Categories for Uncategorized

What is distributed leadership? (Wing Institute Original Paper)

September 2, 2020

Distributed Leadership: Distributed leadership, in which the principal shares certain leadership work with teachers to optimize student and school outcomes, has emerged as a leading school leadership model, and indeed is reflected within recent principal leadership standards. The model’s origins lie in research that suggested that principals cannot “do it alone,” in today’s complex and challenging school environments, and that teachers have often performed leadership work that was not acknowledged. Rather than simple task delegation by principals, distributed leadership involves teacher leaders and administrators collaborating together to perform leadership practices, and sharing responsibility for outcomes. Research has shown positive associations between distributed leadership and a variety of teacher and student outcomes, including teachers’ professional efficacy and teaching effectiveness, and student academic performance. However, distributed leadership’s positive outcomes are contingent upon having leadership activities enacted based on patterns of staff expertise. Critics of distributed leadership note the potential for growing teacher workloads without corresponding compensation, and the possibility of exclusion of certain groups of teachers from leadership work. Careful planning and purposeful design, a collaborative work culture based on trust and respect, and having teachers at the school who possess leadership capacity, all appear to be needed ingredients in order for distributed leadership to be effective. School leadership teams, in which the principal works with a team of teacher leaders to share leadership work, represent an example of distributed leadership in action, and have been shown to accelerate and sustain school reform work.

Citation: Donley, J., Detrich, R., States, J., & Keyworth, (2020). Distributed Leadership. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/leadership-models-distributed

Link: https://www.winginstitute.org/leadership-models-distributed

 


 

Wing Institute Web Site Improvements

June 10, 2020

The Wing Institute has redesigned both the structure and content of its web site home page to increase readers’ ability to navigate the site and locate the information they are seeking.  The new structure offers clear pathways for identifying and researching critical topics and effectively communicates what the Wing Institute’s web site has to offer. The home page content is driven by reader feedback derived from a wide range of sources, including Researchgate, Academia.edu., and Google Analytics.  The new home page is organized around the following categories:

Why Students Succeed (Education Drivers)

Educational systems are incredibly complex, and it is easy get overwhelmed looking for information across many topics.  The new homepage distills this search down to the three most critical education drivers: Quality Teachers, Quality Principals, and Explicit Instruction.

Why Education Practices Fail (Implementation)

Implementation is an essential, and too often overlooked, component of quality education programs.  It is often mentioned as an afterthought and can be difficult to locate on education sites.  The Wing homepage highlights its value and provides readers the opportunity to go directly to the latest research and practice strategies for effective implementation.

How are we doing (Systems Dashboard)

In this age of complexity and uncertainty, it is more critical than ever to identify and track relevant data that will help education stakeholders make informed decisions about school issues.  The systems dashboard provides a continually updated analysis of what we are doing and how we are doing.  The home page highlights five topic areas, which can be changed easily to reflect the most 

Newsletter

The new homepage spotlights the Wing Institute Newsletter, which offers readers the latest research on important issues, along with original research from Wing Institute writers. It also provides easier access to past newsletters, which contain relevant research.

We hope you find these changes have improved your reading experience.

 


 

What are the negative health impacts of student absenteeism?

February 1, 2019

The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health. The American Academy of Pediatrics just released a policy statement regarding the negative impact that chronic student absenteeism has on children’s health.  They cite numerous ways the two are linked.  First, evidence clearly documents that chronic absenteeism puts children at a much higher risk of dropping out of school and not graduating. There is a significant amount of research associating poor school performance (resulting in lower education attainment) and poor adult health outcomes, including increased mortality risk and lower life expectancy.  The act of missing school itself is also linked to increased risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, drug use, smoking and risky sexual behavior.  Also, children with chronic absenteeism are 3.5 times more likely to be arrested or referred to the juvenile justice system.  The policy statement finishes with a discussion of roles the medical community can play working with schools and families to help address this problem.  It reviews the evidence regarding possible physical and mental health interventions, including:  infection prevention programs, school nurses, school-based health centers, mental health care, health awareness school policies and programs, parent interventions, and coordinated school health models.

Citation: Allison, M. A., & Attisha, E. (2019). The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health. Pediatrics, e20183648.

Linkhttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2019/01/24/peds.2018-3648.full.pdf

 


 

Digest of Education Statistics 2017 Released

January 31, 2019

Digest of Education Statistics 2017: The Digest of Education Statistics 2017was just released by The Institute for Education Sciences (IES) National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). This annual publication is thedefinitive compendium of data on virtually every aspects of education from pre-kindergarten through graduate school. Its chapters include: All Levels of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Federal Funds for Education and Related Activities, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education, and Libraries and Use of Technology. It draws from a wide range of government and private sources and applies rigorous review to everything published. It has been published annually since 1962, providing over 50 years of data with which to benchmark education performance at the system level in this country.

Citation: Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Link:   https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2018/2018070.pdf

 


 

2016-17 High School Graduation Rates Show Continued Improvement

January 31, 2019

Digest of Education Statistics 2017. The most recent high school graduation rate data were just released for the 2016-17 school year. The following graph shows consistent improvement in this critical student and school performance metric. Student graduation increased by 12 percentage points during the fifteen years from 2002 and 2017.  While there is still much work to be done to identify and implement graduation standards that translate into meaningful and life long benefits, this type of consistent performance improvement should be acknowledged.

AFGR:   The Average Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) was used by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) from 2002 through 2013.

•ACGR: The Four-Year Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (ACGR) was established by DOE in 2008, establishing a uniform and more accurate measure for calculating the rate at which students graduated from high school. 

Both models co-existed for threes years and had comparable graduate rate data during that time.

A second area of the report disaggregates graduation rate data by students from different ethnic backgrounds.  There remains an unacceptable graduation rate gap between White and Black students, and White and Hispanic students.  The resulting graduation rate for Black students (77.8%) and Hispanic students (80.0%) are failures of the system.  While progress will always be too slow in this area, the data do show steady progress in closing the gap over the last six years.  The graduation gap between White and Black students decreased by 6.2 percentage points (from 17% in 2010-11 to 10.8% in 2016-17).  The graduation gap between White and Hispanic students decreased by 4.4 percentage points (from 13% in 2010-11 to 8.6% in 2016-17). 

A third area of disaggregated data was that of graduation rates by individual states.  The variation between states continues to be extreme with the top ten states averaging a 89.7% graduation rate and the bottom ten states averaging 77.4%.  

Improving graduation rates continue to be a clear focus of the education system, and while there is a long way to go, it is one of the few areas where progress is being made.

Citation: Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Link: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2018/2018070.pdf

 


 

Are more high quality education studies produced today as compared to thirty years ago?

January 28, 2019

High-Quality Education Research.

A recent article published in Best Evidence in Brief examines the issues of quantity and quality of education research. Robert Slavin highlights the progress made over the past 30 years in delivering the evidence that education practitioners need to make informed decisions. His conclusions are based on three studies: Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis; A Synthesis of Quantitative Research on Reading Programs for Secondary Students; and Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. The research found that the number of rigorous randomized or quasi-experimental studies in elementary reading for struggling readers, secondary reading, and elementary math rose significantly over the past 20 years. Despite the important gains, the trend may be going in the wrong direction. Given the importance of research in developing an effective evidence-based culture in education, educators need to diligently support the production of the types of research (including replication studies) essential to building a robust evidence base.

Citations:

Slavin, R. (2019). Replication. [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/replication/

Baye, A., Inns, A., Lake, C., & Slavin, R. E. (2018). A synthesis of quantitative research on reading programs for secondary students. Reading Research Quarterly.

Inns, A., Lake, C., Pellegrini, M., & Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC.

Pellegrini, M., Inns, A., & Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC.

Link: For copies of the papers presented at the annual meeting, please contact sdavis@SuccessForAll.org, and for the Baye article, go to https://ila.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/rrq.229

 


 

How shared book reading affects the English language and literacy skills of young children learning English as a second language.

October 15, 2018

Shared Book Reading Interventions With English Learners: A Meta-Analysis

In the United States there is a significant population of children whose second language is English. Research reveals English language learners are overrepresented among students who read at below basic levels. Identifying practices that can increase the proficiency of English learners is essential for these children in order to avoid achievement deficits in later grades. This meta-analysis examines how shared book reading impacts the English language and literacy skills of young children. The study finds a significant positive effect of using shared reading on English learner academic outcomes.

Citation:Fitton, L., McIlraith, A. L., & Wood, C. L. (2018). Shared Book Reading Interventions With English Learners: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 0034654318790909.

Link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0034654318790909

 

 


 

Wing Institute Searching for Education Research Writers

September 6, 2018

The Wing Institute is recruiting contract-based content writers in the field of evidence-based education. We are looking for professionals who can: 1) conduct literature reviews; 2) analyze the relevant data, research, and policies; and 3) write succinct overviews for publication on our web site.

