Is Real-Time Performance Feedback Effective?

March 3, 2022

Performance feedback is often considered a necessary part of training educators. the challenge is to provide the feedback in a timely manner so that it positively impacts skill acquisition. Often times, the feedback is delayed by hours, or days, which may limit the impact of the feedback. Real-time performance feedback is considered optimal, but may be considered unfeasible in many educational contexts. 

One option is to provide feedback utilizing technology such as “bug in the ear” to deliver feedback in real-time. Sinclair and colleagues (2020) conducted a meta-analysis to determine if feedback delivered via technology could be considered to empirically-supported. In the review, 23 studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two of the studies were single case designs and one was a group design. The reported findings were that real-time performance feedback is an effective method for increasing skill acquisition of educators. The authors cautioned that this type of feedback is an intensive intervention and suggested that it is not feasible to use for training all teachers. They suggest that it should be considered an intervention when other training methods have not proven effective. 

In this context, it becomes feasible to support those educators that have not benefitted from less intensive interventions. If it is considered part of a multi-tiered system of support for educators, it can play an important role in training. It can improve the performance of educators and perhaps reduce turnover because it allows educators to develop the skills to be successful.


Sinclair, A. C., Gesel, S. A., LeJeune, L. M., & Lemons, C. J. (2020). A review of the evidence for real-time performance feedback to improve instructional practice. The Journal of Special Education, 54(2), 90-100.