Class Size

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This review examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in math.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between858.
What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This inquiry examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in reading.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 13 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between860.
What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This inquiry examined the relationship between the amount of time 13 year old students watch TV/video and performance in math.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between859.
What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights?
This review examined the relationship between the amount of time 17 year old students watch TV/video and performance in reading.
Gibson, S. (2009). What is the relationship between 17 year old student's math performance and watching TV and video on school nights? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between861.
What happens when class size reduction is implemented to scale?
This is an analysis of the implementation and impact of class size reduction in California's The Consortium reduction initiative that began in July 1996.
States, J. (2009). What happens when class size reduction is implemented to scale? Retrieved from what-happens-when-class.
What is the effect of class size reduction in a controlled study?
This is an analysis of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effects of class size reduction on student achievement.
States, J. (2009). What is the effect of class size reduction in a controlled study? Retrieved from what-is-effect-of815.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evidence-based Education Policy: An Oxymoron

This paper examines the history, impact, and future of school reform in the context of empirical data, scientific research, and policy initiatives.

Keyworth, R. (2010). Evidence-based Education Policy: An Oxymoron [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-ucberkeley-guest-presentation-randy-keyworth.

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Forty Years of Public School Reform: What the Data Tell Us
This paper examines the history, impact, and future of school reform in the context of empirical data, scientific research, and policy initiatives.
Keyworth, R. (2010). Forty Years of Public School Reform: What the Data Tell Us [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2010-capses-presentation-randy-keyworth.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Distraction, privacy, and classroom design

Environmental features of elementary school classrooms are examined in relation to distraction and privacy. Teachers' adjustments of their activities to make their settings less distracting are also explored. 

Ahrentzen, S., & Evans, G. W. (1984). Distraction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior16(4), 437-454.

Extrinsic Reinforcement in the Classroom: Bribery or Best Practice

The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The extrinsic/intrinsic dichotomy is explored along with seminal studies in both the cognitive and behavioral literature. 

Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review33(3), 344-362.

Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior.

A multiple baseline design across participants was used to determine how teacher greetings affected on‐task behavior of 3 middle school students with problem behaviors.

Allday, R. A., & Pakurar, K. (2007). Effects of teacher greetings on student on-task behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.86-06

A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision

To examine the evidence base of this strategy, the authors applied the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education to the body of research exploring the impact of active supervision with Pre-K–12 students in traditional school settings. This systematic literature review identified seven peer-reviewed, single-case design, treatment-outcome studies meeting inclusion criteria.

Allen, G. E., Common, E. A., Germer, K. A., Lane, K. L., Buckman, M. M., Oakes, W. P., & Menzies, H. M. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence base for active supervision in Pre-K–12 settings. Behavioral Disorders, 45(3), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0198742919837646

 
Characteristics of effective classroom rules: A review of the literature.

The purpose of this review of effective practices is to compare what information teachers are being given either in their preservice coursework or in-service training via textbooks and practitioner-oriented articles with actual empirical research that used classroom rules as an independent variable.

Alter, P., & Haydon, T. (2017). Characteristics of effective classroom rules: A review of the literature. Teacher Education and Special Education, 40(2), 114–127. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Todd_Haydon/publication/315628091_Characteristics_of_Effective_Classroom_Rules_A_Review_of_the_Literature/links/59c4f704a6fdccc719149d6e/Characteristics-of-Effective-Classroom-Rules-A-Review-of-the-Literature.pdf

Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide.

This Guide seeks to provide assistance to educational practitioners in evaluating whether an educational intervention is backed by rigorous evidence of effectiveness, and in implementing evidence-based interventions in their schools or classrooms.

Baron, J. (2004). Identifying and Implementing Education Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education26, 40-54.

Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom.

The present study investigated the effects of a classroom behavior management technique based on reinforcers natural to the classroom, other than teacher attention.

Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom 1. Journal of applied behavior analysis2(2), 119-124.

Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities.

This policy brief lays out five components of a vision for the future and identifies opportunities to support teacher education reform. Examples of promising developments are also addressed that involve full-scale program redesign featuring collaboration across general and special education.

Blanton, L. P., Pugach, M. C., & Florian, L. (2011). Preparing general education teachers to improve outcomes for students with disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/aacte_ncld_recommendation.pdf

Teacher behavior and student achievement

This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts. 

Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.

