Education Drivers

Retention Strategies

Teacher turnover is an enormous burden on education systems, both in terms of student achievement and dollars. High turnover necessitates the recruitment of large numbers of novice teachers, whom research shows are less skilled. This situation is exacerbated by a steady exodus of veteran teachers opting to move from challenging assignments in poorer performing schools with higher percentages of lower socio-economic students to preferred assignments more affluent areas. The high rate of turnover destabilizes the system, forcing diversion of valuable resources from ongoing improvements to recruitment, hiring, and training of novice instructors. Teachers seem to be particularly at risk for higher turnover at the beginning of their careers. Nearly half of teachers leave within 5 years of entering the profession. Efforts to improve retention have been inadequate as evidenced by steadily increasing departures from the profession. This tendency toward turnover is even more striking in private schools than in public schools. Turnover represents a major obstacle to long-term stability, diverts valuable resources, and derails many efforts at reform.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). How do teacher working conditions impact teacher turnover? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-working.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of differing working condition issues and how they correlate to student achievement.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between900.
What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance?
This item analyzes teacher reports of working conditions how this correlates to student performance.
Keyworth, R. (2009). What is the relationship between teacher working conditions and school performance? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between901.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race experience and age on teacher recruiting and retention.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting899.
Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff?
This analysis looks at retention and experience data for teachers in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Are Schools Adequately Attracting and Retaining Teaching Staff? Retrieved from are-schools-adequately-attracting927.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This analysis examines evidence on the influence of teacher induction programs on reducing teacher turnover.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact884.
Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers?
This review examines the effectiveness of teacher induction.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Does teacher induction impact teacher turnover for beginning teachers? Retrieved from does-teacher-induction-impact928.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students?
This piece analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of race on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Percentages of Minority Students? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover898.
How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions?
This inquiry analyzes data from National Center for Education Statistics to look at the impact of poverty on teacher attrition and mobility.
Keyworth, R. (2011). How Do Teacher Turnover Rates Differ Among Schools With Different Socio-Economic Conditions? Retrieved from how-do-teacher-turnover897.
What percentage of new teachers receive induction services?
This probe examines the increasing use of teacher induction as a tool for offering new teachers training and support.
Keyworth, R. (2011). What percentage of new teachers receive induction services? Retrieved from what-percentage-of-new.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This review looks at the impact of principal and administrative support in retaining teachers.
States, J. (2012). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals904.
How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers?
This analysis is based on data from New York City public schools that linking working conditions to teacher career trajectories and retention with a focus on administrative support.
States, J. (2014). How important are principals and administrative support in the retention of teachers? Retrieved from how-important-are-principals833.
Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex?
This is an analysis of teacher and principal views on the responsibilities and challenges facing school leaders, including the changing roles, finances, satisfaction, and Common Core.
States, J. (2015). Is the job of the school principal becoming too complex? Retrieved from is-job-of-school.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look.

This report presents selected findings from the school principal data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS).  It provides the following descriptive information on school principals by school type, student characteristics, and other relevant categories: number, race/ethnicity, age, gender, college degrees, salary, hours worked, focus of work, years experience, and tenure at current school.

Battle, D. (2009). Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staf ng Survey (NCES 2009-323). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013)

This report from KIPP provides a snap short of critical indicators from KIPP schools from across the United States.

Academies KIPP 2013: Report Card (2013) Retrieved from http://www.kipp.org/reportcard.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The
Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/
pubs2011/2011033.pdf
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Class Size Reduction Amendment. Retrieved from
http://www.fdoe.org/classsize/
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W. O., Campbell, A., Crosby, E. A., Foster, C. A., Jr.,
...Wallace, R. (1983). A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter
to the American people. A report to the nation and the secretary of education. Retrieved
from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED226006
Gorman, S. (2010). An Introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from http://nces.
ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/parents/2010468.pdf
Grady, S., & Bielick, S. (2010). Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007 (NCES 2010-
004). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010004.pdf
Hall, D., & Gutierrez, A. S. (1998). Getting Honest about High School Graduation. [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/fles/publications/fles/
Session14GettingHonestAboutHSGraduation.ppt
Howell, W., Peterson, P. E., & West, M. (2007).What Americans think about their schools: The
2007 Education Next—PEPG Survey. Education Next, 7(4), 12-26. Retrieved from http://
educationnext.org/what-americans-think-about-their-schools/
Luckie, M. S. (2009). California’s class-size-reduction program: Total spending since 1996.
[Interactive Graph]. Retrieved from http://californiawatch.org/k-12/californias-class-sizereduction-program-total-spending-1996
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Grade
12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. (NCES 2011–455).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2009/2011455.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011a). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://
nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=30
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011b). The Nation’s Report Card:
Mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department
of Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011c). The Nation’s Report Card:
Reading 2011. (NCES 2012–457). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). Data Explorer for Long-Term Trend.
[Data fle]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/lttdata/
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012a). Mathematics: Grade 12 National
Results. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer%20information
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012b). Reading: Grade 12 National Results.
Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
id=Tab_3&tab_id=tab1#tabsContainer information
Nichols, A., & Özek, U. (2010). Public School Choice and Student Achievement in the
District of Columbia. (Working Paper 53). Retrieved from National Center for Analysis of
Longitudinl Data in Education Research - Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/
url.cfm?ID=1001499
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2006). PISA 2006
Technical Report. Paris: Author.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010a). PISA 2009
Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264083943-en
xxx |
Proceedings of the 5th Annual Summit Introduction
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010b). PISA 2009
Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume
IV). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010c). PISA 2009
Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics
and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics, 2009. (NCES 2010-013).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010013.pdf
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S.A. (2011). Digest of Education Statistics 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Stillwell, R. (2010). Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data:
School Year 2007–08. (NCES 2010-341). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute
of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010341
Zinth, K. (2010). Class-Size Policies. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States
website: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/85/21/8521.pdf

The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school's contribution to dropout and completion.

Using a structural perspective from organizational theory, the authors review aspects of schooling associated with dropout. They then briefly review selected reform initiatives that restructure the school environment to improve student achievement and retention. 

Baker, J. A., Derrer, R. D., Davis, S. M., Dinklage-Travis, H. E., Linder, D. S., & Nicholson, M. D. (2001). The flip side of the coin: Understanding the school's contribution to dropout and completion. School psychology quarterly16(4), 406.

Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes

This study examines the detrimental impact of principal turnover, including lower teacher retention and lower student achievement. Particularly hard hit are high poverty schools, which often lose principals at a higher rate as they transition to lower poverty, higher student achievement schools.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., & Loeb, S. (2012). Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes. Social Science Research, 41(4), 904-919.

Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look

The Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary School Principals in the United States is a subsection of the NCES 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It provides descriptive statistics on K-12 school principals in areas such as: race, gender, education level, salary, experience, and working conditions.

Bitterman, A., Goldring, R., Gray, L., Broughman, S. (2014).Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States:Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Summary, First Look. IES, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education

Data Matters: Using Chronic Absence to Accelerate Action for Student Success

The report provides recommendations and strategies for managing chronic absenteeism at all levels of education leadership, from state agencies through individual schools.  It also has an interactive web site where the reader can drill down on specific data at all levels of the education system.  www.attendanceworks.org

Chang, Hedy N., Bauer, Lauren and Vaughan Byrnes, Data Matters: Using Chronic Absence to Accelerate Action for Student Success, Attendance Works and Everyone Graduates Center, September 2018.

School Climate and Social–Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social–emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables.

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology104(4), 1189.

School Climate and Social–Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social–emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables.

Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social–emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of educational psychology104(4), 1189.

Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987 - 88 to 2011 - 12

This report provides descriptive information on traditional public, charter, and private school principals over the period of 1987-88 through 2011-12. It includes comparative data on number of principals, gender, race/ethnicity, age, advance degrees, principal experience, teaching experience, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.

Hill, J., Ottem, R., & DeRoche, J. (2016). Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189. National Center for Education Statistics.

Performance Evaluation and Compensation for Public School Principals: Results From a National Survey

This article reports on a national survey designed to learn how school districts are using standards-based leadership evaluation and pay for performance.

Kimball, S. M., Heneman III, H. G., & Milanowski, A. (2007). Performance Evaluation and Compensation for Public School Principals: Results from a National Survey. ERS Spectrum, 25(4), 11-21.

Why incentive plans cannot work

This paper discusses about reasons for the failure of incentive programs. Studies show the ineffectivity of incentive plans to boost productivity. 

 

Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(5), 54–63. Retrieved from http://study.huizhou.gov.cn/lessionnew/bdmpa/MPA-A15/contents/case/cas_008_01.pdf 

Trends in High School Dropouts and Completion Rates in the United States: 2018

This report updates a series of NCES reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. The report draws on a wide array of surveys and administrative data sets to present statistics on high school dropout and completion rates at the state and national levels. The report also includes data on the percentage of students who graduate with a regular diploma within four years of starting ninth grade (adjusted cohort graduation rates) and data on alternative high school credentials. 

McFarland, J., Cui, J., Rathbun, A., & Holmes, J. (2018). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2018. Compendium Report. NCES 2019-117. National Center for Education Statistics.

Principal Professional Development: New Opportunities for a Renewed State Focus

This brief describes: (1) The need for more and better principal professional development to improve principal effectiveness, decrease principal turnover, and more equitably distribute successful principals across all schools; (2) The research on the importance of principals and how professional development can improve principals' effectiveness; and (3) Options and examples for leveraging current policies to revisit and refocus efforts concerning principal professional development.

Rowland, C. (2017). Principal Professional Development: New Opportunities for a Renewed State Focus. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.

Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion.

This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers’ feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and discipline problems.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and teacher education27(6), 1029-1038.

Teacher expectations.

The purpose of this paper is to integrate statistically the results of the literature on teacher expectations. 

Smith, M. L. (1980). Teacher expectations. Evaluation in Education4, 53-55.

Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look

The National Teacher and Principal Survey is completed every four years soliciting descriptive information from principals and teachers across the 50 states. One of the follow-up reports tracks information specifically on traditional public and charter school principals across various school and student characteristics (e.g. number of principals, age, advance degrees, salaries, hours worked, focus of work, experience and tenure at current schools, etc.). A few highlights include: Sixty percent of school principals have been at their schools for three years or less. The higher the percent of a school’s students qualifying for free- or reduced-price lunches, the shorter the tenure of the school’s principal. Charter school principals are paid less than those in traditional public school; they have a lower percentage of advanced college degrees; they are younger; and they have more control over standards, curriculum, and professional development.

 

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2017). Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results From the 201516 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look (NCES 2017-070). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [date] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2017070.

The teacher pay penalty has hit a new high: Trends in the teacher wage and compensation gaps through 2017

This study concludes that teacher compensation is falling further and further behind that of comparable career opportunities each year. The study also downplays the impact of the recent recession on this trend, highlighting the impact of state government decisions on reducing education funding.

The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study
This research reports on the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. It reports the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers. The authors of the study report that turnover costs were significant. The paper also found that teachers left schools that were predominantly minority and low achieving schools at significantly higher rates than average schools.
Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.
Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores
This report is a look at Houston’s teacher performance pay system.
Blumenthal, R. (2006). Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores. New York Times, 13.
Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22)
This report to the North Carolina General Assembly provides detailed information on teacher retention in the state’s public schools for the period ending 2013.
Coby, W. et al., (2013). Report to the North Carolina General Assembly: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Teachers Leaving the Profession G.S. 115C-12 (22). North Carolina Department Of Public Instruction, Educator Effectiveness Division. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from https://eboard.eboardsolutions.com/meetings/TempFolder/Meetings/Attachment%201%20-%202012-13%20Teacher%20Turnover%20Report_19785ndyywn45kqzxm045lztxku45.pdf
Pay for Performance: What Are the Issues?
The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact and value of merit pay, performance pay, knowledge and skill-based pay.
Delisio, E. R., (2014). Pay for Performance: What Are the Issues?. Education World
The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement
The purpose of this study is to examine how the principal preparation programs of newly hired elementary school principals might influence school achievement. The study looks at differing elementary school principal preparation program approaches impact on build teams and the affect this has on student achievement. The study also is interested in possible relationships between the overall school-level qualifications of teams of teachers and school-level student achievement.
Fuller, E. J., Young, M. D., & Baker, B. (2007). The relationship between principal characteristics, principal turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
The Revolving Door of the Principalship
This study examines the importance of selection and retention of quality principals for improving and sustaining school success. Data from Texas educational employment files provides a basis for inquiry into this problem.
Fuller, E., Terry Orr, M., & Young, M. D. (2008). The Revolving Door of the Principalship. Implications from UCEA. University Council for Educational Administration. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.ucea. org/storage/implications/ ImplicationsMar2008.pdf
An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report
Mathematica researchers review 2008-09 data from Chicago schools participating in the Teacher Advancement Program annual bonus system based student achievement.
Glazerman, S., & Seifullah, A. (2010). An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Performance Contracts for Administrators
This paper examines the issues for performance compensation for school principals and other administrators.
Hertling, E. (1999). Performance contracts for administrators.
Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis
This paper investigates organizational characteristics and conditions in schools that drive staffing problems and teacher turnover.
Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.
Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers
This is taken from the testimony of Richard Ingersoll in front the Pennsylvania legislature on the issues of school turnover.
Ingersoll, R. M. (2013). Why Schools Have Difficulty Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers. Retrieved October 3, 2014
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey
This survey provides information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States and the District of Columbia.
Marvel, J., Lyter, D. M., Peltola, P., Strizek, G. A., Morton, B. A., & Rowland, R. (2007). Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307. National Center for Education Statistics.
How teacher turnover harms student achievement
This study provides empirical evidence that teacher turnover has a significant and negative effect on student achievement in math and ELA, that it is particularly harmful to students in schools with low performing and black students, and that it also negatively affects performance by undermining trust and loss of institutional knowledge.
Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4-36.
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2012-13 Teacher Follow-up Survey (2013)
This report from the United States Department of Education provides national data on teacher retention.
Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2012-13 Teacher Follow-up Survey (2013). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Science. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014077.pdf
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2007-2008.
This report from the state of North Carolina provides data on the performance of the states’ schools.
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2007-2008. (2008). Public Schools of North Carolina, Department of Public Instruction, Talent Management and Development Division. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/newsroom/news/2007-08/
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2012-2013.
This report from the state of North Carolina provides data on the performance of the states’ schools.
Teacher turnover report: Annual report on the reasons teachers leave, 2012-2013. (2013). Public Schools of North Carolina, Department of Public Instruction, Talent Management and Development Division. Retrieved November 12, 2014 from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/newsroom/news/2013-14/
Pay-for-Performance: Key Questions and Lessons from Five Current Models (2001)
This paper issued by the Education Commission of the States offers an overview of the key issues involved in the pay-for-performance concept
Wyman, W., & Allen, M. (2001). Pay-for-performance: Key questions and lessons from five current models. Education Commission of the States (ECS) Issue Paper, 2830.

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