Categories for Implementation

Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview (Wing Institute Paper)

October 4, 2017

Historically, treatment integrity has been defined as implementation of an intervention as planned (Gresham, 1989). More recently, treatment integrity has been reimagined as multidimensional (Dane & Schneider, 1998). In this conceptualization of treatment integrity are four dimensions relevant to practice: (a) exposure (dosage), (b) adherence, (c) quality of delivery, and (d) student responsiveness.  It is important to understand that these dimensions do not stand alone but rather interact to impact the ultimate effectiveness of an intervention. It is important for educators to assess all dimensions of treatment integrity to assure that it is being implemented as intended.

Citation: Detrich, R., States, J. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Dimensions of Treatment Integrity Overview. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute




Overview of Treatment Integrity (Wing Institute paper)

October 4, 2017

For the best chance of a positive impact on educational outcomes, two conditions must be met: (a) Effective interventions must be adopted, and (b) those interventions must be implemented with sufficient quality (treatment integrity) to ensure benefit.  To date, emphasis in education has been on identifying effective interventions and less concern with implementing the interventions. The research on the implementation of interventions is not encouraging. Often, treatment integrity scores are very low and, in practice, implementation is rarely assessed. If an intervention with a strong research base is not implemented with a high level of treatment integrity, then the students do not actually experience the intervention and there is no reason to assume they will benefit from it. Under these circumstances, it is not possible to know if poor outcomes are the result of an ineffective intervention or poor implementation of that intervention. Historically, treatment integrity has been defined as implementing an intervention as prescribed. More recently, it has been conceptualized as having multiple dimensions, among them dosage and adherence which must be measured to ensure that it is occurring at adequate levels.

Citation: Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, R. (2107). Overview of Treatment Integrity. Oakland, Ca. The Wing Institute.




2016-17 Wing Institute Student Research Grant Dissertation Results

August 29, 2017

Restructuring Environmental Contingencies and Enhancing Self-Managed Supervision

The results of the 2016-17 Wing Institute’s research grant are now available on our web site. Laura Kern submitted the selected study that examines the effects of a brief training on active supervision and self-management and the use of a simple strategy of self-management (e.g., checklist and Direct Behavior Rating Scales to change adult behavior).

Three research questions were addressed related to recess supervisor and student behaviors:

  1. What are the effects of a brief training on self-management on recess supervisors’ active supervision behaviors?
  2. What are the effects of increasing active supervision on students’ problematic behavior during recess?
  3. Will any increase in recess supervisor’s use of self-management be maintained with the sole use of direct behavior rating scales as part of a self-management strategy of the adult active supervision

Link: Go to Research section




What Strategies Are Needed to Maximize Treatment Integrity?

May 12, 2017

Treatment Integrity Strategies Overview

Student achievement scores in the United States remain stagnant despite repeated attempts to reform the education system. New initiatives promising hope arise, only to disappoint after being adopted, implemented, and quickly found wanting. The cycle of reform followed by failure has had a demoralizing effect on schools, making new reform efforts problematic. These efforts frequently fail because implementing new practices is far more challenging than expected and require that greater attention be paid to how initiatives are implemented. Treatment integrity is increasingly recognized as an essential component of effective implementation in an evidence-based education model that produces results, and inattention to treatment integrity is seen as a primary reason new initiatives fail. The question remains, what strategies can educators employ to increase the likelihood that practices are implemented as designed? The Wing Institute overview on the topic of Treatment Integrity Strategies examines the essential practice elements indispensable for maximizing treatment integrity.

Citation: States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2017). Overview of Treatment Integrity Strategies. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.




The Importance of Data Visualization in Decision Making

March 1, 2017

Sage Spotlight on Data Visualization

The February issue of Sage Publishing’s newsletter, Sage Methods Minute, presents useful guidance on understanding and managing data visualization in making effective decisions. The newsletter offers a lecture, interview, and webinar on this important but often neglected topic. Productive data-based decisions rely on the effective use of analytics and the acquisition, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. In an increasingly complicated world in which vast quantities of data are available, it is essential that educators become astute in presenting data adapted to different audiences and in identifying deceptive data so they are able to make wise decisions in the service of educating children. The Sage Spotlight newsletter on visualization includes Tailoring Data Visualization to Reach Different Audiences by Tom Schenk; Textbooks in Data Visualization: 60 Seconds with Andy Kirk; and Webinar: Learn the Essentials of Data Visualization by Andy Kirk and Stephanie Evergreen. For those interested in additional resources on this topic, the works of Edward Tufte, professor emeritus of political science, statistics, and computer science at Yale University, and Howard Wainer, adjunct professor of statistics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, provide insight in how to deliver information that communicates your message.

Sage February Newsletter:

Edward Tufte:

Howard Wainer:



Read to be Ready

February 8, 2017

The Tennessee Department of Education combines coaching, instruction in evidence-based reading practices, and a multitiered system of supports in a new initiative called Read to be Ready. The initiative trains teachers in the best ways to teach children literacy skills. Ample evidence supports the importance of students reading at grade level. Effective reading has been shown to be a reliable indicator of future success in school and adulthood. This initiative is designed to increase literacy by coaching teachers on how to use evidence-based practices of reading. For the past 20 years much attention has been paid to explicit instruction of phonics to improve students’ reading scores. This initiative will build on these efforts by also requiring explicit comprehension instruction to build skills for deriving meaning, analyzing the logic of argumentation, generating conclusions, and interpreting content.