Education Drivers

Teacher Instructional Effectiveness (Pedagogy)

Discussions of teacher preparation generally focus on content (what to teach) rather than pedagogy (how to teach). Teacher training has changed little in 100 years. Preparation programs rely on lectures supplemented with 8 weeks of student teaching under minimal university oversight. Lecturing persists for various reasons: It requires nominal effort, instructors have greater control of what is presented, and assessing mastery of the material is easy using tests and papers. There are significant disadvantages to lecturing. Listening to a lecturer and answering questions during the lecture are very different from being able to perform skillfully in a real-world setting. Research shows that the most effective training of complex skills occurs when the training follows the elementary paradigm “I do,” “we do,” “you do.” This model relies on introducing skills through lectures and discussions, in tandem with demonstrating the skills (I do). This is followed by learners practicing the skills alongside a coach (we do), and finally the student teacher performing independently with feedback from the coach (you do). Research suggests it is only when coaching is added to the mix that skills are fully mastered and used effectively in the classroom.

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process

The usual approach to determining if an intervention is effective for a student is to review student outcome data; however, this is only part of the task. Student data can only be understood if we know something about how well the intervention was implemented. Student data without treatment integrity data are largely meaningless because without knowing how well an intervention has been implemented, no judgments can be made about the effectiveness of the intervention. Poor outcomes can be a function of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of the intervention. Without treatment integrity data, the is a risk that an intervention will be judged as ineffective when, in fact, the quality of implementation was so inadequate that it would be unreasonable to expect positive outcomes.

Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Treatment Integrity in the Problem Solving Process. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.

 

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation.

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Effective Teachers Make a Difference

This analysis examines the available research on effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers from pre-service to classroom with an emphasis on improving student achievement. It reviews current preparation practices and examine the research evidence on how well they are preparing teachers

States, J., Detrich, R. & Keywroth, R. (2012). Effective Teachers Make a Difference. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 1-46). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact Retrieved from ../../uploads/docs/Accountability%20and%20Autonomy.pdf.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get?
The analysis reviews school teacher earned degree data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Digest of Education Statistics (2008).
Keyworth, R. (2010). How Much Formal Training Do Teachers Get? Retrieved from how-much-formal-training.
How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential?
This inquiry lookes at two meta-analyses on the importance of subject matter training in teacher pre-service instruction.
States, J. (2010). How important is it for teachers to receive subject matter training in order to obtain a teaching credential? Retrieved from how-important-is-it.
How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students?
This literature review tries to answer the question; does the quality and amount of subject matter pre-service training translate into better qualified teachers?
States, J. (2011). How important in increasing student achievement is the training of teachers in the subject matter they will teach students? Retrieved from how-important-in-increasing.
What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement?
This analysis lookes at the quality of research comparing four versus five-year teacher credential programs to identify which approach produces the best teachers.
States, J. (2011). What does current research tell us about the effect of four- and five-year teacher preparation programs on the quality of teachers and student achievement? Retrieved from what-does-current-research.
What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results?
This is a review of three meta-analyses on the impact of differing types of teacher field (clinical) experience.
States, J. (2011). What Field Experience Methods Produce the Best Results? Retrieved from what-field-experience-methods.
Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough?
This analysis examines the rigor of teacher pre-service coursework in comparison to other common disciplines.
States, J. (2014). Is Teacher Preparation Challenging Enough? Retrieved from is-teacher-preparation-challenging.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers

This paper reviews current teacher preparation in the context of its failure to include well-established evidence-based practices and identifies strategies for improvement.

Reschly, D. (2010). Overcoming Gaps Between Evidence-Based Instructional Practices and Current Preparation of General and Special Education Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-wing-presentation-dan-reschly.

Science and the Education of Teachers
This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.
Kauffman, J. (2010). Science and the Education of Teachers [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-Wing-Presentation-James-Kauffman.
Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development
Research suggests that coaching is one of the most effective strategies in training teachers. This paper identifies the critical practice elements of coaching and their absence in teacher training.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Coaching: The Missing Link in Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-calaba-presentation-randy-keyworth.
Teacher Professional Development
This paper reviewed the current research on best practices for teacher training, the current model for teacher training, and the gaps between research and practice.
Keyworth, R. (2013). Teacher Professional Development [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-redux-randy-keyworth.
Professional Learning That Makes An Impact
This paper discusses the critical elements of effective teacher coaching.
Knight, J. (2013). Professional Learning That Makes An Impact [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2013-wing-presentation-jim-knight.
From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation
This paper discusses the results of the National Council on Teacher Quality’s first nation-wide study of 2,420 university teacher preparation programs across 1,130 institutions.
McKee, A. (2014). From "Learning to Learn" to "Training to Teach": Changing the Culture of Teacher Preparation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2014-wing-presentation-arthur-mckee.
What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs
This paper examines effective teaching, how to impart these skills, and how to best transition teachers into the classroom. Preparation practices are analyzed to determine how well we are succeeding in preparing teachers.
States, J. (2010). What We Know About Teacher Preparation Programs [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-aba-presentation-jack-states.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
The compositional effect of rigorous teacher evaluation on workforce quality

In this paper, we study how providing improved information to principals about teacher effectiveness and encouraging them to use the information in personnel decisions affects the composition of teacher turnovers.

Cullen, J. B., Koedel, C., & Parsons, E. (2016). The compositional effect of rigorous teacher evaluation on workforce quality. Working Paper No. 22805. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w22805.pdf

Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale

This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed.

Bolkan, S. (2017). Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education66(1), 19-36.

Value-added measures: How and why the strategic data project uses them to study teacher effectiveness

This brief explains how and why Strategic Data Project (SDP) uses value-added measures for our diagnostic work. We also explain how value-added measures relate to other measures of teacher effectiveness and the limitations of value-added measures.

