This overview describe Multitiered system of support (MTSS) as a conceptual framework for organizing service delivery to students.
The present article discusses a theory of tolerance and seeks to identify the critical problems associated with the position taken in the NAS report and subsequent reform initiatives. Specifically, it is argued that brute force attempts to absorb, current special education functions into regular classrooms will necessarily fail.
Gerber, M. M. (1988). Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform. Exceptional Children, 54(4), 309-314.
The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.
Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.
This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents
Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
The purpose of this chapter is to articulate those best practices that have been identified to increase the effectiveness of pre-referral teams.
Kovaleski, J. F. (2002). Best practices in operating pre-referral intervention teams. Best practices in school psychology IV, 1, 645-655.
This document is an analysis of the most recent developments in some states that are implementing standards-based IEPs.
Ahearn, E. (2006, May). Standards-Based IEPs: Implementation in Selected States. inForum. In Project Forum. Project Forum. Available from: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. 1800 Diagonal Road Suite 320, Alexandria, VA 22314.
This book is an analysis of important conceptual and practical issues that face special education professionals.
Algozzine, J. E., Thurlow, M., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2000). Critical issues in special education.
Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).
Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.
The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA.
applying positive behavior support
A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability.
Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services. School Psychology Review, 32(4).
The authors describe three forms of functional assessment used in applied behavior analysis and explain three potential reasons why OBM has not yet adopted the use of such techniques.
Austin, J., Carr, J. E., & Agnew, J. L. (1999). The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19(2), 59-87.
This study compares the effects of Active Student Response error correction and No Response (NR) error correction during.
Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3(3), 217-233.
The advantages and challenges associated with these designs for use in special education eligibility decisions are discussed as models for child evaluation in schools.
Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Jones, K. M., & Lentz Jr, F. E. (2004). Response to intervention: Empirically based special service decisions from single-case designs of increasing and decreasing intensity. The Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 66-79.
Key points of analysis and recommendations for RTI technical adequacy standards are addressed, and a case study is used to illustrate technical checks. The authors conclude with a discussion of how RTI technical adequacy may be simplified.
Barnett, D. W., Elliott, N., Graden, J., Ihlo, T., Macmann, G., Nantais, M., & Prasse, D. (2006). Technical adequacy for response to intervention practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 32(1), 20-31.
This research finds starting school later is associated with reduced suspensions and higher course grades. These studies suggest disadvantaged students may especially benefit from delayed starting times.
Bastian, K. C., & Fuller, S. C. (2018). Answering the Bell: High School Start Times and Student Academic Outcomes. AERA Open, 4(4), 2332858418812424.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 made important amendments to the federal special education law regarding the identification of students with learning disabilities. The book grounds RtI in law and policy predating IDEA 2004 in addition to walking the reader through the array of implementation issues.
Batsche, George, Judy Elliott, Janet L. Graden, Jeffrey Grimes, Joseph F. Kovaleski, David Prasse, D. J. Reschly, Judy Schrag, and W. David Tilly III. "Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation." Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education(2005).
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior.
Beard, K. Y., & Sugai, G. (2004). First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 29(4), 396-409.
This book examines research on the problem of student dropouts and standardized and high stakes testing. Information comes from papers presented at a 2000 workshop in which experts offered their diverse perspectives and technical expertise.
Beatty, A., Neisser, U., Trent, W. T., & Heubert, J. P. (2001). Understanding Dropouts: Statistics, Strategies, and High-Stakes Testing. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
Bellon, J. J., Bellon, E. C., & Blank, M. A. (1992). Teaching from a research knowledge base: A development and renewal process. Merrill.
Six issues presented in this presentation are (1) The definitional issue (2) The effectiveness issue (3) The domain issue (4) The measurement issue (5) The professional development issue (6) The system issue
Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18(1), 5-25.
explore going beyond defining learning disability as a discrepancy between achievement and ability, to a broader view of learning disability based on dynamic assessment—failure to respond over time to validated intervention protocols—and consideration of multiple developmental domains, not just a single index influencing expected level of achievement
Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (1994). Redefining learning disabilities: Moving beyond aptitude–achievement discrepancies to failure to respond to validated treatment protocols.
This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations.
Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about teacher induction in special education and to outline recommendations for the design of induction programs and further research.
Billingsley, B. S., Griffin, C. C., Smith, S. J., Kamman, M., & Israel, M. (2009). A Review of Teacher Induction in Special Education: Research, Practice, and Technology Solutions. NCIIP Document Number RS-1. National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development.
This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.
Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf
Explains how meta-analysis can be used to estimate the effectiveness of various teaching strategies in special education and related services.
Blum lM, F. S. K. K., & Lloyd, J. W. (1997). Megaanalysis of meta-analysis: what works in special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(6), 4-9.
Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n = 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n = 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers’ perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.
Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 168-180.
Focus groups with teachers of students with learning disabilities (n= 30) and teachers of students with emotional/behavior disorders (n= 19) were conducted to examine the the teachers' perspectives about educational research and the extent to which they found research findings to be useful.
Boardman, A. G., Argüelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers' views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 39(3), 168-180.
This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models.
Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2003). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73(2), 125-230.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of enhanced anchor-instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving problem-solving performance.
Bottge, B. A., Heinrichs, M., Mehta, Z. D., & Hung, Y. H. (2002). Weighing the benefits of anchored math instruction for students with disabilities in general education classes. The Journal of Special Education, 35(4), 186-200.
This paper discuss ClasWide Peer Tutoring as an effective strategy for Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder
Bowman-Perrott, L. (2009). Classwide peer tutoring: An effective strategy for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 259-267.
In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.
Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences, 35, 9-14.
The OSEP conference brought together people with different perspectives on LD (parents, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers) and resulted in this book, which examines the research on nine key issues concerning the identification of children with learning disabilities.
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Routledge.
This article provides a brief description of the conclusions of the LD Initiative and the impact these conclusions have had, and overview of the new regulations regarding response to intervention and the identification of children with SLD, and information about current technical-assistance activities.
Bradley, Renee & Danielson, Louis & Doolittle, Jennifer. (2007). Responsiveness to Intervention: 1997 - 2007. Abstracts from Teaching Exceptional Children (TEC). 39. 10.1177/004005990703900502.
The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1136-e1145.
An overview of the many types of studies that fall into the qualitative design genre is provided. Strategies that qualitative researchers use to establish the authors’ studies as credible and trustworthy are listed and defined
Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 195-207.
This book provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools.
Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2011). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Guilford Press.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental challenges.
Burdette, P. J., & Greer, D. L. (2014). Online learning and students with disabilities: Parent perspectives. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(2), 67–88. https://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/13.2.4.pdf
This study examines the effect of using preprinted response cards on academic responding, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability.
Cakiroglu, O. (2014). Effects of preprinted response cards on rates of academic response, opportunities to respond, and correct academic responses of students with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(1), 73-85.
This chapter provides insights to the questions posed regarding implementation and ongoing practice of RTI, both at the state and local levels.
Callender, W. A. (2007). The Idaho results-based model: Implementing response to intervention statewide. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 331-342). Springer, Boston, MA.
This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.
Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions, 4(1), 4-16.
This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not.
Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 523-535.
This article discusses culturally responsive classrooms for Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with and at risk for disabilities within the context of culturally competent teachers, culturally effective instructional principles, and culturally appropriate behavior development. It discusses implications for educators and suggestions for a future agenda
Cartledge, G., & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional children, 74(3), 351-371.
This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.
Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.
This document is one of a series of reports based on the Special Education Expenditure Project, a study of the nation's spending on special education and related services based on analysis of data for the 1999-2000 school year.
Chambers, J. G., Parrish, T. B., & Harr, J. J. (2002). What Are We Spending on Special Education Services in the United States, 1999-2000? Report. Special Education Expenditure Project (SEEP).
Showcasing evidence-based models for schoolwide prevention of reading and behavior problems, this book is highly informative, practical, and grounded in research.
Chard, D. J., Harn, B. A., Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2008). Core features of multi-tiered systems of reading and behavioral support. In C. R. Greenwood, T. R. Kratochwill, & M. Clemens (Eds.), Schoolwide prevention models: Lessons learned in elementary schools (pp. 31–58). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
At this manual level of analysis, practitioners may choose from a variety of specific treatment programs that have demonstrated their efficacy in research trials.
Chorpita, B. F., Becker, K. D., & Daleiden, E. L.. (2007). Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice: Misconceptions and clinical examples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(5), 647–652.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a combined self-monitoring and static self-model prompts procedure on the academic engagement of three students with autism served in general education classrooms
Cihak, D. F., Wright, R., & Ayres, K. M. (2010). Use of self-modeling static-picture prompts via a handheld computer to facilitate self-monitoring in the general education classroom. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 136-149.
Argues that learning disabled (LD) children in reading, writing, and spelling are inadequately distinguishable from low-achieving children, based on behavioral evidence, achievement batteries, or tests of organic functioning.
Clay, M. M. (1987). Learning to be learning disabled. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies.
In this 26th volume of Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities we address one of the most important educational reforms of recent years evidence-based practices (EBPs).
Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., & Landrum, T. J. (Eds.). (2013). Evidence-based practices in learning and behavioral disabilities: The search for effective instruction (Vol. 26). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
An analysis of national and state placement patterns of students with serious emotional disturbance (SED) between 1988 and 1991 is reported. Relationships among state rates of placement across placement options and several economic and demographic variables also are examined.
Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. (1996). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part II: National and state trends in the implementation of LRE. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(1), 40-52.
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender and ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) and relationships between identification and sociodemographic factors.
Coutinho, M. J., Oswald, D. P., Best, A. M., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Gender and sociodemographic factors and the disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders, 27(2), 109-125.
The present interpretation of construct validity is not “official” and deals with some areas where the Committee would probably not be unanimous. The present writers are solely responsible for this attempt to explain the concept and elaborate its implications.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological bulletin, 52(4), 281–302.
Four experiments were conducted to examine variables associated with response practice as an instructional technique for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The results showed that the cover procedure generally did not enhance performance over and above that produced by practice alone, and written practice generally was not superior to oral practice.
Cuvo, A. J., Ashley, K. M., Marso, K. J., Zhang, B. L., & Fry, T. A. (1995). Effect of response practice variables on learning spelling and sight vocabulary. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(2), 155-173.
In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.
Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.
Based on a review of more than seventy recent studies, this brief describes these approaches, particularly as they apply to high school students who have been at risk of failing courses and exit examinations or dropping out due to a range of personal factors and academic factors. The brief then outlines policy strategies that could expand the uses of technology for at-risk high school youth.
Darling-Hammond, L., Zielezinski, M. B., & Goldman, S. (2014). Using technology to support at-risk students’ learning. Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education; Alliance for Excellent Education. https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/scope-pub-using-technology-report.pdf
This article discusses the seven components of fluency practice, and describes a number of simple-to-implement strategies available to teachers to improve students' fluency with foundational academic skills. A check list of steps to complete a fluency practice session and a chart for self-monitoring fluency practice sessions are provided.
Datchuk, S. M., & Hier, B. O. (2019). Fluency Practice: Techniques for Building Automaticity in Foundational Knowledge and Skills. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 51(6), 424-435.
Analysis of the problems, theory, and design of sampling techniques for social scientists, industrial managers, and others who find statistics increasingly important in their work. Only college algebra assumed. Illustrated with dozens of actual large-scale surveys in government and industry. "The 'bible' of sampling statisticians."
Deming, W. E. (1966). Some theory of sampling. North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Corporation.
The monograph presents 15 papers on the provision of special education services within the regular classroom.
Deno, E. N. (1973). Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.
special education as a problem solving the nature of mild handicaps person-centered versus situation-centered problems.
Deno, S. L. (1989). Curriculum-based measurement and special education services: A fundamental and direct relationship.
The purpose of this article is to describe what RTI is and what is not. This article also considers the evidence base for RTI and discusses the implications for practitioners.
Detrich, R., & Keyworth, R. (2009). Response to Intervention: What It Is and What It Is Not. JEBPS Vol 9-N2, 60.
The author's objective is to assess treatment effectiveness for problem behaviours of individuals who have mental retardation.
Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. AJMR-American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101(4), 387-399.
This study investigated the effects of self-graphing on improving the reactivity of self-monitoring procedures for two students with learning disabilities.
DiGangi, S. A., Maag, J. W., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1991). Self-graphing of on-task behavior: Enhancing the reactive effects of self-monitoring on on-task behavior and academic performance. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14(3), 221-230.
This volume of the Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act includes a number of modules reporting on the results of the National Assessment, as stipulated in Section 674(b)(4)(B) of the IDEA Amendments of 1997.
Division of Educational Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2001). Twenty-third annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
The articles in this special issue suggest that a focus upon specific educational practices has far mor e potential for advancing the field o f special (and general) education than an emphasis upon philosophies, metatheories, theories, or psychological schools that we will refer to as ideologies.
Dixon, R., & Carnine, D. (1994). Ideologies, practices, and their implications for special education. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 356-367.
This book discusses findings and recommendations of the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education of the National Research Council.
Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
Demonstrates the use of functional assessment procedures to identify the appropriate use of the Picture Exchange Communication system as part of a behavior support plan to resolve serious problems exhibited by a 3 yr old boy with autism and pervasive developmental disorder.
Dooley, P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Torem, C. (2001). Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 57-61.
This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams.
Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 239-251.
The authors concluded that early intensive behavioral intervention was associated with large to moderate improvements in IQ (intelligence quotient) and adaptive behavior in children with autism compared to no intervention or eclectic treatment.
Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2009). Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 439-450.
Could there be a behavioral vaccine, nearly as simple as antiseptic handwashing, which might significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of multiproblem behavior? Yes, there could be. This paper details what one might be and how it might become as common as a doctor or nurse washing hands with an antiseptic solution
Embry, D. D. (2002). The Good Behavior Game: A best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clinical child and family psychology review, 5(4), 273-297.
This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.
Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society, 7(2), 246-259.
Fifth-grade students with and without mild disabilities participated in an eight-week project-based, technology-supported investigation about the 19th century westward expansion in the United States. A narrative framework was used to organize and support students' understanding of the experiences of three emigrant groups.
Ferretti, R. P., MacArthur, C. D., & Okolo, C. M. (2001). Teaching for historical understanding in inclusive classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(1), 59-71.
The purpose of this Brief is to define the variables a state or large district leadership team may wish to consider as they determine if they are “ready” to invest in the scaling-up of innovation in education.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009). Readiness for Change. Scaling-Up Brief. Number 3. FPG Child Development Institute.
The failure of better science to readily produce better services has led to increasing interest in the science and practice of implementation. The results of recent reviews of implementation literature and best practices are summarized in this article.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2009). Core implementation components. Research on social work practice, 19(5), 531-540.
The reliability and validity of 4 approaches to the assessment of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. The authors identify serious psychometric problems that affect the reliability of models based on aptitude-achievement discrepancies and low achievement.
Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Morris, R. D., & Lyon, G. R. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 506-522.
This paper reviews research on the classification of students with learning disability (LD). It first examines the evolution of LD definitions and the evidence for three components of LD classification: discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion.
Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Barnes, M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Olson, R. K., ... & Shaywitz, B. A. (2001). Classification of Learning Disabilities: An Evidence-Based Evaluation. Executive Summary.
Examined the validity of distinguishing children with reading disabilities according to discrepancy and low-achievement definitions by obtaining 4 assessments of expected reading achievement and 2 assessments of actual reading achievement for 199 children (aged 7.5–9.5 yrs).
Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., ... & Shaywitz, B. A. (1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 6.
The authors replicated K. E. Stanovich and L. Siegel (regression-based logic to the reading-level-match design approach, but contrasted it with statistical matches using W scores, which are Rasch-scaled decoding scores based on a common metric regardless of age or grade.
Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Lynn, A. (1996). Relation of phonological and orthographic processing to early reading: Comparing two approaches to regression-based, reading-level-match designs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 639.
Use of early detection and ongoing assessment of response as a basis for more focused intervention is described. Primary and secondary prevention issues also are discussed in relation to this approach.
Forness, S. R., Kavale, K. A., MacMillan, D. L., Asarnow, J. R., & Duncan, B. B. (1996). Early detection and prevention of emotional or behavioral disorders: Developmental aspects of systems of care. Behavioral Disorders, 21(3), 226-240.
This study examined individual growth curves were used to test whether the development of children with reading disabilities is best characterized by models of developmental lag or developmental deficit.
Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, S. E., Stuebing, K. K., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational psychology, 88(1), 3.
This paper summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem-solving.
Friman, P. C., & Poling, A. (1995). Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 583-590.
CASL's general goal is to identify instructional practices that accelerate the learning of K-3 children with disabilities. A specific goal is to identify and understand the nature of nonresponsiveness to generally effective instruction.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 57-61.
In this article, we explain important features of RTI, why it has been promoted as a substitute for IQ-achievement discrepancy, and what remains to be understood before it may be seen as a valid means of LD identification.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?. Reading research quarterly, 41(1), 93-99.
The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a process for readying students to transition successfully from special education resource rooms to regular classrooms for math instruction.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Fernstrom, P. (1993). A conservative approach to special education reform: Mainstreaming through transenvironmental programming and curriculum-based measurement. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 149-177.
This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.
The authors describe both types of responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), "problem solving" and "standard-protocol" then review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with Learning Disabilities
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157-171.
The authors describe both types of RTI, review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with LD.
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness‐to‐intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 157-171.
In this article, the author uses examples in the literature to explore conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components.
Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), 172-186.
Discusses treatment validity as a unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. The authors present a rationale for this alternative framework, use one well-developed classroom assessment method to illustrate the technical requirements of this alternative eligibility process, and discuss the feasibility issues this approach presents.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13(4), 204-219.
This commentary offers such a framework and then they consider how the articles constituting this special issue address the various questions posed in the framework.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2006). A framework for building capacity for responsiveness to intervention. School Psychology Review, 35(4), 621.
To implement RTI for prevention and identification, schools must make decisions about six components that constitute the process. The authors recommendation is that schools employ three tiers, with only one tier separating general and special education.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2007). A model for implementing responsiveness to intervention. Teaching exceptional children, 39(5), 14-20.
This article reviews an inductive assessment model for building instructional programs that satisfy the requirement that satisfy the requirement that special education be planned to address an individual student's need.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children, 61(2), 138.
Examined the role of skills analysis (SA) in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for the purpose of developing more effective instructional (mathematics) programs. 30 special education teachers implemented 1 of 3 treatments for 15 wks with a total of 91 mildly and moderately handicapped pupils.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math. School Psychology Review.
This chapter describes some of the critical conceptual issues related to intervention implementation, and provides a selected review of the research regarding the assessment and assurance of intervention implementation.
Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (2007). The fundamental role of intervention implementation in assessing response to intervention. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 244-251). Springer, Boston, MA.
A model of special education is presented in this article based on the use of a direct and repeated measurement and evaluation system for developing effective educational programs.
Germann, G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application of curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children, 52(3), 244-265.
Despite a significant drop in the use of corporal punishment in schools, a recent study finds corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states and over 160,000 children are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. This policy report examines the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools. The research finds corporal punishment is disproportionately applied to children who are Black, to boys and children with disabilities. Black students experienced corporal punishment at twice the rate of white students, 10 percent versus 5 percent. This report summarizes sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discusses the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.
Gershoff, E. T., & Font, S. A. (2016). Corporal Punishment in US Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report, 30(1).
This article discusses critical issues related to conducting high-quality intervention research using experimental and quasi-experimental group designs.
Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J. W. (2000). Designing high-quality research in special education: Group experimental design. The Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 2-18.
This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954–1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings.
Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Peterson, A., & Dimino, J. (2006). Eyes on the prize: Teaching history to students with learning disabilities in inclusive settings. Exceptional Children, 72, 264-280.
This article reviews key findings from school-reform studies of the 1980s and explains their relevance to special education. It also highlights significant findings from more recent studies that help elucidate and flesh out the earlier findings.
Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of learning disabilities, 33(5), 445-456.
This article presents quality indicators for experimental and quasi-experimental studies for special education.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 149-164.
These papers provide up-to-date, informative summaries of current knowledge and a base from which further venture into the critical area of instructional intervention in special education can occur.
Gersten, R., Schiller, E. P., & Vaughn, S. R. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Routledge.
The authors fit multilevel logistic regression models to a large state administrative dataset in order to examine (1) if the percentage of SWDs a teacher instructs was associated with turnover, (2) if this association varied by student disability, and (3) how these associations were moderated by special education certification.
Gilmour, A. F., & Wehby, J. H. (2019). The Association Between Teaching Students with Disabilities and Teacher Turnover.
This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.
Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830
The goal of this paper was to document and analyze the research on the connection between teachers' preparation to teach special education students, their instructional practices once in the classroom, and their students' eventual learning achievement
Goe, L. (2006). The teacher preparation→ teacher practices→ student outcomes relationship in special education: Missing links and next steps: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved September, 3, 2009.
This article documents the mismatch between the supply and demand of STEM and special education teachers in Washington State, where almost 4,000 more STEM and special education teachers have left the profession than have been produced by in-state teacher training institutions over the past 25 years.
Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., Theobald, R., & Brown, N. (2015). Refueling the STEM and special education teacher pipelines. Phi Delta Kappan, 97(4), 56-62.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that a self-contained Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) with a reduced adult to student ratio would have on the frequency of SED students’ on-task behavior and overall lesson engagement throughout the school day.
Gooding, E. (2017). Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.
The report examines the effect of state funding systems and high stakes testing on special
Greene, J. P., & Forster, G. (2002). Effects of Funding Incentives on Special Education Enrollment. Civic Report.
This executive summary discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.
Gresham, F. (August, 2001). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Executive summary. Paper presented at the 2001 Learning Disabilities Summit: Building a Foundation for the Future, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED458755.pdf
Resistance to intervention is a function of a number of factors including the severity, chronicity, generalization, and tolerance of the behavior, as well as the strength, acceptability, and effectiveness of interventions. These factors are discussed, and implications for referral, assessment, intervention, and classification are presented.
Gresham, F. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review.
This paper discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.
Gresham, F. M. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 467519.
Response to intervention is defined and described along with methods and procedures for quantifying whether or not a student shows an adequate or inadequate response to an evidence-based intervention implemented with integrity.
Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative means of identifying students as emotionally disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 328-344.
The purpose of this chapter is to present the evolution of the response to intervention (RTI) concept and discuss how that concept can be and is being used to provide more effective services to children and youth with both academic and social/behavioral difficulties
Gresham, F. M. (2007). Evolution of the response-to-intervention concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 10-24). Springer, Boston, MA.
This column suggests an intervention continuum to be used that extends beyond the current model, providing a matrix that aligns social-emotional or behavioral skills with specific interventions shown to be effective for students who fall under other disability labels.
Gresham, F. M., Lane, K. L., & O'Shaughnessy, T. E. (2002). Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Boston, MA: Allya and Bacon.
The authors reviewed three learning disabilities journals between 1995-1999 to determine what percent of the intervention studies reported measures of treatment integrity. Only 18.5% reported treatment integrity measures.
Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E., & Bocian, K. M. ?(2000). Treatment integrity in learning disabilities intervention research: Do we really know how treatments are implemented. Learning Disabilities ?Research & Practice, 15(4), 198-205.
This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.
Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.
In this paper research is identified that supports the use of specific classroom management strategies in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Information is presented that indicates that these strategies may not be implemented or may not be effectively implemented by the teachers of students with EBD.
Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1996). Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies. Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 15-20.
This principal's guide to implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) for elementary and middle school reading emphasizes the critical role administrators play in ensuring RTI success in their schools. The author makes recommendations for putting the RTI process in motion and helps school leaders:
Hall, S. L. (Ed.). (2007). Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
This paper examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis–based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure.
Hanley, G. P., Piazza, C. C., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 229-237.
This article addresses whether or not the assumptions upon which IDEA is based remain valid as we approach the 21st century. We critique these assumptions within the context of four requirements of IDEA
Hardman, Michael & Mcdonnell, John & Welch, Marshall. (1997). Perspectives on the future of IDEA. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 22. 10.1177/154079699702200201.
This book gives researchers and professionals the means to break this frustrating cycle, crafted by authors who have not only been there and done that, but can explain in-depth how to replicate the method
Harlacher J., Sakelaris T., Kattelman N. (2014) Practitioner’s guide to curriculum-based evaluation in reading. New York, NY: Springer.
to inform selection of evidence-based interventions to be implemented in classroom settings, the current systematic review with meta-analysis of single-case design studies was conducted to evaluate intervention effectiveness, evidence-based status, and moderators of effects for four intervention types when implemented with students with ADHD in classroom settings.
Harrison, J. R., Soares, D. A., Rudzinski, S., & Johnson, R. (2019). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders and Classroom-Based Interventions: Evidence-Based Status, Effectiveness, and Moderators of Effects in Single-Case Design Research. Review of Educational Research, 0034654319857038.
This article discusses 10 such notions that the author believes limit the effectiveness of special education by impeding the adoption of research-based instructional practices.
Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The journal of special education, 36(4), 186-205.
Used a direct observation-based approach to identify behavioral conditions in sending (i.e., special education) and in receiving (i.e., regular education) classrooms and to identify targets for intervention that might facilitate mainstreaming of behavior-disordered (BD) children.
Hoier, T. S., McConnell, S., & Pallay, A. G. (1987). Observational assessment for planning and evaluating educational transitions: An initial analysis of template matching. Behavioral Assessment.
This Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also provides a discussion of key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation at the preservice and inservice levels.
Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher Preparation to Deliver Inclusive Services to Students with Disabilities: TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
The document contains the final report of a project to determine the factors that account for disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs, especially programs for mentally retarded students; and to identify placement criteria for practices that do not affect minority students disproportionately
Holtzman, W. H., Messick, S., & National Research Council. (1982). Placing children in special education: A strategy for equity. National Academies.
Conducted a meta-analysis of 58 studies (1960–1984) on the early prediction of learning problems that reported correlations between measures administered in kindergarten or 1st-grade and reading achievement later in elementary school.
Horn, W. F., & Packard, T. (1985). Early identification of learning problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(5), 597.
This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as “evidence-based” via single-subject research.
Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2008). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Advances in Evidence-Based Education, 1(1), 67-87.
This report presents final 1999 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality are also described.
Hoyert, D. L., Kochanek, K. D., & Murphy, S. L. (1999). Deaths: final data for 1997. Natl Vital Stat Rep, 47(19), 1-104.
This article examines universal screening, one component in a response to intervention approach for serving struggling learners.
Jenkins, J. R., Hudson, R. F., & Johnson, E. S. (2007). Screening for At-Risk Readers in a Response to. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 582-600.
Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but no longer-term (ie, >4 months) investigations have compared these 2 treatments or their combination.
Jensen, P. S. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of general psychiatry, 56(12), 1073-1086.
An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction.
Jerome, A., & Barbetta, P. M. (2005). The effect of active student responding during computer-assisted instruction on social studies learning by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 13-23.
The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students.
Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of multi-tiered systems of support. Springer.
This study sought to determine whether or not student teachers who were trained and required to use a data-based problem-solving approach in their practicum classrooms would obtain higher levels of pupil achievement in reading and mathematics than student teachers who did not receive the training.
Jones, E. D., & Krouse, J. P. (1986). The Effectiveness of Data-Based Instruction by Student Teachers in Classrooms for Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.
Current calls to close the achievement gap between students with disabilities and those without not only ignore reality but, argues M<r. Kauffman, also poses a real threat to special education students and their teachers.
Kauffman, J. M. (2005). Waving to Ray Charles: Missing the meaning of disabilities. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(7), 520-524.
Although paralleling the regular education system, the promotion of an assortment of different procedures and techniques has caused special education to face continually a fundamental question: is it effective? the purpose of this chapter is to explore that question
Kavale, K. (1990). Effectiveness of special education.
This paper reviews issues surrounding the use of discrepancy in identifying learning disability
Kavale, K. A. (2002). Discrepancy models in the identification of learning disability. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 369-426.
The nature of effective instruction for students with specific learning disability is explored.
Kavale, K. A. (2005). Effective Intervention for Students with Specific Learning Disability: The Nature of Special Education. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(4), 127-138.
Responsiveness to intervention (RTI) is being proposed as an alternative model for making decisions about the presence or absence of specific learning disability. The author argue that there are many questions about RTI that remain unanswered, and radical changes in proposed regulations are not warranted at this time.
Kavale, K. A. (2005). Identifying specific learning disability: Is responsiveness to intervention the answer?. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(6), 553-562.
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.
Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence, 95, S5-S28.
In this article, we describe analyses of assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
Kern, L., Delaney, B., Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Childs, K. (2001). Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders, 9(4), 239-247.
This research assessed whether students with severe autistic disabilities could learn to use a self-management treatment package to reduce their stereotypic behavior within a multiple baselines across subjects design with withdrawals.
Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (1990). Extended reductions in stereotypic behavior of students with autism through a self‐management treatment package. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(1), 119-127.
In 1990, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania implemented a statewide instructional support team (IST) process to provide prereferral assessment and intervention for at-risk students in 500 school districts. The current study examined the academic performance of students affected by this process as contrasted with other at-risk students who did not have access to it.
Kovaleski, J. F., Gickling, E. E., Morrow, H., & Swank, P. R. (1999). High versus low implementation of instructional support teams: A case for maintaining program fidelity. Remedial and Special Education, 20(3), 170-183.
This chapter provides an overview of some of the conceptual and foundation features of RTI.
Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., & Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention: Conceptual and methodological issues in implementation. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 25-52). Springer, Boston, MA.
The objective of this research is to conduct a controlled group outcome investigation of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment for school phobia.
Last, C. G., Hansen, C., & Franco, N. (1998). Cognitive‐behavioral treatment of school phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(4), 404-411.
The report is an overview of the key components of inclusive assessment and accountability and highlights how they fit together to form a cohesive whole.
Lehr, C., & Thurlow, M. (2003). Putting it all together: Including students with disabilities in assessment and accountability systems. Policy Directions No, 16.
This chapter will review the issues and effects of externally managed behavioral procedures applied to the reduction of undesirable behavior of regular or mildly handicapped children in school settings.
Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In Handbook of behavior therapy in education (pp. 439-468). Springer, Boston, MA.
Sixteenth census of United States: 1940; Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940-1960
Linder, F. E., & Grove, R. D. (1943). Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1900-1940. US Government Printing Office.
in this article, the author describes the policies of precision teaching.
Lindsley, O. R. (1990). Precision teaching: By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 10-15.
The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.
Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
The authors investigated the relative effects of self-recording of attentive behavior and self-recording of academic productivity with 5 upper elementary-aged special education students in their special education classroom.
Lloyd, J. W., Bateman, D. F., Landrum, T. J., & Hallahan, D. P. (1989). Self‐recording of attention versus productivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22(3), 315-32
This article reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children.
Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 55(1), 3.
This article considers possible reasons that research knowledge is not used more extensively in special education practice and suggests issues to be addressed in solving this problem.
Malouf, D. B., & Schiller, E. P. (1995). Practice and research in special education. Exceptional Children, 61(5), 414-424.
This study presents such an approach where the impact of regular and special education on 11 mildly handicapped children is studied by analyzing their slope of improvement on weekly curriculum-based measures (CBM) reading scores.
Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education, 21(4), 13-26.
Leadership: The Key Concepts is an indispensable and authoritative guide to the most crucial ideas, concepts and debates surrounding the study and exercise of leadership
Marturano, A., & Gosling, J. (2007). Leadership: The key concepts. Routledge.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. Based on evidence from single-case design studies, SRSD had potentially positive effects on writing achievement for students with a specific learning disability.
Mathematica Policy Research (2017). Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Students with a Specific Learning Disability. What Works Clearinghouse. Institute of Education Sciences.
In this brief, we discuss the challenges of using value-added to evaluate teachers of students with disabilities.
McCaffrey, D. F., & Buzick, H. (2014). Is value-added accurate for teachers of students with disabilities. Carnegie Knowledge Network Brief, (14).
We examined the effect of a teaching method on skill fluency and on-task endurance of a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
McDowell, C., & Keenan, M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 345-348.
This book highlights the fact that the sharp distinctions often drawn in the literature between efficacy and effectiveness can be misleading. “Efficacy” refers to whether a particular CBT has been found to “work” by means of experimental procedures. This book represents an important effort in narrowing the gap between research and practice.
McKay, D., & Storch, E. A. (Eds.). (2009). Cognitive behavior therapy for children: Treating complex and refractory cases. Springer Publishing Company.
This article provides an analysis of factors influencing the supply of and demand for special education teachers
McLeskey, J., Tyler, N. C., & Saunders Flippin, S. (2004). The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. The Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 5-21.
This comprehensive yet accessible reference covers the three tiers of RTI, schoolwide screening, progress monitoring, challenges to implementation, and changes in school structures and individual staff roles.
Mellard, D. F., & Johnson, E. S. (Eds.). (2007). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. Corwin Press.
This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented.
Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.
Effects of two curricular and materials modifications on the on-task behavior and correct academic responding of three elementary-aged students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) were evaluated in two separate studies.
Miller, K. A., Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Hummel, J., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Effects of curricular and materials modifications on academic performance and task engagement of three students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 28(2), 130-149.
In this article, the authors review the research on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading published since the time of Marston’s 1989 review
Miura Wayman, M., Wallace, T., Wiley, H. I., Tichá, R., & Espin, C. A. (2007). Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading. The Journal of Special Education, 41(2), 85-120.
This meta-analysis reports on the overall effectiveness of video analysis when used with special educators, as well as on moderator analyses related to participant and instructional characteristics.
Morin, K. L., Ganz, J. B., Vannest, K. J., Haas, A. N., Nagro, S. A., Peltier, C. J., … & Ura, S. K. (2019). A systematic review of single-case research on video analysis as professional development for special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 53(1), 3-14.
The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have used instructional variables as nonaversive interventionsfor problem behaviors.
Munk, D. D., & Repp, A. C. (1994). The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review. Exceptional children, 60(5), 390-401.
A comprehensive report mandated by the US Congress on the state of the science of prevention recommends a stricter definition of the term prevention; summarizes specific preventive intervention research programs across the life span; and specifies funding, personnel, and coordination priorities to build a national prevention research infrastructure
Munoz, R. F., Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1996). Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: summary and commentary. American Psychologist, 51(11), 1116.
The Workgroup reviewed the NIMH research portfolio that extends from academic research settings to large, State-wide service systems, to the moving target of “front-line” clinical care. The review made vividly clear the need for mutually enriching interaction between research and both practice and service systems.
National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup.
The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD).
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention and Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.readingrockets.org/article/responsiveness-intervention-and-learning-disabilities
This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.
Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.
The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of scientific evidence from single-subject research underlying the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices.
Odom, S. L., & Strain, P. S. (2002). Evidence-based practice in early intervention/early childhood special education: Single-subject design research. Journal of Early Intervention, 25(2), 151-160.
This article sets the context for the development of research quality indicators and guidelines
for evidence of effective practices provided by different methodologies.
Odom, S. L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Horner, R. H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional children, 71(2), 137-148.
Research on students with serious emotional disturbances (SED) suggests that these children are significantly underidentified. National special education data bear out this conclusion to a large extent.
Oswald, D. P., & Coutinho, M. J. (1995). Identification and placement of students with serious emotional disturbance. Part I: Correlates of state child-count data. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3(4), 224-229.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of historical trends in the funding of special education programs, to discuss current issues, and to consider alternative directions for the future
Parrish, T. B. (1996). Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.
This research evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback
for maintaining direct‐service staff members' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities.
Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1995). Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 317-322.
This enlightening book contains papers (presented as chapters) commissioned from nationally recognized scholars, which examine topics related to ethics, culture, science, and philosophy that have a direct bearing on the future of special education.
Paul, J. L. (1997). Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education. Pacific Grove: Brooks.
The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the relationship between the integrity with which social skills interventions were implemented in early childhood special education classrooms and 3 factors: teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, consultative support for implementation, and individual child outcomes.
Peterson, C. A., & McCONNELL, S. R. (1996). Factors related to intervention integrity and child outcome in social skills interventions. Journal of early intervention, 20(2), 146-164.
This article identify five areas that subsume the major activities of problem solving or non categorical service delivery. They are (1) assessment for interventions (2) support for interventions (3) parent involvement (4) problem solving collaboration (5) resources for students as a part of general education.
Prasse, D. P., & Schrag, J. A. (1999). Providing noncategorical, functional, classroom-based supports for students with disabilities: Legal parameters. AUTHOR Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Tilly, W. David, III, Ed.; Grimes, Jeffrey P., Ed. TITLE Functional and Noncategorical Identification and, 201.
Presents an analysis and critique of current school psychological services that emphasize unresolved dilemmas in the current system, which are interpreted as establishing the basis for special education reform.
Reschly, D. J. (1988). Special education reform: School psychology revolution. School Psychology Review.
Four primary issues are covered: the role of different measurement models in disparities of LD children serviced across states, types of students served as LD but not actually LD, components of severe discrepancies between aptitude and achievement, and state of the art in evaluating LD students.
Reynolds, C. R., & Willson, V. L. (1984). Critical measurement issues in learning disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 18(4), 451-476.
The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first-grade students
Riedel, B. W. (2007). The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first‐grade students. Reading research quarterly, 42(4), 546-567.
Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities.
Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research, 70(1), 55-81.
In this paper, it is argued that Critical Planning Theory is inadequate as a planning theory.
Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy sciences, 4(2), 155-169.
This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of a 4-second time delay instructional package and language of instruction with regard to the percentage correct of English sight words and incidental information by 4 Puerto Rican middle school students with mental retardation.
Rohena, E. I., Jitendra, A. K., & Browder, D. M. (2002). Comparison of the effects of Spanish and English constant time delay instruction on sight word reading by Hispanic learners with mental retardation. The Journal of Special Education, 36(3), 171-186.
This study examines all 50 states' and the District of Columbia's requirements regarding the science of reading for elementary and special education teacher candidates.
Ross, E. (2018). NCTQ Databurst: Strengthening Reading Instruction Through Better Preparation of Elementary and Special Education Teachers. Retrieved from http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wnpr/files/201808/NCTQ_Databurst-_Strengthening_Reading_Instruction_764564.pdf
Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group.
Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.
In an experimental assessment of a choral responding procedure for increasing children's response to teacher commands, decreased levels of off-task behavior, as well as increased levels of correct responding, resulted from the procedures for three handicapped preschool children during large group instruction.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. R. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 12(1), 23-30.
This study examined the effects of a self-evaluation treatment package on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., Lefebvre, D., & Rapp, N. (1990). Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56(6), 540-549.
The authors conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis.
Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., ... & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 809-821.
This paper evaluated a program for training 4 support staff to embed instruction within the existing activities of 5 children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool.
Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Parsons, M. B. (2001). Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 34(3), 313-327.
Twenty-eight investigations were identified in which general education teachers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classes. Research synthesis procedures were employed to summarize responses and examine the consistency of responses across time, geographical location, and item type.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958–1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional children, 63(1), 59-74.
Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.
Curriculum-Based Measurement and Special Services for Children is a concise and convenient guide to CBM that demonstrates why it is a valuable assessment procedure, and how it can be effectively utilized by school professionals.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. Guilford Press.
Developed specifically to overcome problems with traditional standardized instruments--and widely used in both general and special education settings throughout the US--curriculum-based measurement (CBM) comprises brief assessment probes of reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics that serve both to quantify student performance and to bolster academic achievement.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. Guilford Press.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs
Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.
The authors evaluated an intervention package for increasing requesting opportunities in special education classrooms. This study demonstrated an effective strategy for helping teachers incorporate opportunities for functional communication into the natural environment.
Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., Roberts, D., & Couzens, D. (1994). Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 631-645.
This study analyzed the magnitude of experimental intervention outcomes as a function of violations in internal and external validity for studies that included students with learning disabilities.
Simmerman, S., & Swanson, H. L. (2001). Treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: How important are internal and external validity?. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(3), 221-236.
Alternating treatments designs were used to compare on-task levels in 4 students diagnosed as emotionally disturbed while working on control and experimental independent seat-work mathematics assignments. Control and experimental assignments were similar except experimental assignments contained additional briefer mathematics problems interspersed following every third problem.
Skinner, C. H., Hurst, K. L., Teeple, D. F., & Meadows, S. O. (2002). Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems. Psychology in the Schools, 39(6), 647-659.
Comprehensively succinct and advanced in its scope, this widely adopted text addresses the full-range of curriculum and instructional topics involved in educating individuals with moderate, severe, and multiple disabilities.
Snell, M. E., & Brown, F. E. (2011). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Higher Ed.
Compared two groups of children with anxiety disorders served at a single mental health clinic whose referral source differed: private referrals (i.e., parent/legal guardian initiated) and public referrals (e.g., via state contracts—Departments of Health and Education, juvenile justice system).
Southam-Gerow, M. A., Chorpita, B. F., Miller, L. M., & Gleacher, A. A. (2008). Are children with anxiety disorders privately referred to a university clinic like those referred from the public mental health system?. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35(3), 168-180.
This article examine what science offers general and special educators who teach reading then review some well‐established scientific findings about reading and their practical implications, not only for children with reading disabilities, but for other children as well.
Spear‐Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(1), 51-57.
This study evaluated an alternative method of identifying early reading difficulty. L. S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs (1998) proposed that academic problems could be indexed by a dual discrepancy on level and slope of performance, relative to classmates, on curriculum-based measurement tasks.
Speece, D. L., & Case, L. P. (2001). Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 735.
The purpose of this study was to examine academic responding and its associated instructional correlates for students in title I and non Title I school program
Stanley, S. O., & Greenwood, C. R. (1983). How much “opportunity to respond” does the minority disadvantaged student receive in school?.
This investigation contributed to previous research by separating the effects of simply making instructional changes, not based on student performance data, from the effects of making instructional changes in accordance with CBM data.
Stecker, P. M. (1995). Effects of instructional modifications with and without curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics achievement of students with mild disabilities.
The purpose of this chapter is to present a combined research- and practice-based framework for integrating a comprehensive MTSS model with EBP, and thus, optimize the results stemming from school improvement efforts.
Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 121-141). Springer, Boston, MA.
A meta-analysis involving 46 studies addressing the validity of this classification of poor readers revealed substantial overlap between the IQ-discrepant and IQ-consistent poor readers
Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., LeDoux, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2002). Validity of IQ-discrepancy classifications of reading disabilities: A meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 39(2), 469-518.
This presentation slide describes the important role of leadership in effective, efficient, and relevant PBIS implementation
Sugai, G. (2013). Role of Leadership and culture in PBIS Implementation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/PBIS_Implementation_leadership_braiding_apr_11_2013_HAND.pdf
The purpose of this article is to review the literature and examine the effect of increased opportunities to respond to academic requests (OTR) on academic and behavioral outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).
Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 113-121.
This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a grow your own (GYO) program equitably increased special education teacher capacity in one Southern state's rural and non-rural school districts.
Sutton, J. P., Bausmith, S. C., O'connor, D. M., Pae, H. A., & Payne, J. R. (2014). Building special education teacher capacity in rural schools: Impact of a grow your own program. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 33(4), 14-23.
A synthesis and meta-analysis of the extant research on the effects of reading interventions delivered using social studies content for students with learning disabilities in kindergarten through Grade 12 is provided.
Swanson, E., Hairrell, A., Kent, S., Ciullo, S., Wanzek, J. A., & Vaughn, S. (2014). A synthesis and meta-analysis of reading interventions using social studies content for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 178-195.
This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 277-321.
The purpose of this article is to identify the components of various instructional models that best predicted effect sizes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Three important findings emerged.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), 109-119.
A newly released multi-national meta-analysis examined the impact of including special education needs students (SEN) in classrooms with students without special needs.The meta-analysis concluded that attending inclusive classrooms is positively, though weakly, associated with the academic achievement of students without special needs.
Szumski, G., Smogorzewska, J., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Academic achievement of students without special educational needs in inclusive classrooms: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 21, 33–54.
We examined whether, as predicted by research on child effects, we could generate hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing the amount of attention teachers provided to students.
Taylor, J. C., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1994). Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 251-265.
This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).
In this important book, one of the most exciting and promising developments in clinical psychology-behavior modification is applied to the treatment of the mentally retarded, particularly those whose behavior poses difficult problems for institutions.
Thompson, T., & Grabowski, J. (1977). Behavior modification of the mentally retarded.
This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.
Tilly III, W. D. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.
This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.
Tilly, W. D. III. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 21-36). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.
This chapter presents four sets of interrelated discussions. The rationale for and critical components underlying a problem-solving system; The concept of educational disability is clarified; Current and potential alternate processes of conferring educational disability status are considered; The implications of implementing a functional and noncategorical system are examined in relation to federal legal requirements.
Tilly, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming, 221-251.
This book target regular and special education teachers who implement PBS in their classrooms. The book also serves as an essential resources for preservice teachers who are developing their classroom management skills. it focuses on practical strategies to prevent and reduce behavioral problems and enhance student learning.
Tincani, M. (2011). Preventing challenging behavior in your classroom: Positive behavior support and effective classroom management. Sourcebooks, Inc..
This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction
Tincani, M., & Crozier, S. (2007). Comparing brief and extended wait-time during small group instruction for children with challenging behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16(4), 355-367.
