This current report takes us through the 2006-07 school year, using the most recent federal data. It shows a continuing surge in minority students, yet another increase in racial segregation of African American and Latino students, the extremely large proportion of American students who are growing up in poverty, and the development of multiracial schools in many parts of the country. This report is about the students in school during the year the Supreme Court heard and decided the voluntary integration (PICS) case in 2007
Orfield, G. (2009). Reviving the goal of an integrated society: A 21st century challenge.
A case study in program development and refinement is presented. We describe the
Teaching-Family model and its history, the original research goal of developing a community-
based program that was more humane, more effective in teaching communityliving skills,
and less expensive than the traditional large state institutions prevalent when we began.
As rich and poor families have increasingly moved into separate communities, the character of neighborhood life in the United States has changed. This paper attempt to outlined several concrete steps to reduce economic segregation, rebuild communities, and narrow the opportunity gap.
Closing the Opportunity Gap. (2016). A Project of the Saguaro Seminar. Retrieved from https://theopportunitygap.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/april25.pdf
This report describes the “bottom-line” economics of programs that try to reduce crime. This report also provides a snapshot of the Institute’s cost-benefit findings as of May 2001.
Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, R., Leib, R. The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime: a review of national research findings with implications for Washington State. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Olympia (WA); 1999
This article presents strategies developed by practicing teachers to illustrate the usefulness of one model for enhancing teacher-student relationships and four types of social power that teacher can use to influence students to excel both academically and behaviorally.
Alderman, G. L., & Green, S. K. (2011). Social powers and effective classroom management: enhancing teacher–student relationships. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(1), 39-44.
One of the most critical issues facing K-12 education is the impact that poverty has on school performance. This study first examines school performance using traditional metrics for school poverty levels (percent of student body that qualify for free and reduced lunch: FRL) and school performance (school achievement based on the aggregate test scores of its student body). The results support prior research documenting the negative relationship between the level of poverty in a school and student achievement (the higher the poverty the lower the achievement). However, when replacing the student achievement metric with a student growth metric, the relationship is significantly different.
Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Olson, L. S. (2001). Schools, achievement, and inequality: A seasonal perspective. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23, 171–191.
In response to the continuing gun violence in American schools, an interdisciplinary group of 19 scholars are proposing an eight-point plan to prevent future tragedies that have become common place in the nation. This one-page position statement proposes a public health approach to protecting children as well as adults from gun violence involves three levels of prevention: (1) universal approaches promoting safety and well-being for everyone; (2) practices for reducing risk and promoting protective factors for persons experiencing difficulties; and (3) interventions for individuals where violence is present or appears imminent.
Astor, R. et al. (2018). Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. University of Virginia.
The Community Indicators movement is exploring in the United States and around the world, involving hundreds of local governments, community groups, and civic partnerships. This handbook is designed to be constantly updated and adapted by its users.
Atkisson, A., Besleme, K., Mullin, M., & Rixford, C. (1998). Community Indicators Handbook: Measuring Progress Toward Healthy & Sustainable Communities. Seattle: Diane Books Publishing Company.
Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race / ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the number of students of each race / ethnicity who have completed high school and continue their education in college have increased. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied, and differences persist among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, American Indians / Alaska Natives and students of two or more races in their performance on key indicators of educational performance.
Aud, S. (2011). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups (2010). DIANE Publishing.
Discusses the limitations of traditional methods such as journal articles and conferences in disseminating innovative programs and describes 3 examples of successful utilization: the behavior analysis and modification project (R. P. Lieberman et al, 1976); the teaching family model for group home treatment of deviant adolescents (E. L. Phillips et al, 1974); and the Fairweather hospital–community treatment program (G. W. Fairweather, 1964).
Backer, T. E., Liberman, R. P., & Kuehnel, T. G. (1986). Dissemination and adoption of innovative psychosocial interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(1), 111.
What drives people to discriminate? Economists focus on two main reasons: "taste-based" and "statistical" discrimination. Motivated by a growing body of psychological evidence, the authors put forward a third interpretation: implicit discrimination. The authors argue that discrimination may be unintentional and outside of the discriminator's awareness.
Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review, 95(2), 94-98.
the objective of this research is to evaluate a community intervention to mobilise positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people.
Biglan, A., Henderson, J., Humphrey, D., Yasui, M., Whisman, R., Black, C., & James, L. (1995). Mobilising positive reinforcement to reduce youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control, 4(1), 42.
This NCES study explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This study, the first of it's kind, used the 2011 NAEP grade 8 mathematics assessment data. Among the results highlighted in the report, the study indicates that the achievement gap between Black and White students remains whether schools fall in the highest density category or the lowest density category.
Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap (NCES 2015-018). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
This paper predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit inter-group harm and promote inter-group helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on inter-group outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern.
Bruneau, E. G., Cikara, M., & Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(8), 934-942.
This paper advances the discussion of the achievements differences between the higher and lower social-class groups were increasing, particularly between children in the highest income group and everyone else issue by analyzing trends in the influence of race/ethnicity, social class, and gender on students’ academic performance in the United States. This paper also explores the ways in which English language ability relates to Hispanics’ and Asian Americans’ academic performance over time (Nores and Barnett 2014).
Carnoy, M., & García, E. (2017). Five Key Trends in US Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools. Economic Policy Institute.
Assessment and intervention approach for dealing with problem behavior need to be extended so that they can be effectively and comprehensively applied within the community. To meet assessment needs, the authors developed a three-component strategy: description, categorization, and verification.
Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., Smith, C. E., & McLaughlin, D. M. (1999). Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long-term maintenance and social validation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1(1), 5-25.
To answer questions about who goes to college, who persists toward a degree or credential, and what happens to students after they enroll, the National Center for Education Statistics launched three national longitudinal studies to track students movements into and through the postsecondary education system. These three surveys, the National Education Longitudinal Study, the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study, and the Baccalaureate and Beyond Study, provide findings about college access, student characteristics, and academic persistence.
Choy, S. P. (2002). Access and persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students.Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis.
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender and ethnicity disproportionality among students identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) and relationships between identification and sociodemographic factors.
Coutinho, M. J., Oswald, D. P., Best, A. M., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Gender and sociodemographic factors and the disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders, 27(2), 109-125.
This article explored developmental and intervention evidence relevant to iatrogenic effects in peer-group interventions. Longitudinal research revealed that "deviancy training" within adolescent friendships predicts increases in delinquency, substance use, violence, and adult maladjustment.
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American psychologist, 54(9), 755.
To create a professional learning community, focus on learning rather than teaching, work collaboratively, and hold yourself accountable for results.
DuFour, R. (2004). What is a" professional learning community"?. Educational leadership, 61(8), 6-11.
This research tested the hypothesis that the "self-stimulatory" behaviors exhibited by some individuals may be socially mediated.
Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Social influences on “self‐stimulatory” behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20(2), 119-132.
An analysis of a quarter century of research on intrinsic task interest and creativity revealed, however, that (a) detrimental effects of reward occur under highly restricted, easily avoidable conditions; (b) mechanisms of instrumental and classical conditioning are basic for understanding incremental and decremental effects of reward on task motivation; and (c) positive effects of reward on generalized creativity are easily attainable using procedures derived from behavior theory.
Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth?. American psychologist, 51(11), 1153.
The opinion article discuss about anti-vaxxers activist grow more aggressive while more study and evidence show how vaccination is important. The author suggest that the Lawmakers must stand up to the anti-vaccination crowd, a very small minority according to every poll.
Elias, T.D, (2019). California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.dailynews.com/2019/04/19/californias-anti-vaxxers-grow-more-aggressive-as-theyre-challenged/
Articulated in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, this strategy emphasizes the importance of environmental influences on the behaviors associated with health promotion and injury prevention.
Fawcet, S. B., Paine, A. L., Francisco, V. T., & Vliet, M. (1993). Promoting Health Trough Community Development.
Fine, M. (1986). Why urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school. Teachers College Record, 87(3), 393-409.
This paper reports the effects of the intervention on ordinances in TPOP communities, on cigarette purchase success by youth, and on adolescents' perceptions of availability and self-reported smoking behavior.
Forster, J. L., Murray, D. M., Wolfson, M., Blaine, T. M., Wagenaar, A. C., & Hennrikus, D. J. (1998). The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco. American Journal of Public Health, 88(8), 1193-1198.
A recently released report from the GAO finds that overall staffing in the Department of Education has fallen from a high of 6,391 in 1981 to 4,077 in 2015, while contracting levels have remained relatively stable. It is important to note that the workload for Department of Education has grown as the budget for the department has increased significantly during this same period. More eliminations of personnel are expected as the Trump administration has called for a further 13.5% reduction. It is interesting to note that the entire federal workforce has experienced a 4% reduction in staffing from 1991 through 2015, while the Department of Education lost 12% of it’s personnel.
Foxx, V., Guthrie, B., Rokita, T. and Rothmam, G. (2107). Department of Education: Staffing Levels Have Generally Decreased Over Time, While Contracting Levels Have Remained Relatively Stable. US Government Accountability Office GAO-17-669R.
The publication of this report marks the 65th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case declaring racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. This report shows that the growth of racial and economic segregation that began then has now continued unchecked for nearly three decades, placing the promise of Brown at grave risk. Research shows that segregation has strong, negative relationships with the achievement, college success, long-term employment and income of students of color.
Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J. B., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown.
The primary hypothesis of COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) was that a community-level, multi-channel, 4-year intervention would increase quit rates among cigarette smokers, with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) of priority.
Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention. American journal of public health, 85(2), 183-192.
COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation) investigated whether a community-level multichannel intervention would decrease the prevalence of adult cigarette smoking and increase quitting with heavy smokers (≥25 cigarettes per day) receiving the highest priority.
Glynn, T. J., Shopland, D. R., Manley, M., Lynn, W. R., Freedman, L. S., Green, S. B., ... & Chapelsky, D. A. (1995). Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in adult cigarette smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 85(2), 193-200.
Pew Research Center recently asked a national sample of adults to select among a list of 10 skills: “Regardless of whether or not you think these skills are good to have, which ones do you think are most important for children to get ahead in the world today?”
Goo, S. A. R. A. (2015). The skills Americans say kids need to succeed in life. Pew Research Center.
Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores. This Paper examines the use of value-added modeling as a tool to identify effective teachers from ineffective instructors.
Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series. Educational Testing Service.
Noting that the evidence of families' influence on their children's school achievement is consistent, positive, and convincing, this report examines research on parent and community involvement and its impact on student achievement.
Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Annual Synthesis, 2002.
This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.
Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.
In this article, we respond at length to recent critiques of research on implicit bias, especially studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These studies reveal that students, nurses, doctors, police officers, employment recruiters, and many others exhibit implicit biases with respect to race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, social status, and other distinctions.
Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in organizational behavior, 29, 39-69.
What, if anything, should we do about implicit bias in the courtroom? The authors comprises legal academics, scientists, researchers, and even a sitting federal judge who seek to answer this question in accordance with behavioral realism.
Kang, J., Bennett, M., Carbado, D., & Casey, P. (2011). Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLa L. rev., 59, 1124.
By focusing on clinical practice and what can be changed, this book offers suggestions for improvement of patient care and advises how clinical work can contribute directly and in new ways to the accumulation of knowledge.
Kazdin, A. E. (2000). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Directions for research and practice. Oxford University Press.
The authors presents the conceptual, philosophical, and methodological basis for the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 341.
Begun in 1982, the Algebra Project is transforming math education in twenty-five cities. The Project works with entire communities-parents, teachers, and especially students-to create a culture of literacy around algebra, a crucial stepping-stone to college math and opportunity.
Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon Press.
The authors examined the literature on functional behavioral assessment according to external validity and assessment with regard to its cost-benefits (i.e., its effectiveness relative to other approaches, time, and effort).
Nelson, J. R., Roberts, M. L., Mathur, S. R., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1999). Has public policy exceeded our knowledge base? A review of the functional behavioral assessment literature. Behavioral Disorders, 24(2), 169-179.
This paper enters debate about how U.S. schools might address long-standing disparities in educational and economic opportunities while improving the educational outcomes for all students. with a vision and an argument for realizing that vision, based on lessons learned from 60 years of education research and reform efforts. The central points covered draw on a much more extensive treatment of these issues published in 2015. The aim is to spark fruitful discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers.
O'Day, J. A., & Smith, M. S. (2016). Equality and Quality in US Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.
This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination.
Oswald, F. L., Mitchell, G., Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., & Tetlock, P. E. (2013). Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies. Journal of personality and social psychology, 105(2), 171.
The authors estimate racial/ethnic achievement gaps in several hundred metropolitan areas and several thousand school districts in the United States using the results of roughly 200 million standardized math and English language arts (ELA) tests administered to public school students from 2009 to 2013. They show that the strongest correlates of achievement gaps are local racial/ethnic differences in parental income and educational attainment, local average parental education levels, and patterns of racial/ethnic segregation, consistent with a theoretical model in which family socioeconomic factors affect educational opportunity partly through residential and school segregation patterns.
Reardon, S. F., Kalogrides, D., & Shores, K. (2019). The geography of racial/ethnic test score gaps. American Journal of Sociology, 124(4), 1164-1221.
This review considers whether language-supportive programs are effective. The research aims to examine the immediate and long-run effects of such programs on generalized measures of linguistic comprehension and reading comprehension.
Rogde, K., Hagen, Å. M., Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2019). The Effect of Linguistic Comprehension Training on Language and Reading Comprehension: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews.
In this paper, student-level indicators of opportunity to learn (OTL) included in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment are used to explore the joint relationship of OTL and socioeconomic status (SES) to student mathematics literacy. This paper suggest that in most countries, the organization and policies defining content exposure may exacerbate educational inequalities.
Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher, 44(7), 371-386.
The purpose of this special issue is to address current issues, challenges, and promising approaches for providing Tier 2 behavioral interventions in school settings. Articles solicited for this issue address gaps in the literature and implementation needs and challenges specifically for Tier 2.
Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(2), 121-125.
This paper outlines the consequences that these young people face after leaving high school.
Sum, A., Khatiwada, I., McLaughlin, J., & Palma, S. (2009). The consequences of dropping out of high school. (Paper 23). Retrieved from Center for Labor Market Studies Publications website: http://hdl.handle.net/2047/d20000596
This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning.
Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 31-56.
The Statistical Abstract of the United States is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Abstract of the United States: 2012 (131st Edition). [Table 232]. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2011/compendia/statab/131ed.html
This article provide charts, graphs, maps, and visualizations of all feature data that Education Week released in 2017 and convey some big takeaways about U.S. schools, students, and teachers in 2017.
U.S. Education in 2017 in 10 Charts. Education Week, December. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/section/multimedia/us-education-in-2017-in-10-charts.html
The authors surveyed the U.S. public about test score gaps between students of different races and classes. They found much greater concern about wealth-based gaps than race-based gaps. A large portion of the American public remains generally unconcerned about test score gaps between white and minority children, and many Americans attribute the gaps that exist exclusively to minority parents and children rather than to broader social or historical causes. In reality, we may need much broader changes in public attitudes toward educational inequities before we should expect policymakers to feel much pressure from the public to close today’s test score gaps.
Valant, J., Newark, Daniel. Race, Class, and Americans’ Perspectives of Achievement Gaps. Brookings Institutions. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/01/16/race-class-and-americans-perspectives-of-achievement-gaps/
The purpose of this study was to document system-of-care development following the receipt of federal funds to establish and support a system of care, and to assess the extent to which system-of-care principles were realized
Vinson, N. B., Brannan, A. M., Baughman, L. N., Wilce, M., & Gawron, T. (2001). The system-of-care model: Implementation in twenty-seven communities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9(1), 30-42.
This research looked at test score gaps for a range of populations: between boys and girls; between black, white, and Hispanic children; between the children and the mother’s education; between children in poor and nonpoor families; and the gaps between high-poverty and low-poverty schools. They wanted to know whether gaps grow faster during summer or the school year. They were unable to answer this question as the results were inconclusive. Although, von Hippel and Hamrock did find the total gap in performance from kindergarten to eighth grade, is substantially smaller than the gap that exists at the time children enter school. The conclusion is that gaps happen mostly in the first five years of life. study suggests students who are behind peers at the time they enter kindergarten should receive early remedial instruction as the most efficacious way to improve overall performance.
von Hippel, P. T., & Hamrock, C. (2019). Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between the school years? Measurement artifacts and what we can know in spite of them. Sociological Science, 6, 43-80.
This article discusses the effects of minimum drinking age on alcohol use, effects of minimum drinking age on traffic crashes, effect of minimum drinking age on other health and social problems. In the end, the author calls for research needs on youth alcohol availability.
Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 175-200.
Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA) is a 15-community randomized trial designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a 2¹⁄₂ year community organizing intervention to change policies and practices of major community institutions.
Wagenaar, A. C., Gehan, J. P., Jones‐Webb, R., Toomey, T. L., Forster, J. L., Wolfson, M., & Murray, D. M. (1999). Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol: Lessons and results from a 15‐community randomized trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(3), 315-326.
The chapters in this book deal with areas of expertise that most students will need. For example, self-determination skills, functional academics, transportation, home and community living, as well as work preparation and socialization.
Wehman, P., & Kregel, J. (2004). Functional curriculum for elementary, middle, and secondary age students with special needs. PRO-ED, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin, TX 78757.
Bloomberg has published an interactive graphic that reveals valuable information on the probability of a particular employment path being impacted by automation. The graphic also provides information on average annual wage, number of people employed in the sector, and academic degree required for the job. This data is especially important as schools consider models for preparing students’ future careers. As schools are increasingly held accountable for career preparation, how can educators use this data to create career pathways that will adequately equip students with the skills and knowledge required for well-paying jobs obtainable when they graduate?
Whitehouse, M., & Rojanasakul, M. (2017). Find out if your job will be automated. Retrieved from bloomberg.com.
This manuscript was presented as an invited address to the Division of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., September, 1976.
Wolf, M. M. (1978). SOCIAL VALIDITY: THE CASE FOR SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT or HOW APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IS FINDING ITS HEART 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 11(2), 203-214.
The paper questions whether the simple randomized controlled trial (RCT) paradigm as applied in clinical trials can be used ‘off the rack’ to evaluate socially complex service (SCS) interventions
Wolff, N. (2000). Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate socially complex services: problems, challenges and recommendations. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3(2), 97-109.