Center for Education Policy Research. (2011). Value-added measures: How and why the strategic data project uses them to study teacher effectiveness. Retrieved from https://hwpi.harvard.edu/files/sdp/files/sdp-va-memo_0.pdf

The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs

The study separately compares the effectiveness of teachers from each program with the effectiveness of other teachers teaching the same subjects in the same schools.

Clark, M. A., Chiang, H. S., Silva, T., McConnell, S., Sonnenfeld, K., Erbe, A., & Puma, M. (2013). The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Programs (NCEE 2013-4015). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=NCEE20134015

Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education.

This book synthesizes and assesses existing research on teacher education, as well as
providing a rigorous and even-handed analysis of the weight of the evidence about the
impact of teacher education and pre-service education.

Cochran-Smith, M. and Zeichner, K. M. (2005). Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ 07430

An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report

The study compares the effectiveness of different routes to teaching. It finds there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of teachers who were traditionally trained when compared to teachers who obtained training through alternative credential programs.

Constantine, J., D. Player, T. Silva, K. Hallgren, M. Grider, and J. Deke, 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report (NCEE 2009- 4043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Explicit instruction in mathematics problem solving

This study examines the impact of explicit instruction strategies on student mathematic performance.

Darch, C., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1984). Explicit instruction in mathematics problem solving. The Journal of Educational Research, 351-359.

Researchers and teachers working together to adapt instruction for diverse learners

This paper explain a three-stage process of Pilot Research, Formal Evaluation, and Scaling Up. Finally, we discuss several misconceptions about empirical research and researchers.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (1998). Researchers and teachers working together to adapt instruction for diverse learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.

Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content to Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities

This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954–1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Peterson, A., & Dimino, J. (2006). Eyes on the prize: Teaching history to students with learning disabilities in inclusive settings. Exceptional Children72, 264-280.

Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues.

These papers provide up-to-date, informative summaries of current knowledge and a base from which further venture into the critical area of instructional intervention in special education can occur.

Gersten, R., Schiller, E. P., & Vaughn, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Routledge.

What works in professional development?

A research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do.

Guskey, T. R., & Yoon, K. S.(2009). What works in professional development? Phi Delta Kappan.doi: 10.1177003172170909000709.

Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores

Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores. This Paper examines the use of value-added modeling as a tool to identify effective teachers from ineffective instructors.

Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series. Educational Testing Service.

The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance

This new research addresses a number of critical questions:  Are a teacher’s cognitive skills a good predictor of teacher quality? This study examines the student achievement of 36 developed countries in the context of teacher cognitive skills. This study finds substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance.

Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (No. w20727). National Bureau of Economic Research.

 

Student Achievement through Staff Development

This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.

Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.

Science and the Education of Teachers

This paper highlights the importance of making the preparation of teachers as scientific as possible by basing instruction on scientific evidence and making teaching an applied science.

Kauffman, J. M. (2012). Science and the Education of Teachers. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. 47-64). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.

Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation

This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.

Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing

Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research

The goal of this paper is to provide researchers and policymakers with a comprehensive and timely review of this body of work.

Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Teaching_Experience_Report_June_2016.pdf

More Than Content: The Persistent Cross-Subject Effects of English Language Arts Teachers’ Instruction

This paper investigates the long-term impact of teachers' value-added effects on student learning over multiple years and across subject areas. The study finds that the durable effects of English Language Arts (ELA) teachers are more likely to generalizable across subjects than the instructional effects of math teachers.

Master, B., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). More Than Content: The Persistent Cross-Subject Effects of English Language Arts Teachers’ Instruction. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 0162373717691611.

Early intervention in reading: From research to practice

This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented. 

Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.

Promoting Educator Effectiveness: The Effects of Two Key Strategies

The National Center for Education Evaluation, a division of the Institute of Education Sciences has released a new research brief that evaluated two strategies for improving educator effectiveness as measured by improvements in student outcomes.  

National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences (March 2018).  Promoting Educator Effectiveness: The Effects of Two Key Strategies.

Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children

Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children. 

Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.

The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development

"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.

TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development

Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations

For many years, differential reinforcement has been a prevalent and preferred treatment procedure for the reduction of behavior disorders. This paper reviews the procedural variations of differential reinforcement and discusses their functional properties.

Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 393-417.

Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes

This meta-analysis of single case designed studies examines the effect of academic interventions on student behavior. The academic interventions examined included modifying task difficulty, instruction in reading, mathematics, or writing and contingent reinforcement for academic performance. The study concluded that these interventions produced positive effects on student behavior issues observed in the classroom. The effects were observed to have a moderate effect size ranging from 0.42 to 0.64. The effects were stronger for increasing student time on task than for reducing disruptive behavior, but both showed positive impacts. This research strengthens the available evidence that well-designed instruction is effective component in creating an effective classroom climate.

Warmbold-Brann, K., Burns, M. K., Preast, J. L., Taylor, C. N., & Aguilar, L. N. (2017). Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly. DOI: 10.1037/spq0000207

Creating Effective Teachers: Concise Answers for Hard Questions. An Addendum to the Report "Teacher Preparation Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Recommendations

This study examines the extent that subject matter knowledge contributes to teacher effectiveness; the extent to which pedagogical, learning theory, or child development contribute to teacher effectiveness; how high quality field experience impacts teacher effectiveness; and other factors that contribute to effective teacher preparation.

Wilson, S. M., & Floden, R. E. (2003). Creating effective teachers: Concise answers for hard questions. An addendum to the report. AACTE Publications, 1307 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005-4701.

Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers.

The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.

Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).

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