Enhancing Effects of Check-in/Check-out with Function-Based Support

The authors evaluating effects of a school's implementation of check-in/check-out with two typically developing students in the school.

Campbell, A., & Anderson, C. M. (2008). Enhancing effects of check-in/check-out with function-based support. Behavioral Disorders33(4), 233-245.

National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. They compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers.

Cantrell, S., Fullerton, J., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). National board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (No. w14608). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction.

Collier-Meek, M. A., Johnson, A. H., & Farrell, A. F. (2018). Development and initial evaluation of the measure of active supervision and interaction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 43(4), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508417737516

 
Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy

The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation of the Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy to improve middle school students’ classroom behavior. 

 

Cook, C. R., Fiat, A., Larson, M., Daikos, C., Slemrod, T., Holland, E. A., Thayer, A. J., & Renshaw, T. (2018). Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717753831

 
Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City

This paper examines data on 39 charter schools and correlates these data with school effectiveness. We find that class size, per-pupil expenditure, teacher certification, and teacher training—are not correlated with school effectiveness. In stark contrast, we show that frequent teacher feedback, the use of data to guide instruction, high-dosage tutoring, increased instructional time, and high expectations—explains approximately 45 percent of the variation in school effectiveness.

Dobbie, W., & Fryer Jr, R. G. (2013). Getting beneath the veil of effective schools: Evidence from New York City. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(4), 28-60.

Class Meetings: A Democratic Approach to Classroom Management

Patterned after family meetings in her own home, teacher Donna Styles established a format for class meetings that enabled her students to share their thoughts and solve classroom issues on their own.

Education World. Class Meetings: A Democratic Approach to Classroom Management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev012.shtml

Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments = Classroom Management?

Advice and opinions about classroom arrangements and seating assignments abound -- and Education World explores the possibilities. Included: Tips from Fred Jones on how to get the most out of classroom arrangements.

Education World. Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments = Classroom Management?. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr330.shtml

 
Microphone-Toting Teachers Grab Students' Attention

Teachers at two elementary schools in Baltimore County, Maryland, find that students jump to attention when the teachers use sound systems in their classrooms. The microphones boost their voices over background noises and help prevent "teacher-voice" strain. Included: Tips on using sound systems in classrooms.

Education World. Microphone-Toting Teachers Grab Students' Attention. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues/issues242.shtml

The Secret's in the Little Things: Simple Tips for Successful Teachers

1 quick tip to help make managing your classroom a breeze! Included are tips for getting to know your students, communicating with parents, getting your day off to a good start, and much more!

Education World. The Secret's in the Little Things: Simple Tips for Successful Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson134.shtml

Harry K. Wong And the Real Meaning Of Classroom Management

Meet Harry K. Wong, the author of The First Days of School: How to Be an Effective Teacher, and learn the secret to your success in the classroom!

Education World. Harry K. Wong And the Real Meaning Of Classroom Management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat008.shtml

Strategy of the Week: Classroom Management

Education World has posted numerous articles containing general classroom management tips as well as specific classroom management techniques. This articles provides list of sources about classroom management.

Education World. Strategy of the week: Classroom management. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/strategy/strategy047.shtml

A "Nuts and Bolts" Approach To Classroom Successes

A former teacher, Dr. Jane Bluestein turned her pages of tips for teachers about classroom management and organization into a book and then a business. She works with educators seeking new ways to improve their teaching and interactions. Included: Tips for improving student behavior and school climate.

Education World. A "Nuts and Bolts" Approach To Classroom Successes. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat102.shtml

Classroom Management: Principals Help Teachers Develop Essential Skills

From time to time, Education World updates and reposts a previously published article that we think might be of interest to administrators. We hope you find this recently updated article to be of value.

Education World. Classroom Management: Principals Help Teachers Develop Essential Skills. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin299.shtml

 

Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips

Hallway conferences. Pasta discipline. Buddy rooms. Bell work. Those and six other ideas for taming temper tantrums—and other classroom disruptions—are the focus of this Education World story! Included: An opportunity for all teachers to share the classroom management techniques that work for them!

Education World. Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr261.shtml

Dr. Ken Shore's Classroom Problem Solver Creativity Flourishes In the Structured Classroom

Teachers of special subjects such as music, art and physical education need to give careful consideration to discipline in their classroom. If you're afraid that structure will stifle creativity, you need to reconsider that notion. Structure and limits are important educational tools that give rise to a climate in which creativity can emerge.

Education World. Dr. Ken Shore's Classroom Problem Solver Creativity Flourishes In the Structured Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/shore/shore034.shtml

Teachers, Start Your Engines: Management Tips from the Pit Crew

The editors at Education World offer 20 successful classroom management strategies to get your year off to a great start and keep your classroom running smoothly throughout the entire year.

Education World. Teachers, Start Your Engines: Management Tips from the Pit Crew. Retrieved from: https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev003.shtml

TONS of Tips! -- Five Great 'Teacher Tips' Sites on the Web

Education World introduces you to a few of the best "teacher tips" sites on the Web. In these sites you'll find hundreds of practical tips -- tried and tested tips from teachers willing to share. 

Education World. TONS of Tips! -- Five Great 'Teacher Tips' Sites on the Web. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr156.shtml

Creating A Climate for Learning

How can you avoid making that technique your own and create a "climate for learning"? This week, Education World looks to the experts -- teachers who've "been there, done that" and found a better way -- for answers.

Education World. Creating a climate for learning. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr155.shtml

I Found My "Teacher Voice" and Transformed My Classroom

This week, educator Arnold Pulda reflects on how about with cancer precipitated his transition from a "drill sergeant" who barked orders at his students to a quieter, gentler Dr. Pulda. Included: An opportunity to share your most effective classroom management strategies!

Education World. I Found My "Teacher Voice" and Transformed My Classroom. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/voice/voice013.shtml

The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground.

The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive student behavior and teacher supervision on the playground in an urban elementary school

Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions10(3), 150-161.

Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Making Classrooms More Responsive to Diversity

The primary focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a classwide peer
tutoring program in reading for three learner types: low achievers with and without
disabilities and average achievers. 

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., & Simmons, D. C. (1997). Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to diversity. American Educational Research Journal34(1), 174-206.

Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of workgroup size and structure during collaborative work on complex tasks. 

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Karns, K., Calhoon, M. B., Hamlett, C. L., & Hewlett, S. (2000). Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks. The Elementary School Journal100(3), 183-212.

New Teacher Induction in Special Education

This paper examines general education literature reviews for the past decade and the special education literature related to: (a) the school and classroom conditions under which new special education teachers must perform and (b) induction for special education teachers.

Griffin, C., Winn, J., Otis-Wilburn, A., & Kilgore, K. (2003). New teacher induction in special education: Review of the literature. The Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.

Active Supervision Overview

This overview describes the definitions and importance of active supervision. This overview also provides research and implementations of this strategy.

Guinness, K., Detrich, R., Keyworth, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Supporting Appropriate Behavior. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/classroom-active-supervision

 

Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-solving Approach

 This book provides a complete guide to implementing a wide range of problem-solving assessment methods: functional behavioral assessment, interviews, classroom observations, curriculum-based measurement, rating scales, and cognitive instruments.

Harrison, P. L. (2012). Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach. Guilford Press.

Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior.

This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting.

Haydon, T. & Kroeger, S. D. (2016). Active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing: A high school case study on classroom behavior. Preventing School Failure, 60(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.977213

Life in Classrooms.

Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.

Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.

Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of active supervision on the hallway behavior (i.e., tardies) of students in a rural high school using a multiple baseline across instructional periods

Johnson-Gros, K. N., Lyons, E. A., & Griffin, J. R. (2008). Active supervision: An intervention to reduce high school tardiness. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0012

Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach

Managing Classroom Behavior summarizes principles of good instruction, the acting-out cycle, and how to work with students, other teachers, and parents.

Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M. P., & Hallahan, D. P. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Management Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Behavioral, Psychiatric, and Social Outcomes

The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of classroom behavior management used by teachers, tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. This article reports on impact to age 19–21.

Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., ... & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and alcohol dependence95, S5-S28.

A Meta‐analysis of the Relationship between Science Instruction and Student Engagement

A meta‐analysis of the relationship between science instruction and student engagement was performed. The 16 studies represented a total of 4518 students and 376 teachers from the United States and Australia.

Kumar, D. D. (1991). A Meta‐analysis of the Relationship between Science Instruction and Student Engagement. Educational Review43(1), 49-61.

Does Peer Assessment Promote Student Learning? A Meta-Analysis.

Peer assessment has become a popular education intervention. A review of the literature finds few studies on the impact of Peer Review on student outcomes. This meta-analysis examines the effect sizes found in 58 studies. 

