This article attempts an analysis of the accumulated literature on collegial relations with the intent of formulating a more robust conception, one that accounts for variation in teachers’ involvements with one another, the circumstances that surround those involvements, the meanings teachers and others attach to them, and the consequences that flow from them.
Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.
The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri.
Akiba, M., & Liang, G. (2016). Effects of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth. Journal of Educational Research, 109(1), 99–110. https://www.lib.fsu.edu/sites/default/files/scholarship/effects_of_teacher_pl_activities.pdf
This essay suggests potential research avenues in the area of technology-mediated learning. It seeks to motivate greater depth of research into the question of how technology enhances learning.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Research commentary: Technology-mediated learning—a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1–10. https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/isre.22.214.171.12420
The work of the New Teacher Center (NTC) highlights the importance of the conditions for success in its Program Theory of Action model. This paper also provides Conditions for Success Self-Evaluation Worksheet that will help you to evaluate your program’s readiness to effectively implement the Teacher Induction Pathway presented in the Adult Education Teacher Induction Toolkit.
American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Literacy Information and Communication System (LINCS). (2015). Promoting teacher effectiveness: Conditions for success in teacher induction. https://lincs.ed.gov/publications/te/conditions.pdf
This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care.
Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac
This Research & Policy Brief addresses the aspect of the teacher support system that is perhaps the most important and often the most weakly implemented: teacher learning and development.
Archibald, S., Coggshall, J. G., Croft, A., & Goe, L. (2011). High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/docs/HighQualityProfessionalDevelopment.pdf
Are teachers who achieve National Board for Professional Teaching Standards certification more effective than their noncertified peers?
ASCD. (2004, April 13). How effective are National Board-Certified teachers? http://www.ascd.org/publications/researchbrief/v2n08/toc.aspx
This study examines the impact of a nationally disseminated professional development program, Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI), on teachers' specialized knowledge for teaching mathematics and illustrates how such research could be conducted.
Bell, C. A., Wilson, S. M., Higgins, T., & McCoach, D. B. (2010). Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5): 479–512. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Courtney_Bell5/publication/268429188_Measuring_the_Effects_of_Professional_Development_on_Teacher_Knowledge_The_Case_of_Developing_Mathematical_Ideas/links/54f5c6310cf21d8b8a5b791b.pdf
As part of a federally funded study of NCLB, RAND Corporation researchers, in collaboration with researchers from the American Institutes for Research, analyzed the progress that states, districts, and schools have made in implementing the teacher qualification provisions of NCLB through the 2004–2005 school year.
Birman, B., Le Floch, K., Klekotka, A., Ludwig, M., Taylor, J., Walters, K…..O’Day, J. (2007). Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9287.html
The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) was awarded a grant from the
National Science Foundation to conduct a meta analysis study with the goal of providing
state and local education leaders with scientifically-based evidence regarding the effects of
teacher professional development on improving student learning.
Blank, R. K., and de las Alas, N. (2009). The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544700.pdf
Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15.
Using data from a large urban school district, this article tests the impact of structural, human, and social factors on the emergence of school-based professional community and examines the extent to which such developments in turn promote learning and experimentation among faculty
Bryk, A., Camburn, E., & Louis, K. S. (1999). Professional community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(5), 751–781. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karen_Louis/publication/249684711_Professional_Community_in_Chicago_Elementary_Schools_Facilitating_Factors_and_Organizational_Consequences/links/5845de4f08ae8e63e6286a05/Professional-Community-in-Chicago-Elementary-Schools-Facilitating-Factors-and-Organizational-Consequences.pdf
This document includes the excerpts of five articles that provide a substantial evidence-based argument for the power of collaborative communities to improve teaching and learning.
Carroll, T., Fulton, K., & Doerr, H. (Eds.) (2010). Team up for 21st century teaching and learning: What research and practice reveal about professional learning. Condensed excerpts. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED512177
The purpose of this overview is to provide an understanding of the research base on teacher induction programs, the impact on teacher practice and student achievement, and recommendations for teacher induction programs.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2020). Overview of Teacher Induction. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/in-service-professional-induction.
This study aimed to look into this by asking, “Which features of high quality online professional development were noted by participating educators in a statewide online teacher professional development program?” A survey was used to collect educators’ voices in this FIP professional development (PD) program.
Collins, L. J., & Liang, X. (2015). Examining high quality online teacher professional development: Teachers’ voices. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 6(1), 18–34. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137401.pdf
Research shows how schools can create more powerful professional development experiences.
Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Research review. Teacher learning: What matters? How Teachers Learn, 66(5), 46–53. http://outlier.uchicago.edu/computerscience/OS4CS/landscapestudy/resources/Darling-Hammond-and-Richardson-2009.pdf
This paper reviews 35 methodologically rigorous studies that have demonstrated a positive link between teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student outcomes.
Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Effective_Teacher_Professional_Development_REPORT.pdf
This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD) in the United States (U.S.).
Desimone, L. M., & Garet, M. S. (2015).Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States. Psychology, Society, and Education, 7(3), 252-263. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/31ff/d06b4df5bb399f782d3985f17311d2bc44ae.pdf
This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face.
Fishman, B., Konstantopoulous, S., Kubitskey, B., Vath, R., Park, G., Johnson, H., & Edelson, D. C. (2013). Comparing the impact of online and face to face professional development in the context of curriculum implementation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 426–438.
This study uses a national probability sample of 1,027 mathematics and science teachers to provide the first large-scale empirical comparison of effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers' learning.
Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945. http://www.artsintegrationpd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/What-makes-PD-effective-Garet_et_al.pdf
This report describes how Denver Public Schools hired personnel to coach and evaluate its principals.
Gill, J., (2013). Make Room for the Principal Supervisors. The Wallace Foundation.
In this paper, we describe the results of the first large-scale study, based on a unique data set from North Carolina, assessing the relationship between the certification of teachers by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and elementary level student achievement
Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2004). Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington. https://m.cedr.us/papers/value/2007-Can%20Teacher%20Quality.pdf
The authors use their experience with a professional development project to propose a model of teacher community in the workplace. They describe a project that brought together 22 English and social studies teachers (and a special education and ESL teacher) from an urban high school over a period of 2 1/2 years.
Grossman, P., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 942–1012. https://stacks.stanford.edu/file/druid:ch289xy7677/Grossman-Wineburg-Woolworth.pdf
The authors report an investigation of a five-step structured study-group approach to promoting a self-sustaining learning community that supports teachers in developing the ‘habits of mind’ necessary for improving literacy acquisition and development for urban African American students attending a low-performing, high-poverty elementary school.
Hollins, E. R., McIntyre, L. R., DeBose, C., Hollins, K. S., & Towner, A. (2004). Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: Investigating an internal model for teacher development. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(2), 247–264.
This paper defines and describes what is meant by "professional learning community"; describes what happens when a school staff studies, works, plans, and takes action collectively on behalf of increased learning for students; and discusses what is known about creating such communities of professionals in schools.
Hord, S. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410659.pdf
This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.
Keyworth, R., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2012). Introduction: Proceedings from the Wing Institute’s Fifth Annual Summit on Evidence-Based Education: Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation. In Education at the Crossroads: The State of Teacher Preparation (Vol. 2, pp. ix-xxx). Oakland, CA: The Wing
This paper presents case study research that explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education.
King, K. P. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education, 5(3), 231–246.
The authors introduce Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) as a way of representing what teachers need to know about technology and argue for the role of authentic design-based activities in the development of this knowledge.
Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2) 131–152. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.983.6956&rep=rep1&type=pdf
In trying to improve American public schools, educators, policymakers, and philanthropists are overselling the role of the highly skilled individual teacher and undervaluing the benefits that come from teacher collaborations that strengthen skills, competence, and a school’s overall social capital.
Leana, C. (2011). The missing link in school reform. Stanford Social Innovation Review.https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_missing_link_in_school_reform
In this paper we examine social capital and its relationship with performance at the organizational level.
Leana, C., & Pil, F. (2006). Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools. Organization Science, 17(3), 353–366.
This paper draws on intensive case studies of teacher knowledge, practice, and learning among teachers of mathematics and English in two high schools to take up the problem of how classroom teaching practice comes to be known, shared, and developed among teachers through their out-of-classroom interactions.
Little, J. W. (2003). Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 913–945.
This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period.
Lochmiller, C. R. (2014). Leadership coaching in an induction program for novice principals: A 3-year study. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 9(1), 59–84.
This paper reports findings of a study that is grounded in the assumption that the ways in which teachers interact outside their classrooms may be critical to the future of school restructuring and the effects of restructuring on students.
Louis, K. S., Marks, H. M., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 757–798. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED381871.pdf
This study investigated the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards'(NBPTS)
assessment process in order to identify, quantify, and substantiate learning outcomes from
Lustick, D., & Sykes, G. (2006). National Board Certification as professional development: What are teachers learning? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(5), 1– 43. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/76/202
Th is publication is an eff ort to answer basic questions and to inform and engage more people in strengthening the quality and improving the results of professional development.
Mizell, H. (2010). Why professional development matters. Oxford, OH: Learning Forward. https://learningforward.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/professional-development-matters.pdf
NTC's most recent report explores: 1) The impact on teacher retention rates, 2) Expected months of additional learning for students and potential of lifetime earnings, 3) Districts' expected savings on this investment. 4) Long-term economic impact of students and in their communities.
New Teacher Center (2019). Counting the cost: A commitment to educational equity that yields results. Santa Cruz, CA: Author. https://info.newteachercenter.org/Counting-the-Cost
This article focuses on the response of one urban middle school to a major school reform initiative.
Phillips, J. (2003). Powerful learning: Creating learning communities in urban school reform. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 18(3), 240–258. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~coesyl-p/principle7-article2.pdf
This study examined the influence of three year-long cohorts of elementary school teachers' participating in a learner-centered mathematics professional development program.
Polly, D., McGee, J., Wang, C., Martin, C., Lambert, R., & Pugalee, D. K. (2015). Linking professional development, teacher outcomes, and student achievement: The case of a learner-centered mathematics program for elementary school teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 26–37. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883035515000282
The objective in this review was to summarize and critique empirical research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher retention and teacher quality (particularly studies in which teacher effectiveness was evaluated by using student achievement measures).
Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention.
This Statistics in Brief provides a snapshot of the state of teacher professional development activities among U.S. public school teachers using data collected through the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Public School Teacher Questionnaire.
Rotermund, S., DeRoche, J., & Ottem, R. (2017). Teacher professional development by selected teacher and school characteristics, 2011–12 (NCES 2017-200). Stats in Brief. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED573871.pdf
This study examines how mathematics and science teachers' classroom assessment
practices were affected by the National Board Certification process.
Sato, M., Wei, R. C., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Improving teachers’ assessment practices through professional development: The case of National Board Certification. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 669–700. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.872.5162&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Teachers who received two years of comprehensive induction services boosted student scores in reading and math more than teachers in a comparison group who didn’t receive the support, a study released today by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences finds.
Sawchuk, S. (2010) (2010, June 28). Teacher induction found to raise student scores. Education Week. Retrieved from www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/06/28/36induction.h29.html
This study focuses on the experiences of ten novice principals involved in a principal mentoring program in a large urban school district to examine the connections of theory and practice from training received in their administrative preparation program. It sought to understand the impact of receiving support and mentoring in retaining principals. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the importance of networking with other principals, (2) individualized support with mentors, and (3) continuous development and professional growth. The research presented will contribute to the agenda of retaining quality administrators in the field.
Simieou, F., Decman, J., Grigsby, B., & Schumacher, G. (2010). Lean on me: Peer mentoring for novice principals. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 5(1), 1-9.
High teacher turnover imposes numerous burdens on the schools and districts from which teachers depart. Some of these burdens are explicit and take the form of recruiting, hiring, and training costs. Others are more hidden and take the form of changes to the composition and quality of the teaching staff. This study focuses on the latter.
Sorensen, L. C., & Ladd, H. (2018). The hidden costs of teacher turnover. Working paper 203-0918-1. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2332858420905812
This 3-year study examined the dynamics of school culture in 3 elementary schools that
have beaten the odds in improving low-income and minority student achievement.
Strahan, D. (2003). Promoting a collaborative professional culture in three elementary schools that have beaten the odds. Elementary School Journal, 104(2), 127–146.
This paper reviews the research literature on new teacher mentoring, focusing on issues of definition, why teachers quit, and the effects of mentoring on retention.
Strong, M. (2005). Teacher induction, mentoring, and retention: A summary of the research. The New Educator, 1(3), 181-198.
Totterdell, M., Bubb, S., Woodroffe, L., & Hanrahan, K. (2004). The impact of newly qualified teachers (NQT) induction programmes on the enhancement of teacher expertise, professional development, job satisfaction or retention rates: A systematic review of research literature on induction. Research evidence in education library.
After an overview of the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs), this manuscript presents a review of 10 American studies and one English study on the impact of PLCs on teaching practices and student learning.
Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 80–91. https://www.psycholosphere.com/A%20review%20on%20research%20on%20the%20impact%20of%20PLCs%20on%20teaching%20practice%20&%20student%20learning%20by%20Vescio,%20Ross%20&%20Adams.pdf
Drawing on literature since 1997, this review explores the effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' conceptions and practice of teaching, and it identifies three approaches to understanding such effects, as found in the literature.
Wang, J., Odell, S. J., & Schwille, S. A. (2008). Effects of teacher induction on beginning teachers' teaching: A critical review of the literature. Journal of teacher education, 59(2), 132-152.