A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12. This paper looks at randomized or well-matched control group research on outcomes of writing programs. The average effect size for those writing programs reviewed was a small effect size of 0.18. The writing programs fell into three categories; those that focus on the writing process, cooperative learning, or interactions between reading and writing.
The core characteristics of programs that produced the best writing outcomes include:
• Use of cooperative learning
• Structured approaches that give students step-by-step guides to writing
• Programs that teach students to assess their own and peer writing,
• Programs that balance writing with reading
• Programs that attempt to build students’ motivation to write and enjoy self-expression
• Programs that teach writing conventions (e.g., grammar, punctuation, usage) explicitly, but in the context of creative writing
• Programs that provide extensive professional development to teachers, in which teachers experience the writing strategies they will employ
Citation: Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Inns, A., Baye, A., Dachet, D., & Haslam, J. (2019). A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12. Best Evidence Encyclopedia.