This article layout two sets of findings: (1) what we know about the kind of instruction that weak readers need in kindergarten through second grade to prevent them from ever entering the downward spiral, and (2) what we know about the effectiveness of interventions that make use of this knowledge.
Torgesen, J. K. (2004). Preventing early reading failure. American Educator, 28(3), 6-9.
Sixty children with severe reading disabilities were randomly assigned to two instructional
programs that incorporated principles of effective instruction but differed in depth and extent
of instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding skills
Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of learning disabilities, 34(1), 33-58.
This article provides a case study (focus on an eighth-grader with autism) within a case study (focus on an urban middle school) in terms of the implementation of positive behavior support (PBS).
Turnbull, A., Bohanon, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., ... & Warren, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children, 68(3), 377–402.
As students and educators go back to school across the country, and as Congress continues to debate how to fix the law commonly known as No Child Left Behind, the U.S. Department of Education announced today that states whose waivers from certain provisions of federal education law will expire at the end of the 2013-2014 school year will soon be able to request renewals of their reform plans, for up to two more years.
U.S. Department of Education (2017). States granted waivers from No Child Left Behind allowed to reapply for renewal for 2014 and 2015 school years. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/states-granted-waivers-no-child-left-behind-allowed-reapply-renewal-2014-and-2015-school-years
The Commission identified the six goals as the foundation for transforming mental health care in America. This report discusses each goal in-depth, showcasing model programs to illustrate the goal in practice and providing specific recommendations needed to transform the mental health system in America.
United States. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: transforming mental health care in America: final report. President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.
The text and graphics contained in the 26th Annual Report to Congress were developed primarily from data from the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Data Analysis System (DANS). DANS is a repository for all the data mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to be collected from states annually.
US Department of Education. (1998). Twentieth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
In order to ensure the Department's “Equity in IDEA” or “significant disproportionality” regulations effectively address significant disproportionality, the Department proposes to postpone the compliance date by two years, from July 1, 2018, to July 1, 2020
US Department of Education. (2006). Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; Final rule (34 CFR Parts 300 and 301). Federal Register, 71, 46540.
The purpose of the conference was to engage a group of citizens in a thoughtful, meaningful dialogue about issues of prevention, identification, recognition, and referral of children with mental health needs to appropriate, evidence-based treatments or services.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A national action agenda.
This article examines the impact of poor decision making in school psychology, with a focus on determining eligibility for special education. Effective decision making depends upon the selection and correct use of measures that yield reliable scores and valid conclusions, but traditional psychometric adequacy often comes up short. The author suggests specific ways in which school psychologists might overcome barriers to using effective assessment and intervention practices in schools in order to produce better results.
VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2018, March). Why Do School Psychologists Cling to Ineffective Practices? Let’s Do What Works. In School Psychology Forum, Research in Practice(Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 44-52). National Association of School Psychologists.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementation of a systematic
response to intervention (RTI) model on the identification and evaluation of children for
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gilbertson, D. (2007). A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a response to intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. Journal of School Psychology, 45(2), 225-256.
This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Naquin, G. (2003). Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 204-227.
In this introduction to the special issue, a response-to-instruction approach to learning disabilities (LD) identification is discussed
Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promise and potential problems. Learning disabilities research & practice, 18(3), 137-146.
To examine a response to treatment model as a means for identifying students with reading/learning disabilities, 45 second-grade students at risk for reading problems were provided daily supplemental reading instruction and assessed after 10 weeks to determine if they met a prior criteria for exit.
Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional children, 69(4), 391-409.
The authors argue against the use of psychometric assessment as the primary or sole vehicle for diagnosing specific reading disability and delivered some suggestions.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Tanzman, M. S. (1998). The case for early intervention in diagnosing specific reading disability. Journal of School Psychology, 36(4), 367-397.
Reading impaired first graders were given daily tutoring as a "first cut" diagnostic to aid in distinguishing between reading difficulties caused by basic cognitive deficits and those caused by experiential deficits. Reading achievement in most of these children was found to be within or above the average range after one semester of remediation.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 601.
This article provides a description of the First Step to Success early intervention program for preventing development of antisocial behavior patterns among young, at-risk children.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools, 35(3), 259-269.
This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
This article overview the conceptual foundations and underlying principles of FBA and the methods and procedures associated with conducting FBAs in school settings.
Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 156-172.
The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary school children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in a self-contained, urban classroom
Weeden, M., Wills, H. P., Kottwitz, E., & Kamps, D. (2016). The effects of a class-wide behavior intervention for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 42(1), 285-293.
In the present study data were collected on the quality of life and self-determination of 50 individuals with mental retardation, and data were analyzed, using discriminant function analysis and correlational analyses, to determine the contribution of self-determination to quality of life and examine the relationship between these constructs.
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation.
Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups.
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area.
White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.
This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems.
Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders, 19(1), 79.
Developed by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), this report presents current weaknesses in the education of students with learning problems (those having difficulties learning for any of a variety of reasons) and suggested strategies for correcting those weaknesses.
Will, M. C. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional children, 52(5), 411-415.
This paper assesses research on the topic of dyslexia. Willingham’s piece is in response to comments made by literacy researcher, Dick Allington, in which he questions the legitimacy of the label, dyslexia.
Willingham, D. (2019). On the Reality of Dyslexia. Charlottesville, VA. Retrieved from http://www.danielwillingham.com/daniel-willingham-science-and-education-blog/on-the-reality-of-dyslexia?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+nbspDanielWillingham-DanielWillinghamScienceAndEducationBlog+%28Daniel+Willingham%27s+Science+and+Education+Blog%29.
This research monograph offers early childhood educators a foundational resource of information needed to develop inclusion practices.
Wolery, M., & Wilbert, J. S. (1994). Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Order No. 145, $8 each; 5-49 copies, 10% discount; 50-99 copies, 20% discount; over 100 copies, 25% discount; orders under $20 must be prepaid)..
This study used a reversal design to examine the use of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior during calendar circle-time in a rural kindergarten inclusion classroom. Results showed a functional relationship between preprinted response cards and increased participation and decreased off-task behavior for all 4 target students.
Wood, C. L., Mabry, L. E., Kretlow, A. G., Lo, Y. Y., & Galloway, T. W. (2009). Effects of preprinted response cards on students' participation and off-task behavior in a rural kindergarten classroom. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(2), 39-47.
Two studies were conducted to examine the extent to which the category "learning disabilities" (LD) meets the major criterion for classification systems, specifically that the category demonstrates at least one universal and one specificfcharacteristic.
Ysseldyke, J., Algozzine, B., & Epps, S. (1983). A logical and empirical analysis of current practice in classifying students as handicapped. Exceptional Children, 50(2), 160-166.