerable to consumers, National Council of Teacher Quality (NCTQ) publishes a comprehensive review of preparation programs that ranks undergraduate and graduate elementary and second programs. The review ranks undergraduate and graduate elementary and secondary programs as a way to hold programs answerable to consumers. Valued-added modeling, a statistical analytical method, has shown promise in matching student achievement to teachers and programs that provided the preparation. Progress in valued-added modeling is hindered by questions of efficacy that remain to be addressed.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
From “learning to learn” to “training to teach”: Changing the culture of teacher preparation

This paper considers issues confronted by National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) upon publishing their second edition of Teacher Prep Review, a comprehensive evaluation of programs that train new teachers. Changing the culture of teacher preparation has proven to be extremely challenging. The paper examines the deeply entrenched preparation program culture that has been resistant to changes proposed by policy makers, school systems, and the public. Arthur reviews the current state of teacher preparation, the efforts of NCTQ to raise the standards of preparation, and looks at what can be done in the future to continue the progress that has been already achieved.

McKee, A. (2014). From “learning to learn” to “training to teach”: Changing the culture of teacher preparation Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/2014%20Wing%20Summit%20AM.pdf.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough?
This analysis examines the rigor of teacher pre-service coursework in comparison to other common disciplines.
States, J. (2014). Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough? Retrieved from is-teacher-preparation-challenging.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
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SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Educating School Teachers
This report provides an examination of the successes and failures of university-based teacher education programs.
Levine, A., (2006). Educating School Teachers. The Education Schools Project
Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles

This paper addresses only the use of data on the learning gains of graduates’ students to evaluate teacher preparation programs. This paper offer six core principles for strong design based on the models developed in three pioneering states: Louisiana, North Carolina and Tennessee.

Teacher Preparation Program Student Performance Data Models: Six Core Design Principles. (2013). National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Preparation_Program_Student_Performance_Data_Models_NCTQ_Report

The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS)

This report presents PEDS findings from the 2011 and 2012 surveys, which reported on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Some of the findings in this report counter common myths about higher education-based preparation programs. Others show that there is still much work to be done. 

The Changing Teacher Preparation Profession: A Report from AACTE's Professional Education Data System (PEDS). (2013). Washington: American Association of College for Teacher Education. 

A Measured Approach to improving Teacher Preparation

This paper offer three strategies that will create the right conditions for states and institutions to reform poor-performing teacher preparation programs, improve preparation as a whole, and help keep more well-prepared teachers in the classroom after they graduate.

Aldeman, C., Carey, K., Dillon, E., Miller, B., & Silva, E. (2011). A measured approach to improving teacher preparation. Education Sector Policy Brief, 5-22.

Pay for Percentile

This paper proposes an incentive scheme for educators that links compensation to the ranks of their students within comparison sets. Under certain conditions, this scheme induces teachers to allocate socially optimal levels of effort. Moreover, because this scheme employs only ordinal information, it allows education authorities to employ completely new assessments at each testing date without ever having to equate various assessments. This removes incentives for teachers to teach to a particular assessment form and eliminates opportunities to influence reward pay by corrupting assessment scales.

Barlevy, G., & Neal, D. (2012). Pay for percentile. The American Economic Review, 102(5), 1805-1831.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief

This brief explores research that points to the opportunities and the challenges that evaluating teacher preparation programs differently presents.

Coggshall, J. G., Bivona, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543773

Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010

This report describe teacher educators about their perspectives on the pressing questions surrounding teacher education and school reform today. Results show that education professors hold divided views on many issues. 

Farkas, S., & Duffett, A. (2010). Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.

Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs

This study examines teacher preparation programs and how they have ineffectively been preparing teachers in critical areas necessary for effective teaching. The paper establishes ratings of key standards for 608 teacher preparation programs.

Greenberg, J., McKee, A., & Walsh, K. (2013). Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management

This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.

Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14

Characteristics of Effective Alternative Teacher Certification Programs

This paper is based on an analysis of seven alternative certification programs to determine the characteristics of effective programs. Overall, findings suggest that an effective alternative certification program places candidates in schools with strong leadership, a collegial atmosphere, and adequate materials. 

Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., & Hough, H. J. (2008). Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record110(1), 1-63.

Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States.

This report describes how the seven Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) evaluate their teacher preparation programs and the changes they are making to improve their approaches to evaluation.

Meyer, S. J., Brodersen, R. M., & Linick, M. A. (2014). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs in Seven States. REL 2015-044. Regional Educational Laboratory Central. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED550491

Within Our Grasp Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep

Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep is the tenth annual publication in the State Teacher Policy Yearbook report series released by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ). This report focuses on teacher preparation program compliance with admissions policies required at the state level

Walsh, K., Joseph, N., and Lewis, A. (2016). Within Our Grasp: Achieving Higher Admissions Standards in Teacher Prep. National Council on Teacher Quality.

Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evidence

This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.

Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education

The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings
This study examines the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry level earnings.
Betts, J. R., & Grogger, J. (2003). The impact of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Economics of Education Review, 22(4), 343-352.
Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement
This paper estimates the effects of features of teachers' preparation on teachers' value-added to student test score performance in math and English Language Arts.
Boyd, Donald, Grossman, Pamela, Lankford, Hamilton, Loeb, Susanna and Wyckoff, James H., Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement (September 2008). NBER Working Paper No. W14314.
Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation
The purpose of this brief is to support the efforts of state and district leaders in designing and implementing teacher evaluation.
Coggshall, J. G., Rasmussen, C., Colton, A., Milton, J., & Jacques, C. (2012). Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education
This report proposes an accountability system to regulate teacher preparation programs in essential areas: students are learning, classroom teaching skills, graduates commitment to the professional, graduates and employers feedback, and tests of teacher knowledge and skills.
Crowe, E. (2010). Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education. Online Submission.
Getting Better at Teacher Preparation and State Accountability Strategies, Innovations, and Challenges Under the Federal Race to the Top Program
This paper describes the key findings from 12 winners of the Race-to-the-Top federal school reform initiative including recommendations the winners, and others interested in teacher quality.
Crowe, E. (2011). Getting Better at Teacher Preparation and State Accountability: Strategies, Innovations, and Challenges under the Federal Race to the Top Program. Center for American Progress.
Race to the Top and Teacher Preparation: Analyzing State Strategies for Ensuring Real Accountability and Fostering Program Innovation
The purpose of this paper is to recommend policy changes for Race to the Top including: data reporting systems, measures of preparation programs; innovative strategies, ways to support non-funded states, and monitor state performance.
Crowe, E. (2011). Race to the Top and Teacher Preparation: Analyzing State Strategies for Ensuring Real Accountability and Fostering Program Innovation. Online Submission.
Value added assessment of teacher preparation in Louisiana: 2005-2006 to 2008-2009
This paper examines the degree to which the educational attainment of students taught by recent graduates of specific teacher preparation programs either met, failed to meet, or exceeded expectations based on prior achievement and demographic factors as compared to experienced teachers..
Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., Knox, R. M., & Schafer, M. J. (2010). Value added assessment of teacher preparation in Louisiana: 2005-2006 to 2008-2009. Baton Rouge, LA Louisiana State University.
A Research & Policy Brief: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability
This research synthesis examines dozens of research studies that link a number of teacher quality variables to student achievement, as measured by standardized tests.
Goe, L., & Stickler, L. M. (2008). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: Making the Most of Recent Research. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The Gateway to the Profession: Assessing Teacher Preparation Programs Based on Student Achievement.
This paper presents the results of research investigating the relationship between teachers who graduate from different training programs and student achievement on state reading and math tests.
Goldhaber, D., Liddle, S., & Theobald, R. (2013). The gateway to the profession: Assessing teacher preparation programs based on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 34, 29-44.
High-stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams
This study examines the relationship between teacher candidate scores on authentic measures and their scores on certification exams required by the state of Texas.
Goodman, G., Arbona, C., & Dominguez De Rameriz, R. (2008). High-stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(1), 24-39.
No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America’s Education Schools
This study examines selected education schools teacher preparation-mathematics courses. Schools were scored on how well their courses presented the core components of the science of mathematics.
Greenberg, J., & Walsh, K. (2008). No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools. National Council on Teacher Quality.
Evaluating Teacher Preparation Programs Using the Performance of their Graduates
This commentary addresses concerns for the use of value-added outcome measures commonly used to evaluate teachers and implications for the use of these metrics to assess the effectiveness of preparation programs.
Koedel, C. and Parsons, E., (2014). Evaluating teacher preparation programs using the performance of their graduates. Teachers College Record. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=17741
Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality Are There Real Differences Across Programs?
This paper offers a sobering view of teacher preparation programs. It uses a statewide longitudinal dataset from Missouri to examine the extent to which teachers who are prepared by different programs differ in effectiveness.
Koedel, C., Parsons, E., Podgursky, M., & Ehlert, M. (2012). Teacher Preparation Programs and Teacher Quality: Are There Real Differences Across Programs?. Education Finance and Policy.
The Curriculum Wars.
This paper examines the history and issues that are fundamental to the clash between those promoting an evidence-based approach to education and those favoring a constructivist approach to learning.
Loveless, T. (2014). The Curriculum Wars. Date Accessed: 4/1/2014. http://www.hoover.org/publications/defining-ideas/article/171441
Where You Come From or Where You Go? Distinguishing Between School Quality and the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Program Graduates
This paper examines the challenges and implications of controlling for school contextual bias when modeling teacher preparation program effects.
Mihaly, K., McCaffrey, D., Sass, T. R., & Lockwood, J. R. (2012). Where you come from or where you go? Distinguishing between school quality and the effectiveness of teacher preparation program graduates. Distinguishing between School Quality and the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Program Graduates (March 2, 2012). Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series, (12-12).
Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading
This paper looks at the reasons why despite education having an extensive knowledge base in what works in teaching reading, teacher preparation programs continue to turn out teachers who are not competent in the skills needed to effectively teach reading.
Smartt, S. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Barriers to the Preparation of Highly Qualified Teachers in Reading. TQ Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Preparing Teachers: Are American Schools of Education Up to the Task
This education brief examines research on the effectiveness of teacher preparation programs.
Steiner, D. (2003). "Preparing Teachers: Are American Schools of Education Up to the Task?". American Enterprise Institute. Date accessed: 2/11/14 http://www.education-consumers.org/briefpdfs/3.11-preparing_teachers.pdf

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