Li, H., Xiong, Y., Hunter, C. V., Guo, X., & Tywoniw, R. (2020). Does peer assessment promote student learning? A meta-analysis. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education45(2), 193-211.

Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter?

This study extended prior research into teacher-student relationships by exploring the relative balance of negative and positive teacher-student relationships in high school students' academic lives (in each of English,
mathematics, science, history, and geography subjects). 

Martin, A. J., & Collie, R. J. (2019). Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 861–876. 

The Key to Effective Classroom Management

A three-phase process helps build strong teacher-student bonds, which can reduce disruptive behavior.

Marzano, R. J., & Marzano, J. S. (2003). The key to classroom management. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/key-effective-classroom-management

Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success.

This article describes a step-by-step process for using active supervision, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article we offer lessons from the field featuring the perspectives of practitioners who have used active supervision in classrooms that include students with challenging behavior.

Menzies, H. M., Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Ruth, K., Cantwell, E. D., & Smith-Menzies, L. (2018). Active supervision: An effective, efficient, low-intensity strategy to support student success. Beyond Behavior, 27(3), 153–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074295618799343

 
The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach.

A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) and students’ school engagement and achievement.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4)493–592. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793

 

Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.

Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.

Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education

This study examined the effects of active supervision on the moderate to vigorous physical
activity (MVPA) levels of middle school students during fitness instruction.

Schuldheisz, J. M., & van der Mars, H. (2001). Active supervision and students’ physical activity in middle school physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(1)75–90.

The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline.

This book describes the Time-out Grid, a heuristic tool for analyzing and solving problems associated with implementing time-out in the classroom.

Shriver, M. D., & Allen, K. D. (1996). The time-out grid: A guide to effective discipline. School Psychology Quarterly11(1), 67.

A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12

This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of class size on academic achievement. The review summarises findings from 148 reports from 41 countries. Ten studies were included in the meta‐analysis.

Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Inns, A., Baye, A., Dachet, D., & Haslam, J. (2019). A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12. Best Evidence Encyclopedia.

Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom.

In this book the author describes six teaching myths that prevent reform in education. 

Snider, V. (2006). Myths and Misconceptions about Teaching: What Really Happens in the Classroom. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 4501 Forbes Blvd., Suite 200, Lanham, MD 20706.

How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis?

This analysis examined the cost effectiveness of research from Stuart Yeh on common sturctural interventions in education. Additionally, The Wing Institute analyzes class-size reduction using Yeh's methods.

States, J. (2009). How does class size reduction measure up to other common educational interventions in a cost-benefit analysis? Retrieved from how-does-class-size.

Managing Classroom Behavior to Maximize Student Learning

This is a detailed guide on managing classroom behavior to maximize student learning.

Trophy Central. Managing Classroom Behavior to Maximize Student Learning. Retrieved from https://www.trophycentral.com/classroom-management.html

The effects of explicit timing on math performance.

The present experiment examined the effects on math performance of explicitly timing student for short intervals

Van Houten, R., & Thompson, C. (1976). The effects of explicit timing on math performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 227–230. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1976.9-227

 

Essentials of response to intervention

This book offers a concise overview of the features of RTI, instruction for its implementation, and post-implementation guidelines for assessing whether a program has been effective.

VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Burns, M. K. (2010). Essentials of response to intervention (Vol. 79). John Wiley & Sons.

Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time.

A major goal of this article (and of our much larger book) is to communicate and adapt this knowledge base for effective use by educators in coping with the rising tide of antisocial students populating today's schools.

Walker, H. M., Ramsey, E., & Gresham, F. M. (2003). Heading off disruptive behavior: How early intervention can reduce defiant behavior—and win back teaching time. American Educator26(4), 6-45.

The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies

This book is a practical resource that educators from regular and special classrooms can use with children of any age who exhibit behavioral problems. 

Wilber, M. M. J. (1993). The Tough Kid Book: Practical Classroom Management Strategies by Ginger Rhode, William R. Jenson, and H. Kenton Reavis. Behavioral Disorders19(1), 79.

Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation: Results from PISA 2000

This report examines students’ sense of belonging and participation at school, two of the most important measures of student engagement.

 

Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation. Results from PISA 2000. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy
Class size is one variable in American education that research confirms has a positive influence student learning and was then taken to scale across the nation. Unfortunately, the results when applied at scale have not achieved the results expected in the initial studies.
Chingos, M. M., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2011). Class size: what research says and what it means for state policy. Brookings Institute. May, 11.

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