  • Positions to be filled by November 1, 2018.
  • Please send resume to Jack States at the Wing Institute: jstates@winginstitute.org

Research topics will focus on the eight education drivers associated with student achievement and success in school. These drivers encompass essential practices, procedures, resources, and management strategies. Specific topics include but are not limited to:  skills for effective teaching, effective teacher training, quality of leadership, and external influences affecting student outcomes.

Those interested must be able to analyze both the quality and quantity of evidence studies to determine if current research meets a threshold of evidence for providing information to support the work of educators.

Criteria for inclusion is based on:

  • Quality: A continua of evidence prioritizing well designed randomized trials and single subject designed studies.
  • Quantity: A continua of evidence spotlighting meta-analyses and replications of single subject designed studies.

Each Overview consists of a summary of the research, graphics as needed, and citations, and supporting conclusions.

Compensation

  • $1,000 for each Overview (1,500 to 2,500 words)
  • Author’s name on the publication
  • Working with other professional is the field of evidence-based education

Expectations

  • Work with internal teams to obtain an in-depth understanding of evidence-based research.
  • Work remotely and supply your own equipment (computer)
  • Plan, develop, organize, write the above documents.
  • Analyze documents to maintain continuity of style of content and consistency with prior Wing Institute documents.
  • Recommend updates and revisions derived from updates in research.

Education

  • Master’s degree in Education, Behavior Analysis, English, Psychology, Communication, or related degrees, is required.

Skills

Ability to deliver high quality documentation

  • Ability to communicate complex or technical information easily
  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills in English
  • Ability to write from the perspective of education policy makers, school administrators, teachers, and parents

 


 

Wing Institute Searching for Education Research Writers

April 23, 2018

The Wing Institute is recruiting contract-based content writers in the field of evidence-based education. We are looking for professionals who can: 1) conduct literature reviews; 2) analyze the relevant data, research, and policies; and 3) write succinct overviews for publication on our web site.

  • Positions to be filled by November 1, 2018.
  • Please send resume to Jack States at the Wing Institute: jstates@winginstitute.org

Research topics will focus on the eight education drivers associated with student achievement and success in school. These drivers encompass essential practices, procedures, resources, and management strategies. Specific topics include but are not limited to:  skills for effective teaching, effective teacher training, quality of leadership, and external influences affecting student outcomes.

Those interested must be able to analyze both the quality and quantity of evidence studies to determine if current research meets a threshold of evidence for providing information to support the work of educators.

Criteria for inclusion is based on:

  • Quality: A continua of evidence prioritizing well designed randomized trials and single subject designed studies.
  • Quantity: A continua of evidence spotlighting meta-analyses and replications of single subject designed studies.

Each Overview consists of a summary of the research, graphics as needed, and citations, and supporting conclusions.

Compensation

  • $1,000 for each Overview (1,500 to 2,500 words)
  • Author’s name on the publication
  • Working with other professional is the field of evidence-based education

Expectations

  • Work with internal teams to obtain an in-depth understanding of evidence-based research.
  • Work remotely and supply your own equipment (computer)
  • Plan, develop, organize, write the above documents.
  • Analyze documents to maintain continuity of style of content and consistency with prior Wing Institute documents.
  • Recommend updates and revisions derived from updates in research.

Education

  • Master’s degree in Education, Behavior Analysis, English, Psychology, Communication, or related degrees, is required.

Skills

Ability to deliver high quality documentation

  • Ability to communicate complex or technical information easily
  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills in English
  • Ability to write from the perspective of education policy makers, school administrators, teachers, and parents

 


 

Wing Institute Overview of Summative Assessment

March 22, 2018

Summative Assessment Overview

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment evaluates the mastery of learning whereas its counterpart, formative assessment, measures progress and functions as a diagnostic tool to help specific students. Generally, summative assessment gauges how a particular population responds to an intervention rather than focusing on an individual. It often aggregates data across students to act as an independent yardstick that allows teachers, administrators, and parents to judge the effectiveness of the materials, curriculum, and instruction used to meet national, state, or local standards. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests. As a subset of summative assessment, standardized tests play a pivotal role in ensuring that schools are held to the same standards and that all students regardless of race or socio-economic background perform to expectations. Summative assessment provides educators with the metrics to know what’s working and what’s not.

Citation: States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.

Link: https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative